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Hello, my name is Mr. Madeley.

And welcome back to the KS3 history topic, why did kings struggle to rule England? For today's lesson, we're going to look at Henry the third.

You're going to need a pen, pencil, paper, and somewhere quiet so you can work without being disturbed.

If you need to collect any of those, or move elsewhere in the house, then I suggest you pause the video now.

Excellent, let's crack on with the lesson.

I hope you got the title down, but if not, I'm going to give you a few more seconds to get it done.

Well done.

So let's start with the overview of today's lesson.

We're going to start off with a quick recap.

Three multiple choice questions.

I know you're going to get every single one of them right.

We're then going to look at the three reasons that we've used in the past two lessons to why a king might struggle to rule England.

The barons, church and war.

Finally, we're going to sum up whether Henry really struggled to rule England.

So let's start with a recap.

What was King John forced to sign in 1215? So, what we need to do is either, write down your answer point at the screen or shout it out, right, you ready? Let's get the answer and here it is.

Magna Carta, I'm sure you got that right, well done.

If you get this one, how did Magna Carta limit John's powers? There may be more than one answer for this.

So again, choose the option or options that you think it is and then either point or shout them out.

Are you ready? Steady? Let's see what the answers are.

John had to rule with a council of 25 barons.

You definitely got that one.

John could not sell justice.

I could hear you're shading that out over here.

And John needed the barons agreement to tax.

You know what, I know you got that one as well.

Your final recap question.

Here you go, for three out of three.

Who had attacked England in 1216? Who was it? Prince Louis of France, the King of Scotland, rebel barons or the King of Wales? Think really carefully.

I think you've got it.

Are you ready? Let's check the answer, it was? Everyone but the King of Wales.

So, remember the rebel barons started off the war.

Prince Louis joined them after they invited him to be King and the King of Scotland, saw that Prince Louis was winning against John, so he invaded as well, right.

We've now seen what happened in England before 1216, we've see how John's power was limited and a little bit of an idea of what England was like when Henry took over as king.

So let's look at Henry's early reign.

Remember he was only nine years old when he became King.

That meant, he was too young to rule England alone.

So he had a regency council, A regency council helped him rule until he was old enough to take the power for himself.

The regency council was made up of leading barons.

However, his early reign also saw him need to defeat the invaders.

So, let's see how he did.

Henry made sure that in his regency council, he reissued Magna Carta.

He was able to drive the invaders from England.

So he now controlled all of it once again, and by issuing Magna Carta and by ruling with a regency council, his barons were willing to support him.

So I'm going to ask you to finish this sentence off and pause the video shortly.

You're going to make a judgement on Henry's early reign based on what we've just said.

Was he ruling properly? So, the sentence starter is, Henry was/was not ruling properly because.

So I'd like you to pause the video now.

Well done.

Now, personally, I would say that Henry was ruling properly because he issued Magna Carta.

This meant that the barons were willing to support him.

So you may not have written exactly that down but I'm sure you put it in an absolutely fantastic way and you are correct.

So let's look at his reign.

You've made a judgement on your last slide about whether he was ruling properly.

You can see here an image of Henry's coronation, but I want you to think back a whole two lessons ago to when we saw an image of King John on his coronation.

Does this image support, does it agree with your answer about whether Henry ruled England properly at the beginning of his reign? So think back to the John image.

Was this similarly drawn, are there differences? Does this show Henry ruling properly? So before you have a go at this, I'm going to give you some clues.

So you're looking at, does this support your answer? And you're going to answer it in the way of what can you see in this picture? Well, in the picture you can see that Henry is surrounded by churchmen.

They're both helping to hold his crown and the crown is firmly on his head.

That may not be the same as what the King John one looked like.

The church is in Henry's hands.

Was that the same as King John? Does that mean that Henry was looking after the church possibly? What about the royal robes? Henry was drawn sitting on a throne rather than a chair liking John.

What might that mean? So if you want to, pause the video now and just have a think, if not, let's see if you're ready to write the answer.

So here we are with your sentence starters.

