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Hello, and welcome back to, Key Stage 3 History with me, Ms. Dawson.

We are in our third lesson, of a six lesson inquiry into how much life changed in England, during the Norman conquest.

If you haven't already completed the first two lessons, in this inquiry, then you're going to need to go and do those first.

Otherwise today's lesson might not make a huge amount of sense to you.

If you have already completed lessons one and two, then very well welcome back.

Today's lesson is all about, how and why, William built castles all over England and how William dealt with rebellion in England.

So what I'm going to do now, I'm going to get my head out to the way of the screen so that you can pause the video, copy down today's title and then resume when you're ready to go.

Brilliant, so for today's lesson, the only things that you are going to need are, a piece of paper and a pen.

It's also good to remind you at this stage that you're going to need to be sitting somewhere nice and calm and quiet, away from distractions so that you can get on with the lesson nice and easily.

Well done, If you're already set up and ready to go, if you need to go and get some equipment or to make sure that you're somewhere nice and calm and quiet, then go ahead, pause the video and get yourself ready.

Resume the video once you're ready to start.



So I'd like us to start off by taking a look at this image from the bio tapestry.

There's quite a lot happening here.

So you may need to pause the video for 10 seconds or so, to take in some of the detail.

In a moment, I'm going to give you some clues, as to things that you could focus on.

But what I want you to do before I do that is to look at the image, work out what you think is happening.

Where do you think the most important details are? what's happening? Why is that important? Pause the video, have a think about it, and resume, when you're ready to have some clues.

Well done.

If you noticed this detail here.

This is a house being set on fire, which is quite an important detail of what's happening, in this image.

Don't panic If that's not the first thing you noticed, as there's lots of details to look at here.

So now we now need to think about, why it is that this house is being set on fire.

How does this link to the Norman conquest? We already know that the Normans had conquered and taken over England.

So why might they be setting their houses on fire? Have a think about that.

What I would like you to do now, that we've had to think about what's going on in the image and we've picked a detail to focus on.

I would like you to write up a quick answer, as to what you can see in this image, and what that might mean.

You can use the sentence starters that I've included on the left hand of the screen.

So what you need to do, is to put your video on pause, and write down very quickly, what you can see in the image, and what that might mean.

Once you're finished resume the video, so that we can keep going.

Off you go.

Welcome back, very well done.

A reminder to you that your answers might look slightly different to what I've written down, but that doesn't mean that they're wrong.

So have a look at my answer, and see how your answer compares.

I have written in this picture, I can see that a house is being burned down.

This might mean that the Normans used cruel methods to punish people.

Very well done.

If what you wrote looks similar to that.

Don't panic at all.

If you wrote something that looks a little bit different to that.

Did you notice that the house was being burnt down? If you did very well done.

Did you comment on the fact that that might have been for slightly unfair reason? If you did very well done, give yourself a big tick.

If you feel like you may not have gotten the answer quite correct, then please feel free to put the video on pause, to add some detail to it before we move on.

If you think that it's all good, then very well done, and let's keep.

So we've learned from looking at this image that the Normans could use incredibly harsh methods to deal with anybody who opposed them.

This particular image and the bio tapestry is thought to depict the way that the Normans behave towards the Anglo Saxon population immediately after landing, during the Norman conquest.

But it is very, very similar to events that have been widely reported, that happened later.

One of the most important actions of the Normans in dealing with rebellions was called the hiring of the North.

This was a response by the Normans to a rebellion that happened in the North of England.

And just like in this image here, in this case, they also chose to deal with it, by burning people's houses down.

Following that they then destroyed farms and killed thousands of people.

Clearly they've learned that these harsh methods, worked for them.

But why was it that they felt like they needed to do this? What had happened, which meant they needed to use such harsh methods.

Let's find out As today's lesson is all about rebellion.

It's very important that we have a good definition, of this word.

Rebellion means fighting against authority.

In this case, the authority that we're talking about is William, the Conqueror, the King of England.

So when we talk about rebellion, we are talking about the Anglo Saxons fighting back against William, the Conqueror and his Norman Lords, who helped him rule.

I'd like you to pause your video and write down a definition for the word rebellion.

Resume the video when you're ready to keep going.

Welcome back.

I'm going to take you through some of the context for this lesson, so we understand the story behind it.

We already know from the beginning of our inquiry, that William the Conqueror was crowned King of England in 1066.

You may remember that in order to be crowned King of England in 1066, he killed Harold Godwinson, who was a popular English King.

