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Salve sayamays.

Salve magiste.

In this grammar lesson, we're going to be moving on from adjectives to adverbs.

How are you doing? Are you doing well? Are you doing badly? How are things going for you? Are they going swimmingly or they're going extremely interestingly or we'll find out.

So adverbs, you ready? I am! Adverbs! Ah, discenda.

Can I recognise and translate Latin adverbs, including superlative adverbs.

And can I distinguish adverb from positive comparative and superlative adjectives? Distinguish means tell the difference between, and press pause here in order to get everything you'll need for the lesson as always.

I'm extremely, I've nothing but praise for the students who come prepared.

So if you have got a pen and pencil and paper, with you ready to go, Fantastic.

Very well done.

Let's have a look at this grammar point in action, adverbs, adverbs, adverbs.

Let's have a look, so here's a standard typical classroom scene and we have discipuli laeti sunt.

discipuli rident ho ho ho ho So, the students are happy and the students laugh.

That's such a great time doing that.

Now this rendered a new way of smushing These two sentences together, and we get discupuli, like tear, rident, like tear.

Now you know, it's not dissimilar from a sentence we might have seen before which should have been discipuli laeti up here.

It's not going to mean, it can't mean the happy students.

Cause that would be lighty and we've got laeti.

so let's make it make sense.

These students laugh something.

Would you say the students laugh happy? You wouldn't.

You'd say the students laugh happily, happily.


So light teh, happily laeti.

ly Alright.

And they're laughing to each other, what, they're laughing to each other because they're saying magister est ferox, the teacher is brass.

No what happens next? So magister est ferox magister clamat.

So again, as before switching those two sentences, we're making them into one sentence, and it looks like this.

Magister ferociter clamat, ferociter.


Right! Now, this can't mean the fierce teacher shouts, because then that would just be keep ferox.

It wouldn't change.

We've got this new ending.

How are we going to translate it differently? Well, we start with the teacher.

The teacher shouts fierce, the teachers shout fiercely, good, ferociter, fiercely.

Ferociter, fiercely.

And he says, male laboratis you are working, not you are working bad, but you are working badly.

So, here we have air and a tear at both translated with a ly on the end to make the adverb in English and Latin.

Right? And then we also go to a switch, from the classroom over to some animals.

And we had two lessons ago.

We had the running race between the camel and the leopard.

Now it's time for round two.

Maybe the camel will win this time.

And we've got leopardus celeriter currit.

Camelus lente ambulat Now it's not the quick camel runs.

It is taz at ter ly.

Right? So the leopard runs quickly.

The camel walks slowly.


Should we have a look in three, two, on your marks, get set, GO Pow! I don't know, maybe one day he'll win it.

but then they go for round three and we get this one.

Leopardus celerrime currit and camelus lentissime ambulat.

Now, we've already seen these forms or something that looks like them before.

And celerrimus, I remember meant very quick.

So, the very quick leopards were either but hold on that ah that e ending, the eh.

So the leopard runs very quick.

Good, very quickly, the camel walks very slowly.

Got that? Lentissime, very slowly celerrime, very quickly.

Should we have a look at round three? So look on your marks, get set! POW! Off he goes, and then that camel, slow and steady.

It's as simple as this right.

An adverb, we should know, hopefully from our English grammar learning, an adverb can be used to describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

The key part of English we're interested in is the process.

There's loads of different types of adverbs.

The key thing we're interested in is the conversion of adjectives into adverbs, which English usually does with the addition of a ly on the end.

We've seen a bunch of times.

So he ran quickly.

He was ridiculously quick.

He ran ridiculously quickly.

Alright, Lee who's Lee? I don't know.

Now, what does this look like in terms of our adjectives and adverbs comparison table? This was all learning from the last or took a couple of lessons ago, right? From the first grammar lesson of this unit, positive.

These are all adjectives here.

I'm adding two things.

The first thing is positive adverbs.

So just normal adverbs.