In this picture, I can see, this means there Henry was/was not ruling England properly because, so you are now supporting, you are using evidence from this picture to support your earlier thoughts.

So what I'd like you to do is pause the video for a couple of minutes to finish off this paragraph, using those sentence starters.

So pause the video now.


I'm sure you've worked really hard answering that.

So let's have a look of what I wrote.

You may not have written the same thing, but I'm sure it's just as good.

So, this is what I put.

In this picture, I can see Henry holding the church.

Remember that I pointed that out.

This means that Henry was ruling England properly because he was protecting the church.

This was one of the promises he made when he became King of England.

So I focused on the church.

You may have focused on the fact that he sat on a throne and not a chair.

And that meant he was ruling England properly because it's what a king should sit on.

A king should sit on a throne, you may have countered and gone against what you said about King John.

Well, the fact that Henry's crown or his royal robes fitted him properly.

So again, that pointed out to Henry ruling England correctly.

Any of these are perfectly acceptable.

You may have come up with something different.

So well done.

So, how did Henry rule with the barons? Why might have the barons have began to lose faith in him? I'm going to ask you to pause the video now for about 30 seconds to just bullet point down any of the reasons why you think Henry may have lost the support of the barons.

I'm going to give you a hint.

How did his father John lose the barons faith? So pause the video now.


I'm sure you've come up with a really good list.

So here's what I said, Henry began to rule without the support of the English barons, he stopped asking them for advice.

This is just the same as King John did, Henry and John ruled using foreign favourites.

And the English barons were not happy at that.

So they started to lose trust in him.

Henry needed money, and in theory, he was meant to ask the barons to help him raise it.

But sometimes he didn't and using foreign favourites, he just collected in taxes.

So the barons started to feel unhappy.

And then war, Henry was not very good, just like John, at fighting.

And so he lost wars against France and Wales.

So poor Henry started to see the faith that his barons had in him, go down.

But what about the church? Surely Henry was going to make sure that the church supported him and he didn't make the mistakes of his father.

And if you look at this image on the right of your screen, it's a really, really important image.

It shows you all the things that Henry did to help the church, he's shown with church bells whilst he's sat on a throne.

To he's right, is Westminster Abbey.

One of the most important buildings in England, indeed, it's probably, one of the most important church buildings after Canterbury and York cathedrals.

And Henry spent lots and lots of money redesigning and rebuilding it.

Henry managed to get support of the Pope.

Remember John had handed England to the Pope in order to look after it and to make peace with the Pope.

The Pope had chosen Henry to be the next King of England.

So the beginning of Henry's reign, he had a really, really good relationship with the Pope and with the church.

And this is shown by the picture we just looked at.

Unfortunately, things started to go a bit sour between Henry and the Pope.

The Pope needed support in fighting in the South of Italy.

Henry offered to pay for the war, if his son would be given the crown of Sicily.

The one problem was that Henry did not have the money to be able to pay for the Pope's war.

So he became in debt.

Remember debts from last lesson? He was in debt to the Pope.

The Pope finally decided that he'd had enough of asking Henry to pay, and so find thought about threatening him with excommunication.

Remember, excommunication is the worst thing that can happen to a person.

So by threatening Henry, he was forcing Henry to repay the debt.

So on the one side, Henry ruled with the support of the church, but he lost a lot of that support with the failure to pay the Pope, the money he owed for Sicily.

Now, let's have a look at some recaps.

Which of these was not a reason why the barons lost faith in Henry? Okay, write down your answer or points or shouted out.

I'm sure you got the answer.

There may be more than one.

So I'm going to ask you to just wait, think about it until five, four, three, two, one.

Did you get the answer? Well done.

Henry failed to lower taxes and so the barons were not happy with him.

Now lets look at war.

Why did Henry need to go to war? Again, I'm really hoping that you've done the previous lesson.

So I'm going to ask you to pause the video for again, 30 seconds and answer this question.

Just bullet points.

Why did Henry need to go to war? What did John loose that might've forced his son to go to war? Let me give you 30 seconds.

