# Lesson video

In progress...

Hello everyone, I'm Miss Brinkworth.

I'm going to go be going through this lesson on graphs with you.

So, today's learning objective is about collecting and presenting data using tables and tallies.

And then, we're going to be looking at how we can apply that to graphs as well.

So, our agenda for today, like I said, we're just going to break that down into what tallies and tables are, how that, how those are useful to apply information onto graphs, and you'll then have a chance for some independent work where you can record your own data, have a go at answering some questions, and then you got a quiz right at the end to see how well this learning's gone in.

So, all you'll need is a pen or pencil, some paper, and a big smile.

So, when we talk about tables, this is what we mean, and it's one of the most simple ways of presenting data.

Remember that data is just a set of information.

Could be about any number of things.

This really simple table here shows us about the weather.

So, we've got the weather across the top: sunny, windy, rainy, cloudy.

And then we've got the number of days when that weather was reported.

So, we can see that it was sunny on six days and windy on four days.

So, if we use this table to answer these questions, the first question says, were there more or fewer rainy days than sunny days? Well, we need to look at the sunny days.

It says six underneath Sunny.

We need to look at the rainy days.

It says 10 underneath Rainy.

So, there were more rainy days than sunny days.

Unfortunately, I hope people weren't going on their summer holidays in all that rainy weather.

So, there were more.

The second question says, what is the difference between the number of sunny days and the number of windy days? So, when we're looking at difference, these are subtraction questions.

So, there were six sunny days, there were four windy days.

Six subtract four, the correct answer is two.

Well done.

Pause the video and just use that table to answer those last two questions.

Let's see how you got on.

Is it true or false that there were twice as many cloudy days as sunny days? Well, twice means double.

So, we would be looking for the number of cloudy days to be double the number of sunny days.

Well, looking at the table, it says there were eight cloudy days and six sunny days.

Eight isn't double six, so that statement is false.

The last question is an altogether question, which hopefully you were able to see means that we need to add how many rainy and windy days were there altogether.

We've got 10, add four, is 14.

Well done, if you got that one right.

So hopefully, you can see that tables are really useful.

It's just a very simple way of presenting data, presenting information.

So, when you've looked at data before, you've probably become quite skilled in reading bar charts and pictograms, as you can see on this slide.

They're really useful for presenting data in a really clear, mathematical way.

They're super easy to read and understand once you get them.

But, they're not perfect for when we're actually collecting data.

So, if you imagine going around our class, and asking people what their favourite colour is, or what their favourite football team is, it would be really hard while we were actually collecting that information to turn that into a bar graph straight away.

If we were going up to people and saying, "What's your favourite colour? "And what's your favourite colour?" We wouldn't be able to make that into a bar chart straight away.

We'd need to collect the data really quickly, and then we'd have it there so that we could go back, sit down, take our time, and decide how best to present that information.

So, this is where tallies become really, really useful.

This is what tallies look like.

So, imagine we went into the playground to see what type of cars, type of transport, goes past our school.

And, we did little mark, every time we saw one thing.

So, we are looking for cars, motorbikes, buses and bicycles.

And every time one comes past, we just put little mark.

And the way tallies work is in groups of five.

So, once we've gone one, two, three, four, once we've seen our fifth thing, we put a diagonal line through it.

So you can see for car, we've gone one, two, three, four, five.

One two, three, four, five.

And then, one, two.

So, we've got five, 10, 11, 12.

We saw 12 cars, that tally shows 12.

What about for motorbike? Well, we can see we've got a group of five, and then we've got one, two: five, six, seven.

Two more than five is seven.

Pause the video and just tell me what those tallies are showing for bus and bicycle.

Let's see how you got on.

Well for bus, we can see that that's less than five, because we haven't got that diagonal line going through it.

So we've just got our marks: one, two, three, four.

We saw only four buses.

For bicycle, hopefully you can see here how useful tallies are in not only recording data quickly, but reading that information quickly as well.

For bicycle, we've got two groups of five: five, 10.

We saw 10 bicycles.

So really nice, quick, easy way to record data as we're actually collecting it.

Then, like I said, we can go away, and we can turn it into a lovely bar graph, which is easier, a bit easier to read, easier to draw those questions from.

Oh, but I've forgotten something.

I haven't filled in what my tally shows for bus.

What do you think it is there? What is that tally showing for bus? I've got two fives, I've got five, 10.

I should have 10 written there, in my numbers.

Okay, then we'll want to just fill in my bar chart.

And you can see I've done most of the work for my bar chart already.

I've put my Y axis in.

Can you see which scale I'm using? Which times table my scale is going up in? I'm going up in jumps of five today.

Five 10, 15, 20.

So, to put my bus in where there's a gap, I need to go up five, 10, and put my bus column in there.

And you can see, I've made that column the same width and the same colour as the others.

So it's really easy to compare, they should look similar in that way.

Okay, here we have a pictogram then.

You can see that it's a pictogram, and it's got its key, like pictograms always do.

And it's showing you that that little symbol represents three.

So, we've got a pictogram, and we've got our table.

But, there's gaps, we need to fill them in.

So, we need to use the information from the pictogram to fill in the table, from the table to fill in the gaps on the pictogram.

