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Hi, I'm Allen, your computing teacher for this key stage four network unit in this is lesson four of six, and this one is about configuring networks.

You will need a pen and paper for this lesson as you'll need to write down some answers for one of the activities, and you'll also need to download and instal a programme called Packet Tracer.

This is available on laptop and mobile phone.

It's free, and it's also doesn't require a login.

So if I need notifications on mobile phones that are nearby, remove any distractions that you've got around you, pause the video until you settled, and when you're ready, we can make a start.

Okay, in this lesson you'll describe the different communication models are used in networking, such as peer-to-peer and client-server.

We'll also build and configure network using a simulation tool.

There are different types of network and the relationship between the machines defines that type of network.

So for instance here we've got peer-to-peer, we've got clients server.

So the peer-to-peer network, all machines that have equal status.

A peer-to-peer network allows a group of connecting machines to share resources, without the need for a central dedicated server.

So for example, family members can all connect to a router at home and they can all share files between their devices, they may even also have a shared access to maybe a storage drive or a media server.

So the advantages of a peer-to-peer network, there's no central data store to rely upon and resources can be shared across devices.

Applications can also be shared across devices as long as the owner of those devices has given all the owner of those applications has given permission.

And data on those individual machines is backed up at source.

So it's not stored anywhere.

Essentially, machines have to be back to it individually.

Disadvantages, each machine has to be set up individually.

So that can be quite time consuming particularly in-efficient, the more devices you choose to add to that network.

A client-server network generally has a central computer called a server that manages the computers of the users.

The data is stored centrally, so anybody logging onto that network can have access to the data.

So for instance a student in school, they can log on to any particular machine in the school and their data will be available regardless of which machine it was created on.

So the benefit of a client-server model is all computers can be managed from the server, including things like installations, backup, security and access.

This is efficient and flexible for large networks.

So disadvantages of client-server network.

While there is a heavy reliance on that central server, should that central server go down, then the whole network goes down for the users.

Maintaining such a network can often be challenging.

Okay, so time for task one.

An organisation has the following departments.

Finance, human resources, marketing, manufacturing and management.

And using the worksheet, you've got to decide which network would be best for the organisation.

You can pause the video and complete the task.

Okay, how did you get along? Well, would a peer-to-peer network be suitable for the organisation? The answer to that is no.

My justification as you can see below is the more departments the more computers, peer-to-peer would not be efficient.

With so many machines, each having to be configured manually, this would be a make it difficult to manage the network and data on any machines that are offline, wouldn't be available to the other users of that network.

Okay, so would a client-server model be suitable for the organisation? The answer to that is yes and you can see my justification below.

All the data stored centrally, so no matter which device it was created on or which machines are switched on, for instance, the data would be available to users no matter which machine they're logged on to.

Also it's easier to manage multiple computers centrally from the server if there are a lot of them, which there probably would be in an organisation with multiple departments.

So in lesson one you'll recall we looked at different types of networking hardware.

And to create a functioning network, this hardware has to be physically or wirelessly connected in some way, and then they needs to be configured so that they can communicate with each other.

So you'll now see a demonstration of this using the software called Packet Tracer.

Okay, as I said at the beginning of this lesson you do need Cisco Packet Tracer installed on your system to be able to do this lesson.

It will say, the bottom line is, right on your corner when you're logging guests, so you click guest and just wait for account on time to disappear.

And then you can open Packet Tracer like you can see here you don't need a login or anything like that for it.

Okay, so the purpose of this programme is to allow us to build a network, an actual network and check that it's working and check the IP addresses all of my devices without physically needing those devices.

Okay, so I'm going to start by putting a router in.

So I'm going to take a 26, 21 examiner, suggest you pick the same ones, when you come to build your network.

And I'm going to have a switch, and that's going to be a 296O.

And then as far as machines are concerned, I'm just going to have two PCs, and you can put these where you like, you can raise it however you like to raise it.

The next thing I'm going to do, is I'm going to connect them.

So you're using this connect icon, and I'm just going to use a straight through cable, in here I'm choosing FastEthernet00.