If you see an -e or a -ter on the end, you think ly.

It's two possible endings.

e -ter -ly That's how I remember.

It sounds a bit like Italy, doesn't it? Yeah.

-e, -ter, le like Italy, -e, -ter, -le, got it? The next thing that's very, very logical is the superlative adverb.

You take the superlative adjective endings, and you take the positive adverb endings, and you smush them together.

And you get issi, which means very, and -e which means ly.

And issime which means very somethingly.

Well, verily.

What does that mean? Let's have a look with practise with an actual adjective laete, -e -te -le so laete is happily it's a positive adverb.

Superlative adverb, you take laetissimus, which is very happy.

And you say laete, which is happily, and you get laetissime, which means very happily.

Do we see that this E or the -e ending that's the ly bit, and this issi bit is the very bit, and you get laetissime and it's going to be very happily.

Do we see that? Of course we do.

Right! And are we ready? So it's going to be: eh,-ter -ly.

You're terming it just three more times.

Eh, ter, eh, ter, e, -ter, Good! -e, -ter, -ly Now to practise this, similar to two lessons ago, with the comparison of adjectives, this time going to be a bit different.

Here, you have a whole bunch of stems. Now what's going to happen is just as a magic stick.

What's going to happen is I'm going to add some different endings on.

And if I, add an ending on which is an adjective, so which has an er or a ter on there, it's each time, each time I add an ending on, I count down like this: two, one.

And if I put an adverbial ending on the end, so an er or a ter, you're going after two, when you say ly, so for example, laeter, I would go two, one and you go ly, like that.

That it's not just a matter of you saying ly all the time, or anyone could do that.

The key point is: I'm also going to be putting in some comparative superlative and positive adjectival endings and counting down from two, one.

And there it's important that you can stay completely silent, right? Don't say ly, unless there's actually a thing on there, which will be translated with ly.

So for example, laetor, two, one, nothing laet -ter, two, one, and you think, -e -ter oh! Laeter, two one ly! Okay.

Got it? So not just not that there's one more thing, which is that I'm also going to be chucking in some superlative adverbs in there too.

So if you hear at any point issimae, illimae or erime you then say very ly, all right? So you might have laeter, two, one.

Ly, Good! Laetissime, two, one, very ly.

I can't give them all away, cause that's probably again, celerime, two, one, very ly.

If you hear any of those forms e, ter, ly, all right? That's key, issime, erime, illime, verily.

Don't worry about translating the whole thing yet.

I just need you to show me that you know that we're dealing with adverbs here and you know how to translate them in English.

Which am I going to pick? And count down three, two, one, which am I going to pick? Let's have crudelis.

Two, one, nothing crudelior two, one, crudeleater two, one, ly.

Lovely! Lentost, two, one.

gravior, two, one, fero cicimous, two, one, graviter, two one, ly! Hahaha trister, two, one ly good.

crudelior, two, one facil imous, two, one, facil ime, two, one, very ly, very nice.

Facila two, one, ly good! Laeter two, one, ly fort tis two, one irateor, two, one fero citer, two, one, ly good! Celer, two, one, celerior two, one, celeriso, celerime, two, one, very ly good Crudil isimus, two, one, nothing Crudil isime, two, one, very ly, good Crudiliter two, one, ly Pick up the pace.

Ferociter, two, one, ly Facile, two, one, ly gravisime, two, one, very ly gravisimus, two, one, nothing crudelaeter, two, one, ly good lent, te, two, one, ly lentissime, two, one, very ly lentissima, two, one, nothing Okay.

Let's just check, we know our positive comparatives, superlatives as well.

Just with adjectives, laeter is going to be two, one, more happier gravior will be more serious or heavy or gravisimus, two, one, the most serious, the heaviest gravisime two, one very ly, very serious ly.

Trist er, two, one, ly Good.

Tristior is two one, sadder facilimus is two, one, The easiest good lentissimus will be the the whoa the slow est good and crudelior is two, one, comparative.