It doesn't matter which order you want to do that in, whichever one you feel is easiest, and then move around and do the other one.

So, looking at the pictogram, I've got a gap, haven't I, on armadillo on the table? So if I look at the pictogram, armadillo's got one set of three, and then it's got two, two little bits next to it.

So three, that must be four, five, five for armadillo on the table.

Sloth, well sloth's just got that one picture, which I know means three, so I can fill in three there.

What about going back and filling in the pictogram from the table? So, I can see that I've got gaps in snake and giraffe there.

So, giraffe needs to show 11.

So let me think.

Three, six, nine and 11.

And for snake, I just need to do my nine: three six, nine.

So, I can use the information from the table to fill in the pictogram, and vice versa.

I just need to use that information to fill in my table this time.

Oh, well I need to read the key really carefully.

I can see my pictogram is ice lollies, and each ice lolly represents 10.

I can also see that there are some half ice lollies used on that table.

So if one whole one is 10, half of 10 is five.

So, a half ice lolly must equal five.

Starting at the top then, with Monday, I can see I've got one, two, three ice lollies.

That means 10, 20, 30.

Monday must be 30.

Tuesday, I've got one more, which must mean 10 more.

10 more than 30 is 40.

Oh, for Wednesday, I've got two whole ice lollies and a half.

So, my two whole ice lollies are 10 each.

10, 20, and a half is 25.

Pause the video here and fill in the rest of that table from the pictogram.

Let's see how you did.

So, for Thursday, we've got four ice lollies, so that's 40.

Oh, for Friday, we've got a lot to count, haven't we? Hopefully you could see that was 75.

Just getting bigger as we get towards the weekend, more people are buying ice lollies at the weekend.

Maybe it was really sunny, and everybody was going out with their families while they didn't have to go to school.

So, we have a hundred on Saturday, and 80 on Sunday.

So, having a look at this slide, we can see that tables, tallies, and graphs can all show the same information.

They're showing the same information in different ways.

We can see with pictograms, really important for us to read the key really carefully.

If we didn't know that that ice lolly was 10, we wouldn't be able to read that pictogram very well at all.

But also, we can see if we look a little bit closer at Saturday and Friday, pictograms can be a bit limited sometimes.

It's quite hard actually for us to count all those ice lollies accurately, and then scale up for 10 to work out exactly what it's showing.

So, although pictograms are great for some information, they might have their limits when we come on to bigger numbers.

Now, let me just talk through Part A of your independent task for you.

All I'd like you to do is just have three different things, make a tally, total it up in a table, and then if you can, turn that into a bar graph or a pictogram, that would be amazing.

Now you can just make this up if you'd like.

You can keep my three titles of Dover, Cambridge, and Blackpool.

Make up a tally, how many people visited each one.

Make a total, total up your tally, and turn it into a chart.

Or, you can change it and make it what you'd like it to be.

So, you could go around your house and find some information out.

You might want to pick pens, pencils, and felt tips, and see how many of each you could find.

Or, you might want to find three sets of things.

So, count up all of your LEGO, all or your books, and all of your trains or something like that, and create that into a tally.

So, that's completely up to you.

So, pause the video here, and have a go at your two independent tasks.

Well done.

Now, for Part A, I can't give you a right answer, because everybody's information, it will look different, but you can check.

You can make sure that your tally and your total show the same information, and that then you can see that clearly as the same numbers on your pictogram or your bar chart as well.

If you did fill in a tally, and a table, and turn that into a chart, a graph, really, really well done, fantastic work.

We can go through Part B together, though.

This is where we have a table, and a tally, and we have some information missing.

So, we need to fill it in.

So, looking at our tally for the sunny days, it looks like we've got five 10, 15 sunny days.

We need to do the opposite on the windy days, because we've been given the amount.

We need to write that as a tally.

And, seven is written as five and one, two.

Oh, we've used our tally there in Cloudy to see that we had five cloudy days, that tally shows five.

And finally for rainy, those two sets of five, two five tallies, give us our 10 for rainy days.

I hope you all got onto the challenge as well.

How many more days were windy than rainy? How many more days were windy than rainy? Oh sorry, windy than cloudy.

Okay, so we've got seven and five.

Seven take away five is two.

Why might tallies not always work? That's an interesting question, isn't it? Well, what if we were counting all the days of a year? We might have 200 rainy days, and that would be really hard to record in tallies, and really hard to count.

We might make a mistake.

So, for larger numbers, they might not always be appropriate.

We might need to use something a bit different.

Can you see any problems with that data? Can you see anything that might not be quite accurate? Well, living in the UK, you know, days could be sunny and windy and rainy and cloudy.

How do you record that day? So, it might not be completely accurate.

It also might be a bit of opinion.

So, it might be a little bit cloudy, but a little bit sunny.

How do we record that one? Some people might say it's a cloudy day.

Some people might say it's a sunny day.

So, data comes into a bit of trouble sometimes, when it might be opinion, we might be able to have one or both.

So, it's really important to look at data, and really think about how accurate it is.

Okay, we've done some fantastic work today on data.

Really, really well done.

Please make sure you do that quiz before you go.