So this means you've got two ports on the back.

I'm going to connect that one to the switch, and that one's got lots of ports on itself, you can make a connection there.

And then connect the switch using one of those ports to the Ethernet port on the back of that PC.

And I'm going to do the same thing for this PC.

Okay, now you get these icons, they're all green when have some form of connectivity.

But obviously at the minute we haven't configured anything.

So let's go ahead and configure the router.

So you can see at the back of the router, if you want to what would physically look like if we had one in our hands, we've got the connections on the back and the power switch.

And so, we're going to use the command line to configure this router.

So as soon as you open this it says, would you like to enter in the initial configuration dialogue? Well, I'm going to select no, and return to get started.

So the first thing I'm going to do, is I'm going to enable my router, and I'm going to configure.

Okay, so I'm going to configure using the terminal.

So now you can see I've got the configuration menu here.

And I'm going to call my router R1.

So that's named it from router to R1.

And then interface on the back of the room, so it was FastEthernet00.

That's the one we're going to use.

And I'm going to set IP address for this router of 192.



1, with a mass 255.




And I'm going to say, no shut it, shut it down.

So that will restart the router again with the changes that we've just made.

I'm going to accept, access again.

Copy what's running to start up so that all of the commands we've just put into the router like configuration will be run to start.

So we need you to go ahead and press enter at this prompt.

Okay, so at that point we have a router setup for connectivity with a switch.

Now you'll see that we've got some green icons now which is great means we've got some form of connectivity.

But if we take a look at one of the PCs and we click on desktop we have this option for configuring our IP addresses.

Now at the moment you can see that there's no IP address assigned to this PC.

And it would be the same for the other one too, okay? So there's no, we can't communicate with each other even though the connected to the network in some where they've got physical connection there's no actual way of them communicating.

Okay, so what I'm going to do is I'm going to say for this one, I'm going to walk, I'm going to set the IP address.

So I'm going to say 192.


10 and let's call this 1.


On the default gateway for the last, the address we gave to the reset 192.



And there we go, so that's the first 1.



Same thing with a second PC click on desktop and IP configuration.

Again, there's no IP address in there.

So 192.



25 for this one press tap when you'll go to, so I'm asking that and then we need to put the IP address of the route again 192.




Okay, so now we've got two PCs connected to our network with the cables and they're configured with an IP address.

And what I can do is I can test using this command prompt that I can communicate with this one.

So if I choose command prompt and type ping 192.



25, if you remember this one 0.


If I send a ping, I'm getting a reply.

So I know I've got some connectivity here, okay? And if you wanted to physically see, what is actually going on, when that communication is made you can click simulation and then we can go back to this.

And if I click ping, type 192.



25 again but it read the here with packet of information.

Now it's not doing anything in the moment because we have to click play to watch the simulation.

So you'll hopefully see what happens.

So when I click play to run this scenario it's the same thing as what happened before, this machine is sending a request to this machine over here at this point in time PC zero doesn't know whether it's got it or not.

So this one has to send the response back and you can see that going through the switch.

And then that will go back to the first machine.

So we click back on here, we can see that we got the reply.

Okay, now that was obviously slower in the simulation than what it would be when we just typed it into the command line.

But it allows you to visually see what is actually happening and where the data's going and the response back from the other PC.

Okay, so hopefully that demonstration was useful to you.

You're going to now do the same thing using the worksheet.

You'll complete the steps that you can see there.

So it's building the network first you're then going to configure the router, and command through the command line interface.

You'll assign static IP addresses to both of the PCs and then you'll test communication between the devices using the ping command, and you can use the simulation tool as well.

You can pause the video and complete the task.

Okay, hopefully that went well.

and your computers were communicating with each other successfully.

When are going to look at DHCP or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

So a DHCP server ensures that any computer connecting to the network is automatically assigned an IP address, okay? So in the example, we've just seen in the task that you just did, you assigned an IP address manually.

So giving it a static IP address, so that never changes.

