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Hello and welcome to the fourth lesson in this unit of work on new media.

My name is Simon and we are going to be exploring something called algorithms today.

Algorithms are lots of different things and we're going to explain about what that is.

It's often to do with technology, but you could also apply algorithms to your art and create something called algorithm art.

So it is quite a fun lesson.

Again, all you need today for this lesson is just a pencil, and in the next lesson, again, we'll be using paints, but you are welcome to use colouring pencils of course, as well.

So again, whatever materials you have mean that you can take part.

So I look forward to going through this with you.

This is the fourth lesson of this unit of work on new media.

Okay, so the learning objective for today is experiment with algorithms to adapt in your next lesson.

This is the fourth lesson of five.

Obviously, the previous three lessons do support what we're doing in today's lesson.

Of course, it's going to link in with next week's lesson as well, so this lesson and the next lesson are very much a pair that go together.

In today's lesson, we are going to understand what an algorithm is, connect algorithms with new media, copy and create rules for your own algorithm art, and experiment with multiple algorithms in your own art.

So of course, the keywords today are going to be including algorithm which is a set of rules that must be followed.

Abstract art which we've had for the last two lessons, but again, this type of style of work naturally leads itself to something more abstract.

It is art that is non-representational and might use colour, shape, line, and pattern.

And experimentation, and this is when you are trying to find out what works well and what does not.

The equipment you need for this lesson is your sketchbook, a pencil, literally all you need is a pencil, and six rectangles on A4.

So again, this is a handout you can very easily download from the website or you can create it yourself.

You can see an example on the screen in front of you.

If you can sketch those out in pencil, that works as well.

Last lesson we did discuss abstract art, and of course, that is one of our key words.

Now remind me again, what is abstract art? You can see these two images by Kandinsky to try and remind you.

That's right, it is non-representational art.

It's art that is not a person, that is not a place, that is not a drawing of a handbag.

It is something that is shapes, and colours, and patterns.

And Kandinsky, as you can see, has done that here.

Now, algorithms are very different.

Algorithms are usually applied to technology, but in art it can be the basis for any artwork of art.

This is called algorithmic art and you can see here an example of an art piece by Bob and Roberta Smith which uses an algorithm at the end.

If you pause the video, you might be able to read it for a moment and see some details about his work, and you can see some of those algorithm art elements to his work.

Now, one of the most examples of an algorithm is a recipe.

So if you're thinking to yourself, "What? "I'm still not sure about what an algorithm is." A recipe is in many ways an algorithm.

There are strict instructions that are set, but the difference is that you as a chef following the recipe, follow them.

Now, if you could make it a robot, you could set a robot and set certain rules that it must follow.

In the same way that on computers and on programme, you could have a bunch of information and you could say I want to have all the words that begin with a in this column, and all the words that begin with b in this column, and an algorithm would find all those things and separate those words into those two columns.

In the same way, a recipe, there are instructions that you follow, and of course, if you had a robot where we're talking about cyborg art or robotic art, you could set a robot and have very clear instructions as for what it must do.

Those instructions, they are the algorithm, and you can obviously be the robot.

You can set rules for yourself and say, "I will follow this rule "and I will see what happens." And today that's what we're going to do with your art today, we're going to create algorithm art pieces.

We're going to create rules and then we're going to see what that creates.

And I'm sure your examples are going to be different to mine because naturally, even having those strict rules that you follow, they have lots of different possible outcomes.

The activity we're going to spend this lesson on.

You are going to create six experiments using algorithms. So again, you can see the examples.

And again, this is what I'm talking about.

It's just a pencil, but of course, we have that space to work within.

Now you need to be very strict with yourself and try not to deviate from the rules.

We'll have very specific rules to follow, and you just need to stick with them.

We're going to create five experiments using algorithms that I'm going to tell you.

And then the final one will be an algorithm that you decide, so you'll be able to hopefully by the of this, create your own algorithm art pieces.

Algorithms can be very complicated.

These are not going to be very complicated.

These are going to be quite clear and easy to follow, but of course, you can make it far more complicated if you wish.

And there's lots of different ideas and places that you can take this art piece.

Not least, you could obviously apply this to technology as well.

Now, this could be a digital process where the rules could be far more complicated, but it can also be freehand with whatever materials you decide to use, and that's obviously what we're doing today.

Here's the first sketchbook activity.

You've got your rectangles.

You've got six rectangles.

So in your first one, this is the first algorithm you'll need to follow.

This is a continuous line.

You draw a straight line and then a triangle, and then a straight line and a triangle, and then you keep drawing a straight line and a triangle until you have an outcome similar to the one in front of you.

Okay, your first algorithm should be a straight line with an arrow on the end.

So that should be like this.

Straight line and an arrow on the end.

Straight line, arrow.

And then you keep going for as long as you can really.

I would try not to touch the edges.

I think sometimes it gives it a little bit of a nicer finish.

Think about where you're going next.

Where did I start? Down here, so I'm going to go back down to there to finish.

So you can see that's my first one, which is straight lines with a triangle on the end.

Now it's your turn.

Using your sketchbook or worksheet, fill a space with the first algorithm.

It should be a repeat of straight line with a triangle on the end.

Think carefully, 'cause you do need to fill the space, and don't go outside the rectangle.

Pause the video to do it yourself.