This might help us to understand, why over the next few years, between 1066 and 1069, William had some problems keeping the country under control.

One of the first things he did was start to build castles all across the country in order to take it under his control while he was doing that, he experienced small rebellions throughout England, between the years, 1066 and 1069.

In 1069, William experienced a much bigger rebellion.

And this is when the Harrying of the North took place.

So if we think back to this picture that we just looked at, of people's homes being burnt down.

Now, we can see that William responded, very harshly to this event because he'd already experienced a few years, of the Anglo Saxons rebelling against his control.

It's interesting for us to note that from 1070 onwards, William experienced no really serious rebellions against his rule.

So this lesson is all about looking at how, for the first few years of William's reign, he had some difficulty, keeping the Anglo Saxons under control, and he decided to use some quite harsh methods to deal with them.

Following that, he had no rebellions against his rule.

One of William's first actions when he took over England in 1066, was to start building motte-and-bailey castles all over the country.

Take a look at this picture in front of you.

This is a motte-and-bailey castle it's called Huntington Hill castle.

And it's one of the first castles that William built, when he came and took over England in 1066.

What can you see that might have helped William to gain control of the country or to deal with those people who rebelled against him? because they didn't want him to be in control.

What we're going to do now, is take a deeper look at this castle, and see if we can spot some of the different parts of it, and work out what they were used for.

On the left hand side of your screen, You've got a dictionary, it's got the names of most important parts of the castles alongside a definition.

So what you're going to do in a moment, is to put your video on pause, and see if you can work out where the different parts of the castle are.

What I would recommend doing.

If there's one that you're not sure about, is to skip it, have a look at the next one, and then see if you can go back to it after you've worked out where a few more of them go.

You're going to be doing a more extended Briton task in a moment.

So I'm not going to ask you to write all of this down.

What I would like you to do, is to just pause the video, and to see if you can spot the different parts of the castle in the picture, once you think you've got them, you can resume the video and I'm going to go through the answers with you.

Okay ready? Off you go.

Welcome back, very well done.

Let's have a look and see how you did.

the keep is the safest and highest part of the castle.

And the last line of defence, did you find that bit? Very well done, If you spotted, this bit here, which is the highest part of the castle, this is the keep.

When we say the last line of defence, the reason it's higher up is because it means if the castle was being attacked, this is the last place anyone would get to.

So that's the reason why it's the safest bit.

Well done, if you've got that bit correct.

If you didn't take a note of which part the keep is now.

Did you manage to spot which bit the motte is? Let's have a look.

Very well done if you worked out, that the motte is this bit here, The motte is usually built by the local English people, and it's about 15 metres high.

So this is the mound, which the keep is put on to keep it nice and high.

So you may have worked that out, based on the clue in the text, if you didn't, don't worry.

Did you manage to find where the wooden bridge is? Let's have a look.

Very well done.

The wooden bridge is the bit that, led from the Bailey to the stairs, climbing the motte.

Did you manage to work out where the Bailey is? This one might have helped you.

Let's have a look.

Very well done if you worked this out.

The Bailey is a large yard with storerooms kitchens, stables, and guardrooms. It's important for us to realise then, that Castles weren't just used for attacking.

People, lived inside them.

They had store rooms, kitchens, and guardrooms for people to live in.

Very well done if you've got that bit, right.

Did you work out where the palisade was? Let's have a look.

Well done, If you've got this correct.

The Palisade is the wooden fence surrounding the bailey.

So this again is used to defend the bailey, to stop people from getting in.

Did we manage to work out where the moat is? Let's have a look.

Very well done, if you spotted this bit, the moat is a ditch filled with water to prevent invasions.

So again, another really helpful feature of the castle, to prevent invaders or attackers from getting in, and to defend the Normans against any Anglo Saxons who might rebel and attack them very important for us to remember that motte and moat are spelled and pronounced differently.

The motte is the bit that the keep is built on top of, and the moat is the ditch filled with water.

Did we spot the last bit? the gateway and drawbridge? let's have a look very well done if you spotted this bit.

This is the entrance to the Bailey, and this is guarded by the Baron soldiers.

So again, one last bit of defence to prevent anybody, who's not wanted from getting inside this castle.

Well done if you managed to spot all of those parts.

Don't panic too much If you didn't, make a note of where they are, and we'll move on to the next task.

So I'd like you to just spend a moment, think about why William might have built castles.

I'm going to give you some ideas that will help you, when you come to doing your written task in just a moment.