Now, this are sometimes often benefits if I'm going to static IP address.

But if you're in an organisation with lots and lots of machines, managing that would be quite ineffective and inefficient.

it's beneficial to use a DHCP server.

Is there a limited number of IP addresses? Devices can come and go on a network or most the time has run out for a device to have a specific IP address but it's called the least time.

Then if that device is no longer in the network that IP address can be given to another device.

The DHCP server keeps track of all those IP addresses and knows which machines are connected and which are not.

And how long for, so it makes managing devices on the network a little bit easier.

We'll now see a demonstration of how to configure a DHCP server using Packet Tracer.

Okay, so this time, what we're going to do is we're going to build the same network.

But this time, what we'd like to do is set it up so that we don't have to assign IP addresses, okay? It was fairly straightforward to assign two IP addresses to those two machines.

But if you're in a large organisation and you're adding lots and lots of machines, you would not necessarily want to be setting up static IPS for every single machine.

So there are instances where static IP addresses will be useful, but generally for the most part dynamic IP addresses are more efficient.

Because it allows devices to disconnect, it allows that IP address to be released.

And then any more devices that connect to the system they can take previous IP addresses that have been used.

So what are we going to do now is we're going to use the same kind of kit as we used before.

So I'm going to use the same router and I'm going to use the same switch and I'm going to have two PCs again.

Okay, so two PCs, there we go.

And if you can remember to connect them, using this cable here so faster than it, over to the switch.

And then the connection from the switch to the PCs.

Finally, this one.

This time, what we're going to do is we're going to configure the router to be a DHCP.

So it's going to, it's going to assign IP addresses automatically.

Okay, so if you can remember from the lesson DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

So any device that wants to connect to the network it will be allowed to do so.

And it will just get an IP address automatically and we will be able to see that happening shortly.

So as we did before, do you want to enter the initial configuration we're going to type, no.

So we're going to enable again, I'm going to the terminal.

Let's call this one again because your setup interface fast ethernet, full and we're going to set the IP address.




1 again, okay? Oops, I forgot the mask at the end.

And that's before we're going to restart the router this time, we'll go into set the BHC people, let's give it a name, we'll call it IP 10 and 192.




That's going to be, oops.

See the network and our gateway mask, default appear address 192.



1, so that's for our router.

We're going to do now for our DHCP servers I'm going to exclude some IP addresses.

So I'm going to say 192.



1 which is our router, all the way to 192.




But those IP addresses won't be able to be issued, okay? And just as an example, we'll be able to see hopefully when we connect our PCs, that they'll start beyond 192.



10, so we exit.

And I'm now going to copy or rooming conflict again.

So that like we did last time so that it's running when we start the router.

And if you want to have a look and type, I take rung and it will show you all the configuration that we've just set precedent to all the way down that will show you all the things that we've just set up.

Okay, so now we've, we've set about rooting out to give out IP addresses automatically.

So now when we look at our desktop when we go to IP configuration, just like in the first example, they've got no address at the moment but we're not going to set them as static, we want to obtain one.

So when I clicked DHCP, it's going to try and obtain an IP address from the router, okay? So it's going to ask, please, can I have an IP address on connect to your network and the rouge who's going to get to say, yeah, you can have this IP address within the rules that we've stated.

So if I click DHCP is requesting an IP address that was successful.

And this one is 192.



11 because we said we would start it once at 10.

We're not, we're not allowed, there were excluded.

So that's set up fine.

So top 0.



We'll have to remember that for a little bit electron, same of this PC desktop, IP configuration, not static.

So let's request an IP address just as before and this one's 0.


So the first one was 0.

11 and this one is 0.


So they're both connected to the network now and have an address.

So let's do what we did before.

Let's check, so ping 192.




We're going from 12, 0.

12 to 0.

11 and we're going to check that it's working.

And as you can see, we've got a reply.

So if I were to run that in simulation, just like before and I press enter here, we can see our pocket ready to go from this machine, ready to ping the other machine.

And off it goes through the switch through to the next machine.