Well done.

I'm sure you really racked your mind to bring up the reasons that Henry had to go to war for.

And remember a lot of these, in fact, all of these are to do with his father.

So Henry needed to defeat the invaders in 1216, he had to fight to secure to become King of England.

Once he was King of England, he needed to regain the lands that have been lost by his father in the Angevin Empire.

Remember from our very first lesson, the Angevin Empire stretched from Scotland in it's North, all the way to the Pyrenees in the South and John have managed to lose virtually all of it, especially the lands in France.

So Henry felt obliged, he felt he needed to go to war in order to regain the lands his father had lost.

Now, summary, was Henry beginning to struggle to rule England? Based on what we've looked at, his relationship with the barons, his relationship with the church and how he dealt with war.

Was he beginning to struggle to rule England? Well, I'm going to ask you to pause this video for 30 seconds and just put a simple yes or no and a sentence saying why you think that.

So pause the video now.

Well done.

I'm sure you thought about the three categories that we've mentioned and just come up with a simple answer to why Henry may or may not have been, beginning to struggle to rule England.

So here's what I summarised it as.

Henry struggled to rule England because he was confined.

He had to follow Magna Carta.

He had issued it and therefore he had to follow it.

Unfortunately, he didn't follow it and because he didn't follow it, it meant that he was beginning to upset his barons.

So he starts to lose the support and the faith the barons had in him, especially when he started to use his foreign favourites.

Henry's relationship with the church started to go sour.

And that meant the church started to turn against him.

He was even threatened with excommunication, which was definitely not a good thing.

And then if we think about it, the barons wouldn't have been happy with the taxes they had to pay, especially when Henry was wasting his money on attacking and failing to regain the lands in France.

So all in all, Henry was beginning to struggle to rule England.

So, here are some terms that we've looked at in this lesson, and you're going to come across in your worksheets.

Regency council, a group of barons who have helped to king rule until they were old enough to rule in their own right.

Permission, to be allowed to do something.

Advisors, people who give help support and ideas to someone who rules.

The comprehension questions.

How was England ruled at the beginning of Henry's reign? So think back to the beginning of our presentation and that'll give you a hint, it's also on your worksheets, on the PowerPoint, if you look on the website.

What made the barons turn against Henry? What caused the Pope to threaten Henry with excommunication? What's happens when Henry tried to attack France? Why was Henry at risk of a rebellion from his barons? So why were the barons possibly going to rise up and attack Henry? And I've given you a sentence starter for this.

Henry was at risk of the barons rebelling because.

Now I know you're going to smash those questions and you're looking at them and think, oh, those are really, really easy.

So I've given you an extension.

Why was Henry struggling to rule England? So I'd like you to pause the video now, read the slides on the next page and answer the comprehension questions.

So please pause the video now.


I bet you worked really, really hard on answering those questions, but I know, you would've got every single one of the right.

So here are some answers.

Question one.

How was England ruled at the beginning of Henry's reign? An acceptable answer, so a simple answer, was by a nine year old King.

Now remember, every single time we've done this, I've said a good answer should be in full sentences and ideally be using key words from the question.

So good answer.

England was ruled by child King, He's a child king 'cause his only nine years old and a regency council.

So I've used one of the key words from the glossary.

The regency council was made of the leading barons in England.

So made in a bit detail, they advise the king on how to rule fairly and justly.

Henry's early reign was very successful and he ruled without any trouble.

Comprehensive question two.

What made the barons turn against Henry? An acceptable answer would be foreign advisors, taxes and being ignored.

But let's put that into a sentence and a paragraph for a good answer.

There were many reasons why the barons turned against Henry.

So just Henry ignoring their advice.

So I'm sure that there's more than one reason here.

Henry began to rule using foreign advisors just like his father had done.

So again, I'm now comparing Henry to his father John.

So we're starting to see some mistakes that John made being made by Henry.

The English barons were being ignored.

And this went against the Magna Carta.

Henry had issued Magna Carta at the beginning of his reign.