Crueller crudelious Do you remember this? High expectation crudelious is still, also good, is crueller.

What gender is crudelious? It's going to be a something, an adjective, a tell me, a neuter adjective and, then last but not least ferociter, two, one, ly and ferocicimous, two, one, aha, nothing ferocicime, two, one, very, ly Focus very fiercely.

Okay Right.

You're going to be doing some examples like this on your own with 10 adjectives.

It's sort of quick, run through check that's there.

We've got laeter, e, ter, what? e, ter, le good! Laeter happily, celeriter eh, ter, le, so quickly crudelior, crudelior so it's going to be cruel crudelis, crudelior, crudelisimus so, crueller.

Good! Laetissima, not an e on the end, ma, will be the est, will be the happiest, or very happy, or the most happy.

Crudelissime, issime, illime, erime, will be yet, very ly, so very cruelly.

You're going to be just fine.

Here's 10 adjectives to translate on their own pen or pencil in hands pressing pause.

Let's go.


A different coloured pen at the ready.

Let's see how we did a phrasing, your answers here.

And then I will talk you through any synonyms, if I need to at any point, As with two lessons, ago on that first grammar lesson.

These are optional.

So either I'm angry or more angry.

If you wrote most cruel here, that's absolutely fine.

If you wrote most fierce, that would be fine by me as well.

Are there any synonyms that I've missed? Happy, fierce.

I prefer fierce to ferocious.

That's about it, really.


Let's have a look at that next bit.

Then talk through some sentences with it.

See if I can, this is what I heard, but it's, if I can get the right size, this, I get it.


So you ready? You ready? Ready? Three, two pow! Oh, I got, nah, it's just a bit of a bit.


We're going to have a look at doing adverbs in full sentences now.

I am going to do the first one and I don't want any help.

I want to see if I can do it on my own.


So we've got, pater triste lacrimabat.

That looks quite similar.

So want me to do it a couple of lessons ago? Pater, first of all, I know this is a father.

Trista, ooh ooh ooh, e, ter, calm down.

We're beginnings with just doing so step one, we just do the beginnings endings come after, as we double, triple check them.

And then this step two here is very similar to the ones two lessons ago, Except now we're triple checking.

We've got our adverbial endings there.

Right? So triste.

I know sad.

And then over here, we got cry for lacrimabat.

Right now.

Step one is done.

Now, step two, I find my adjectives or adverbs, like that looks like it.

And I triple check triste.

Oh, e, ter, le.

So what do I add now? Don't just leave it there and then move on.

I have to change something down here.

So I need to know that it's going to be not sad, but sadly.

That's step two.


Step number three, I checked my word endings for everything else.

So here I can now label.

This is like the user labelling the space above your sentence to help you as this is going to be my verb.

And then this is a pater now it's not been changed.

I know that's the nominative singular form.

It's not Patter or patterns or anything.

So I don't use to change anything down here.

That's my nom.

And am I done finished? No, cause I still need to check my verb over here.

When I say bat, you say, well, don't you don't join him for this piece.

Just watch me.

Don't have to join him.

I want to see if I can do it on my own.

So when I say bat, I say, well, it's all where isn't it? A father.

It's not going to be work.

let's go for was make this fit was cry.

And that's number three done.

Now, what I've missed out here is where the adverb goes.

Cause actually you can sort of put the adverb anywhere.

Sometimes adverbs go here at the beginning and sometimes they go right at the end of sentences.

Let's say adverbs going to go on for now.

I'm going to put an adverb here at the end.


So father sadly was crying.

Make this make sense.

The father was, I got nom verb act know accused of, in a sense of, so I'm going to go nom verb, that word, that word, that word.

The father was crying.

Sadly good.

And it's definitely not the fact the sad father was crying because a I know as an adverb aterly so the father I'm actually going to try and write neater, was crying sadly first off my best effort, okay.


Let's have a look at some other examples, see if we get them.