When that machine successfully receives it then sends a pocket back, reply in reply to say yet, I received that pink which is to know that that connection is alive.

Okay, so using the worksheet, this is task three.

You'll now do the same thing, configure a network.

And on the router, you'll configure as a DHCP server to assign IP addresses to the PCs automatically.

You can pause the video and complete the task.

Okay, straight into task four.

You're going to see a video in a second.

This time you will create a network and you'll now use a wireless router.

Okay, so wireless routes is really common.

We have them in our homes, generally, if we've got connections to the internet or we can connect wireless devices, as well as wide devices you watch the video first and then we'll come back and show you what the task is.

Okay, in this scenario to change things a little bit this time we're going to use a wireless router.

Because wireless routers would be more common probably in the home I suppose.

We're going to use this wireless router here, we're going to configure that to be able to connect to some devices.

Now can still connect devices with wires to our wireless routers.

You would have, you could have help.

So we're going to use a switch as well because even though we might have some PCs connected so let's say we can add three PCs this time.

Let's be, let's be adventurous.

We can also have wireless devices too.

So let's connect these apps before without cable don't jump choose internet, choose ethernet.

Here we go, the same thing for all the PCs to switch.

Okay, that was before.

Now this time we've got a wireless router so we don't necessarily, we don't need to configure this with the command line because if you've ever configured your router at home you generally have a graphical user interface.

Okay, so I'm going to leave DHCP selected here.

I'm going to leave this information here.

So what I'm going to say, I'm going to make it the same address as before, just for consistency.

And that's 192.




DHCP server is enabled because we do want that.

Let's start the IP addressing at, let's say 20, okay? Not going to worry about maximum number of users because we're only going to be connecting through machines anyway.

But it's going to start at 20, scroll all the way down and click save settings.

So that's my router now configured my wireless router.

And I know we're connecting these with wires but it's dual capability so we can connect wireless devices.

And if I select my PC again, choose DHCP it's going to request the address.

And it's now got one that started it at 20 as requested, so that's good.

Same thing for the next two.

DHCP, get the IP address 21, so this one should be, you guessed it 22.

There we go, so all PCs are now connected.

So we have 20, 21 and 22.

And in just the same way as before I can say 192.



22 I can check and I'm getting a reply.

So I've got connectivity through my network, which is great.

Now, obviously with the wireless router because I'm doing this to a simulator, I can click on here and I can see the graphical user interface but in real life, that wouldn't be possible.

I couldn't click on my router without any machines being able to use a machine that's attached to it.

So now if I want to configure not to mess about with my route or change any settings, I can change it through any one of these PCs.

So I can access my router through the web browser here.

So if you can remember the IP address of this router it was what 192.




When I pretend to hopefully have a password field.

So for this, we can use admin and admin, if you do this on your own network you certainly wouldn't have a password that was the same as their username.

And then we get the same web-based gooey than what we had, if we directly did it on the routine, you see this is PC2.

I've accessed it from here.

So I'm now connected to the interface to configure my router if I wanted to.

So any changes I make here would obviously be applied network-wide, okay.

So you can go ahead and create your wireless router network and attached three PCs.

What you can also do if you want to just to show that it is wireless.

If we drag a smart device and put it in the vicinity that should also get a wireless connection, which it has, we've got connectivity to that, okay? Again, you could be able to see the address that it's been given.

So it's been given 23 automatically.

So this was 20, 21, 22, 23.

So that's been assigned an IP address and we could add a wireless tablet if we wanted to.

And you can determine what IP address that would get.

It would just follow on.

And we've got 24 again, that's DHCP, so there you go.

Okay, so task four you're going to configure a wireless router and add wireless devices too, as well as wide devices.

And you'll be able to witness those machines getting an IP address automatically.

You can pause the video and complete the task.

Okay, don't forget there is a quiz to complete at the end of this lesson and I would love to see some screenshots of the networks you've created.

If you want to share your work with national please ask your parent or carer to share it on Instagram, Facebook or Twitter, tagging @OakNational and #LearnwithOak.

I'll see you next time.