The first reason why William built castles, was for him to attack and conquer England.

It's one of the very first things he did, when he landed in England in 1066, before he had even fought Harold Godwinson.

He built a castle from which he could attack and conquer the local populations.

He also used the castles to control the areas, once he'd already taken them over.

One of his Norman Nobles would be put in charge of the castle, they would fill the Bailey with people who were loyal to that noble.

They could look out from the keep, and the motte, at the top of the castle to see what was happening in the area around them.

And it would intimidate the local Saxon population, as these castles were new, they'd not seen anything like it, so it would worry them and help to keep them under control.

The last reason why William built castles is so that he could defend himself against rebellion.

After he's attacked and conquered the population.

People may not have been very happy.

So it's important that if they try to rebel against him, the castle was well defended so that his Norman soldiers would be able to prevent the Anglo Saxons from killing them, and taking back over.

And if we remember from lesson one, when William over England, there were 10,000 Normans and 2 million Saxons.

So they were very much outnumbered and he needed a way of preventing rebels from taking him over.

Castles is not the only thing William did in order to prevent and deal with rebellion.

When people did rebel against William, he made sure that they were treated incredibly harshly.

An example of this was The Harrying of the North, which we're going to look at in more detail just now.

The idea behind treating anyone who fought against him really harshly, was to send a message to anyone else who was thinking about it, that it was not worth it.

Now that you've learned a little bit about castles, rebellion and how it was dealt with, it's time for us to do our main writing task.

I'm going to read you the comprehension questions.

And then I'm going to ask you to pause the video and complete them.

Question one: What type of castle did William begin building when he first conquered England? You may already know the answer to this, but it is included in your worksheet.

If you're not sure.

Question number two, Why did he want to build castles? Question number three? Why might the castles have caused the Saxons to rebel? Question number four? What did William do to get people to accept him as King? Question number five.

Why was the start of Williams reign difficult? Question number six.

What did the people in the North of England do to anger William? Question number seven, What did William do in order to teach them, a lesson? Question number eight.

What was the impact of The Harrying of the North? And here's a sentence starter you can use if you find it useful.

Remember, it's really, really good.

If you can practise writing in full sentences with as much detail as possible.

Now that you've seen the questions.

What I would like you to do is to pause the video, to go to the worksheet and read those slides and answer the comprehension questions in as much detail as you can.

The answers to the questions should be contained within the text.

So make sure that you've had a look at all of the texts, if you're not sure where the answer to a question is.

After you've done, as much as you can, you can resume the video and I'll go through some answers that I would have written and we can see how they compare with yours.

Off you go.

Very well done, welcome back.

Let's have a look at my answers and see how they compare with yours.

Question number one, what type of castle did William begin building when he first conquered England? The correct answer was motte and bailey castles.

Very well done if he wrote that, that's an absolutely acceptable answer.

A slightly more detailed answer.

When William first landed in invent in 1066, he began building most invaded castles.

These were an essential part of his takeover of England.

Both answers are correct.

One of them is written in full sentences.

Don't panic, if what you've written looks slightly different to what I've written.

As long as you've written motte and bailey, you get a big tick.

If you didn't get that correct, then please feel free to pause the video and add detail to your answer.

Let's have a look at the next question.

Question number two.

Why did the Normans build castles? An acceptable answer; to attack and to control the Saxons.

A more detailed answer; The Normans built castles for three reasons, to attack and defend themselves, to control the local countryside, and to remind the Saxons of their power.

Very well done if you challenged yourself to write down more than one reason and used full sentences.

Give yourself a big tick, if you've got the correct answer.

Question number three.

Why might the castles have caused the Saxons to rebel? The correct answer? And it's because the Normans made the Saxons build them.

A slightly more detailed answer, in full sentences.

The Saxons were forced to do the hard work of building the castles as well as pay taxes to the Normans to pay for them.

Also, sometimes the Normans destroyed their homes, to build them.

Very well done.

If you add a detail in full sentences in order to make your answer as good as possible.

A reminder, what you've written might look slightly different to me, but it could still be correct.

So give yourself a tick.

If you've written anything, that's close to what I've written.

If you've missed the answer to that, feel free to pause the video and add details so that your work is correct.

Question number four, What did William do to get people to accept him as King? An acceptable answer is that he killed the English.

A better answer is that he marched on London, burning down property and killing the English in order to force them to accept him as King.

Very well done if you wrote that.

It's important to use full sentences here to explain how killing the English could help him be accepted as King, so very well done.

if you've used full sentences to make that link.