This meant he had to rule with the support of the barons.

Now you may have written about taxes.

That's absolutely brilliant.

You may not have written it in exactly the same way, but I know you will have done a really good answer.

So question three, what caused the Pope to threaten Henry with excommunication? A simple answer, sorry, an acceptable one would just be Sicily.

A good answer is going to expand on that.

The Pope threatened Henry with excommunication.

So I'm using keywords from the question because of his debts.

Henry agreed to help the Pope, who had chosen him as King of England in return for his son becoming King of Sicily.

He did this by offering to pay the cost of the Pope's attack on Sicily.

Unfortunately, Henry did not have the money and eventually the Pope grew tired of asking, the results with the Pope threatening Henry with excommunication.

So there, I've given the story, the background detail and then shown the consequence of it.

So I've shown the cause.

What about question four? What happened when Henry tried to attack France? The acceptable answer, Henry failed.

A good answer, and I know this is going to be four out of four on the good answers from you.

Henry tried to attack France on two occasions.

It was important that Henry attack France, so he could try and win back the lands his father lost.

So again, you're building up some information, some detail.

And unfortunately, on both of those occasions, Henry was met with crushing defeats.

This meant that he did not regain any of the lost lands.

What about question five.

The challenging question, it's a why question.

So you need a bit of explanation now.

Why was Henry at risk of a rebellion from his barons? Now I know you definitely got this one right.

The acceptable answer could be, Henry kept on ignoring the barons and broke Magna Carta.

You may have written something different, but I also know, you expanded, you improved on that answer.

So this is what I put, again, remember, you may not have written this in exactly the same way, but I know you would have done a good answer.

Henry was at risk of the barons rebelling because he failed to keep their support.

This can be shown by Henry's use of foreign advisors and by him not following the rules of Magna Carta, this meant, so here's my explanation.

That the barons were slowly pushed away from supporting Henry, towards rebelling against him.

So I'm in it, I've got my point in the first sentence, and a little bit of detail in my second sentence and my explanation in my third sentence.

Now I know you definitely had something like that.

And I also know that you would have had plenty of time to have a go at this additional question, extension task.

So here we go.

Let's let's have a go at this.

Why was Henry struggling to rule England? This is very similar to how we've done the past three questions.

And I haven't changed it.

Apart from some keywords I've changed and sentence starters have changed.

So Henry was struggling to rule England for a number of reasons, such as, this can be shown by, to add your details.

This meant that, or you could use because to show your explanation and you have your concluding sentence, therefore, this shows Henry was struggling to rule England because.

So let's see if you can use of those key words in answering this extension question, but before you do, I want you to consider this.

Now, we've decided not to have a go question just yet.

So we're going to plan this out.

Why was Henry showing to rule England? Now just like we've done with the John questions, there are three reasons why Henry was struggling and that reflects what we have looked at on your worksheet and on the presentation so far.

War, I'm given you the hint.

Henry was defeated whilst attacking France.

Reason 2, barons, Henry ruled without the barons advice.

And three, church.

Henry almost got ex-communicated.

So, in a moment I'd like you to pause the video and fill in any more answers that you can think of based on what you've read and what you've heard.

So pause the video now.

Brilliant, I know you will have done some pretty good answers for this.

So remember, you may not have the same as me, but you may have more and well done if you have, and if you do not have some of them, you can just copy them down, that doesn't matter.

This is about bringing together all of our ideas.

So this is what I said.

For war, I've added, Henry failed to regain any lands lost by his father in France.

For the baron paragraph, I have that taxes made the barons poorer.

Foreign advisors ruled with Henry.

And for the third one, Henry owed money to Pope.

So that then meant that he almost got ex-communicated.

The last thing we need to then do is just have a go at this question.

Think about the plan you've just created and then have a go at writing three separate paragraphs with a conclusion.

So pause the video and fill in your paragraphs using the key words and the sentence starters if you wish to.

So pause the video now.

Well done today and I look forward to seeing you in the next lesson for our enquiry.

Well done and keep working hard.