Okay, let's move on to algorithm number two, and again, it's a continuous line.

That means your pencil doesn't come off the paper at any point.

This time it's going to be a curved line and then a quick loop, and then another curved line and a quick loop.

Again, you can see my example in front of you on screen.

That's all it is.

The second one is going to be curl and a reverse circle.

Curl and a reverse circle.

Curl and a reverse circle.

So again, you can make that as interesting as you want.

And there you go.

Using your sketchbook or the worksheet, it's your turn now.

Fill a space with algorithm two.

It should be a repeat of a curved line then a quick loop.

Think carefully as you need to fill the space, but don't go outside the rectangle.

Pause the video now to complete this.

Sketchbook activity number three.

This algorithm is still a continuous line, so again, your pencils shouldn't come off the paper.

It's going to be a kind of wiggly line and then a square.

And another wiggly line and a square.

And you keep doing that until you fill up the rectangle similar to the one that you can see in front of you now.

The next one is going to be a square first, and then it's going to be a kind of a wavy line.

And again, be loose with your work.

Don't feel you have to be too strict, and if you make a mistake, that's all right.

Just try and keep going.

You can see these are all continuous lines.

It's your turn now.

Use your sketchbook or the worksheet and fill a space with the third algorithm.

It should be a repeat of wiggly line and then a quick square.

Again, fill the space, don't go outside the rectangle.

Pause the video when you're ready.

Algorithm number four.

This is a continuous line again.

A bold line that gets lighter, and then there's a messy bit at the end, then a bold line.

Again, gently change your pressure so that it gets lighter and then do a messy bit at the end.

So you can see my example if you're not sure what that means.

Hopefully, that helps.

This time you're going to vary your pressure on the pencil, so you're going to press hard, and then you're going to get softer, and then it gets kind of messy.

and then it gets kind of messy.

So hard, softer, messy.

Hard.

It's a little bit more controlled this one, funnily enough.

To vary your.

So you can see it's straight lines for the most part.

Hard to light with the squiggle at the end.

Now it's your turn.

Use your sketchbook or the worksheet to fill a space with algorithm number four.

It should be a repeat of bold line that gets lighter and then a messy bit.

Fill the space, don't go outside the rectangle.

Pause this video when you're ready.

Okay, fifth algorithm now.

This is a continuous line, two loops and a long line, then two loops and a long line, then two loops and a long line.

So you can see my example on the page in front of you.

This is the fifth one where you're following my direction, so of course, try to have it similar.

Not the same to the one you can see on the screen.

The next one is going to be two loops and a line.

So we're going to go loop-d-loop, line.

Loop-d-loop, line.

And again, it's up to you how long you continue it, but bear in mind, you are trying to fill the space like so.

It's your turn.

Use your sketchbook or the worksheet to fill a space with algorithm number five.

Two loops and a long line.

Don't go outside the red rectangle and fill the space.

Pause the video to complete the task.

Now, number six is up to you.

So the picture in front of you, you can see it's the one from the previous one.

So again, yours is going to be very different.

Is it going to be a continuous line? Will it use a shape? Straight, wiggly, or curved lines? You need to have in your head a clear function, an algorithm that you are going to follow.

Straight line and a zigzag.

Straight line and a curly wurly.

It's up to you, okay.

So think about what that will be now, and in a moment, here we go.

It's your turn now.

You do your algorithm now, repeat it, remember? Fill the space.

I would do a continuous line as well.

Don't make it too complicated and try and fill the rectangle.

Well done.

Okay, we're coming up the the end of the lesson now.

What type of art piece is this? That's right, it's algorithmic art.

It's using an algorithm to create art.

Could you create more algorithm art pieces? And this is really a bit of an extension part now.

You could obviously go further and play around with this.

It's a great way to spend time doodling and thinking of all sorts of interesting ones.

All of our examples are all algorithms, but of course, an algorithm that's used a continuous line.

They don't have to be a continuous line.

They could even be a very specific shape.

Maybe they don't even have a line in it.

Maybe it's a shape, next to a shape, next to a shape.

Square then circle.

Square then circle.

And then you fill a space and see what looks like.

But again, this is still algorithmic art.

It's setting a rule that you strictly follow.

Now again, it's only the starting point as we experiment with algorithms. Now, which of your six is the best and why? And this is important, and you might want to write this down next to your work, 'cause you're going to have to choose one of them for next lesson.

So write down which one you think is the most successful, and describe what makes it an interesting art piece.

Those keywords again.

Let's go through them.

Keywords, algorithm is a set of rules that must be followed.

Again, the easiest example is a recipe, but of course, there are technological versions of that, and there are art versions of that, which is what we've done today.

Abstract art is art that is non-representational, so the shapes and lines that we've done today following those algorithms, they are abstract pieces of art.

Experimentation is when you are trying to find out what works well and what does not.

And you've done lots of experiments there.

You've done six experiments.

As a minimum, you may have even done more, but of course, you need to choose one of them to develop, and that's the tricky bit now.

Thinking to yourself, which one are you going to use in the next lesson.

I'd love to see your examples.

I'm sure there's all sort of interesting ways that you could create something using an algorithm.

There's all sorts of different ways that you can develop things and play with things, so of course, have a bit of fun, see what you come up with, and share it with us so we can see it.