Pater tristis lacrimabat However, the key thing I'm going to go back.

No, let's just speak this one out.

The key thing with, so what do you think? Three seconds.

Good! Look, We just did this one.

Didn't we? We just did that one and it was triste.

It was a different ending, not adverbial, so it's going to be an adjective, the sad father.

The key thing with adverbs in full sentences is spotting.

Whether what you've got is an adjective or an adverb, and then where to put it in the sentence.

Do we see here? How, if this is an adjective, which it is.

It actually needs to move over here in front of your noun, the sad father.

Whereas, if it's an adverb, actually it goes all the way over here.

When you translate it, the father was crying sadly.

So moving the word around, based on its ending.

It's not just spotting, whether it's ly or no ly, you got to do this movement thing as well or where it's your English sentence isn't easy.

We're going to practise it quickly now.

So that one there's no e or ter so it's an adjective and it went in front of the noun.

What about this one? and three, two.

So we have no air or tear.

So there's no ly.

There's not this one.

Instead we move our adjective, when we translate in front of the noun.

The cruel gladiators fight.

This one, what's changed? I mean, come on.

You know it.

Now this one is two, one.

It's obviously going to be the other one.

The gladiators cruelly.

Atterly cruelly fight.

This one, naves celerrimae Hold on, excuse me.

The answer is three, two, and good now.

But Mr. Ferber, it's got an E on the end and atterly.

So it should, it should be that one.

Look at the whole ending.

I ending is your feminine plural.

Isn't it? Okay.

Whereas, well I mean, look, I'm going to give the game away, we're going to see this form in a sec aren't we? And that will be not celerrimae but just be celerrimae atterly.


So this is an adjective.

We move it in front of the ships when we translate.

The very quick or the quickest or the most quick ships sail, what, therefore; does celerrime mean? You don't get any points, tell me, it's going to be, good to be this one.

Look, errime, very something ly.

The ship sailed very quickly.

Do we see the difference here? celerrimae, adjective.

It goes over here when you translate.

Celerrimae, adverb, you make very ly form, that's one bit.

The next bit is you move it to the end of the sentence to make it make sense.



This is where it's going to be me again on this one, but you're going to help me out this time, because this is where things start to get tricky.

You will have instances of sentences like this as at least one, in a sentence, this is what we are going to do in a sec where you have a, I won't point anything, but where you have an adjective and an adverb in the same sentence, it's really important.

You know, precisely which one's an adjective and which one's an adverb and where to put them in your sentence to make them make sense.

O K right? Pater filium malum irate vocavit.

Step number one.

What are my ingredients? We look at the beginnings of the words and we figure things out.

The father, son, filium Now Malum, Malum, Is it going to be that one or that one? Malum.

It's going to be two, one malum bad.

Good! Irate, malum irate? whatever that's from.

It's all easy.

Don't worry about that.

I'm on it.

err, it's good.

And then malum vocavit Don't worry about what's the action of vocavit Don't worry about the ending.

It's going to be, it's going to be call.



We're going to be fine.

We'll be absolutely fine on this one.

It's just about keeping your eye in anything that looks like an adjective, you triple check.

Right? So my first thing is two words on here that are maybe adjective, adjectival, or adverbial.

I want you to tell me what they are.

They're Latin words and there's two of them and it's three, two, and one.


malum and irate.

Now we triple check.


So irate, let's start with first at ter good.

at ter ly.

So what are we going to change for angry? It's going to be angrily.

I'm just going to cross it out and rewrite it.

Angrily like that.

You can read that.

Come on right.

Now, malum.

Is there an at or a ter there? No.


So do we need a ly? No, it stays the same.

And this is where things get interesting.

Therefore, this is going to be, and let's get labelling, it's to be an adverb.

And will this be an adverb malum? shaking as no, this is going to be an tell me it's going to be an ad adjective.



Now pater, we should know by now it's going to be your nominative and we're not that steps you've done.