Let's have a look at the next question.

Question number five.

Why was the start of William's reign difficult? An acceptable answer is it was not peaceful.

A more detailed answer.

William was unpopular because he was an invader and had killed many English.

When he first took over England, Saxons and Normans were fighting in the streets.

Very well done, if you added more detail.

If you wrote anything close to what I've written, give yourself a tick.

If you've missed something, pause the video and add it in.

Question number six.

What did the people in the North of England do, to anger William? The correct answer is that they rebelled against him.

A more detailed answer.

English rebels in the North of England asked for support from Denmark and together, they burnt down one of William's castles and killed 900 Norman soldiers.

Very well done.

If you used specific details in your answer, such as killed 900, Norman soldiers, this will really help you back up your point.

Again, your answer might look different to mine, but could still be correct.

So give yourself a tick, if you wrote anything, that's similar to what I've written.

Well done.

Question number seven.

What did William do in order to teach them a lesson? The acceptable answer to this question is The Harrying of the North.

Let's have a look at a more detailed answer.

William and his men marched to the North of England in 1069 and burnt down houses and killed the English.

They also killed animals and burnt farms so that the survivors would starve.

This was called the The Harrying of the North.

Very well done, if you used more detail, so that you can remember specifically, what The Harrying of the North was.

If you missed anything from that answer, pause the video and add to in.

Question number eight.

What was the impact of The Harrying of the North? An acceptable answer is that lots of people starved to death.

A more detailed answer.

The fact that William had destroyed farms and killed animals, meant that there was a famine.

So many people starved to death.

Very well done.

If you used full sentences, once more, it's important to note that your answer may look slightly different than mine and still be correct.

If you read anything about lots of people dying, that is definitely an impact of The Harrying of the North.

So well done and give it a tick.

Fantastic job.

You've done loads and loads of work today.

If you feel like extending yourself, I've got a question for you here.

Why were there very few rebellions in England after 1070? This question is going to require you to think about everything you've learned so far in this lesson, in order to provide a slightly more detailed answer.

In front of you you've got a few sentence starters and some key words that you could use, in order to successfully answer this question.

What we would be looking for here, is for a question which uses, evidence, from the slides, that you've read through in this lesson, uses full sentences and as much knowledge as you can in order to back up what you are saying.

If you feel ready to challenge yourself, then pause the video, go back to the worksheet and look for some details to help you answer this question, and have a go.

Off you go.

Welcome back, very well done, for having a go at the extension.

I'm going to read through a paragraph that I've written so you can see what's an extended answer looks like.

Again, yours might look a little bit different to mine, but it's still be correct and very good.

So don't worry if what you've written is different.

One of the reasons that there were so few rebellions after 1070 was that William and the Normans had used harsh methods to control the Anglo Saxons.

To explain this further, the Normans had begun building motte and bailey castles when they arrived in England, this meant that they could attack and control the Anglo Saxon population.

In addition, when the Anglo Saxons did rebel, they were treated very harshly by the Normans.

An example of this was during The Harrying of the North where the Normans burnt down entire villages and killed thousands of Anglo Saxons in order to teach them not to rebel.

Have a look at my answer and have a look at your answer.

Did you write anything about the Normans.

using harsh methods, building castles, or hurting people during The Harrying of the North.

If you included any of those details, even if your answer looks very different to mine, that sounds like it would be correct.

So very well done for that, give yourself a tick, if you've got any of those details in your answer.

If you're not quite sure, and you think that you missed something, then please feel free to pause the video and add some details so that your work is all finished.

Really well done for all your hard work today.

We're very nearly at the end of the lesson.

Hopefully now you've got a clear idea of the reasons that William and the Normans built castles all over England.

Some of the reasons why the Anglo Saxons rebelled, how it was dealt with and why.

very, very well done for your hard work, this lesson, I'm hoping to see you in our next lesson to continue, with the rest of this inquiry, to work out how much England changed under the Norman conquest.

Thanks very much for your hard work today.

The very last thing that I'd like to remind you, is to complete the exit quiz once you've left this slide.

And also just to say, if you would like to, you're very free to share your work with us, so we can see what you've been doing.

You'd need to ask a parent or carer to share your work on Instagram, Facebook, or Twitter, tagging @OakNational and #LearnwithOak If you don't want to, that's absolutely fine.

If you do, we'd love to hear from some of you.

Thank you so much for tuning into my lesson.

Looking forward to seeing you next time with Ms.Dawson.