It was the steps through which I jumped the gun, which is that's a nominative feeling.

Let letter do singular accused of saying M so I know it's an accusative singular.

I don't need to add any S's on the end of these.

Cause it's plural.

Have we finished steps three, nodding heads, shaking heads, shaking heads.

Which word do we still need to look at? Good! vocavit.

When I say V you say V V.


Thank you.

So some verb and we need to add an ad on the end here.

It's E S T a.

It's going to be, he called us.

Put that into, cause those are tense was the ad.

It was the person.

Step three is done.

Step four: It's where things get very interesting.

If I do say so myself, we've got father, son, bad, angrily called.

I'm actually just going, based on what you know about adjectives and adverbs that we've been talking about over the last couple of lessons, I'm actually going to let you look at that for five seconds and figure out what you think the correct order for translating that sentence is.

Father, son, bad angrily called five seconds.

What do you think? Go! One, now bear in mind, let's go down here, Where the adjectives go.

They usually go in Latin.

They come after the noun, but in English we put in them before.

So here we've got bad.

We're going to actually translate filum malum as the bad son.

So we've got the father called.

We don't need our he.

The father called the bad son.

And then we're going to go as far as the left cause angrily.

However, what did I just say about adverbs earlier? Actually, you can kind of put them wherever you want to.

So you might want to do the father angrily called the bad son so long as you do not ever, ever, ever mix these two up and think it's going to be the father angrily called the sorry, the father badly called the angry son or the father called the angry son badly or something.

Don't mix them up.

You must know what your adjective is.

These two are units, aren't they? Yeah.

You must know that um and I agree is two ums. These are a unit as long as you don't ever make sure that that becomes an adverb or you swap these around.

But one more time, the father let's go for angrily at the front, the father one angrily called the bad son.

So really there's no shame.

Just taking your time, scrutinise.

When you get to the will be a sentence that looks like this, where you've got, there's an adjective.

There is an adverb there.


Best of luck.

You don't need luck.

Follow the steps.

There's no excuse.

If you do all the steps, you will definitely get everything completely right.


So, that's how it will look, hence, solar painted at the ready for the main task.

Here's six sentences.

Get translating off.

We go pressing pause.

And here's the challenge.

Have a look at that.


Switching to a different colour pen.

Let's see how we did.

So press pause here to have a look at the correct answers.

In about five seconds, I will talk through any ones that might have been translated differently, or if there's any synonyms or anything, Off we go.

Okay, so the girl was make sure your sentence was celeriter was running quickly.

If you wrote, the girl was running fast, that's fine.

I prefer quickly.

Cause that gets the sense of the adverb in, but the girl was running fast is fine by me, the make sure this is fought in the perfect sense and not attacked as well as pugnaverunt.

Is fight.

The woman happily Did we get this? I'll be very pleased.

The woman happily greeted her good friend.

Really nice.

She didn't well or goodly greet her happy friend or anything like that.

Adverb there.

The very sad father was thinking seriously.


If you wrote was thinking heavily, technically, graviter can mean heavily on its own.

We have to think of it as means heavy or serious.

What makes more sense with puto? Well, it's going to be serious, isn't it? You don't think heavily, I suppose.

And then finally I arrived very happily or most happily something like that.



At last you may say for fine instead or anything like that, any synonyms you may use your initiative, you know what sounds right? Well, you've encountered all the synonyms before, hopefully.

So here are your answers for the challenge pressing pause here, and all that's left is for you to do the exit quiz as you always do.

And then also for us to say goodbye to each other, but not before a final round of E, ter, E ter, a, ter, a ter, a, ter, ly, it sounds like it it sounds like Italy.


All right.

Which is where the Romans are from.

Do I have to explain everything? Okay.

Valete, extremely well done.

I hope you use this learning to go on to the translation lesson, which is the second half of Ulysses and Polyphemus, Cyclops You will definitely enjoy it.

I will see you there.

Valete, well done on adverbs!.