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Hello, and welcome to another DT lesson with me, Mr. Telfer.

Now, in today's lesson we're going to explore where our fibres comes from.

You know, cloth probably that we're wearing and we also got a nice practical to end the lesson with.

I really hope you look forward to it.

Okay? So I'll see you in the lesson.

In today's lesson what you are going to need is exercise book, something to write with, you need a bit of creativity as well so you may want some colours.

Towards the end in the practical, you'll need a low tack MACjet® or an old T-shirt, vest, anything like that, and you'll need a good pair of scissors.

Preferably what do they call the material scissors? No fabrics scissors preferably fabric scissors, but if you haven't got those good pair of scissors and you very well may need adult supervision, maybe.

So in today's lesson what we're going to explore like I said, which fibres make exactly which fabrics.

we're going to have a quick look at how fibres are woven or knitted and we're going to do the practical at the end we are going to use the parts.

Today's key word that you need to know natural fibres.

We're going to talk a lot about natural fibres and that's where things naturally come from such as wool.

Synthetic fibres, which are man-made fibres and it's called polymerization or if there's a new web feed today polymerisation.

Fibres are long thin strands of threads under that flexible structure.

You'll understand it in the moment.

Woven as well.

So woven is the technique used to make fabric that are like in denim jeans, their name is woven.

Non-woven are fibres that are fused together, so they're either compressed together or glued together or heated and melted in together.

So that's what non-woven is.

And knitted material is another technique to make fabrics soft.

So this T-shirt and probably what you're wearing as well is a knitted T-shirt even though you don't think it's knitted.

'cause in your head what knitted means is but we'll talk about that in a moment.

So let's start today's lesson with a quick true or false question.

Animal fibres are made from proteins, true or false? The best science for that biology.



It's true.

So animal fibres, because they're natural fibres they have more to consistent them.

Biological sources and protein, you know particular proteins are found in animal heads.

So with that in mind, we're going to look at some natural fibre sources now where our materials come from.

So first we're going to start looking at wool.

Now wool, where in your head you obviously know you're going to get it from sheep.

Now there's a bit of an argument about wool why do you think that is? well you've got some people who think that wool is not good because they have to shave the animal You know the shave each year, and take the fleece from the sheep.

And they believe that it puts the sheep under some distress or upsets and you know animal cruelty.

But on the plus side, we have got some sheep.

There are some breeds of sheep that naturally shed their fleece.

So they got their fleece in winter to keep them warm, shed it.

And then they got their fleece in summer to actually keep them cool, and shed it.

so we can naturally collect, you know moulted pieces.

So not all sheep have to be shaved.

Some are actually grown and bred for their fleece in particular.

Though there's a little bit of background knowledge for you anyway.

But other than just sheep, what other animals do you think can give us wool? Pause the video now.

Write down some ideas, we'll have a discussion and then I'll check you back when you're ready? See you in a moment.

So welcome back.

See I've done a quick wardrobe change.

What did you write down? Did anybody say llamas or alpacas? Now did anyone say camel? I don't know if that's true or not.

Someone's told me camel, I don't know.

Something you can go research, but we definitely get wool from angora rabbits.

You ever heard of those? Yeah those little bunny rabbits we can get wool from them.

People used to think we get cotton through their tail and there was one rabbit called cotton tail.

No, we get wool from rabbits.

What else? Bisons, Oxis, you know the big get wool from those things.

Goats, so we've got different types of goats that you can get different wools from.

You've heard of cashmere for example, Cashmere is a goat.

Oh, another one to look at.

If you know them little things called chinchillas.

Yeah, we can get wool from a chinchilla as well.

I didn't know that until recently.

I used to like chinchillas, but nevermind.

Anyway, moving on wool products.

So that's why I've done my little wardrobe change.

You'll see that this scarf here is lamb's wool.

It's light, it's beautiful, it's warm, stretchy.

It goes back to its normal shape, no complaints about that.

And then I got my wool cap on as well.

Now I'm not sure what kind of animal I got this from.

You know, again, it fits, it stretches, it goes back to its normal shape.

Keeps me warm, absorbs the moisture away from a scalp.

See the sweat there? but it absorbs it, beautiful.

Now this jumper, this isn't wool.

Game changer.

So yeah, this is actually in acrylic jumper and that's something we're going to talk about later on in today's lesson.


But you see, it can blend with my wool It kind of looks woolish but it's not.

Didn't know that, did ya? Okay.

So bear that in mind.

We're going to need to know this information.

We have a task that's coming up.

So now we're going to take a quick dive looking at silk.

Which is a natural protein fibre and it can be woven into a textiles sheet of material.

Now you may have known this or you may not have known but that ugly creature right there is a silkworm.

And that is where silk comes from.


I'd like you to think about is if you can recall from our previous lessons, when we've looked at the properties of silk, can you recall any of them now? So pause the video quickly, give yourself a minute write down some properties of silk that you remember and then pause the video and we'll carry on.

So, one thing you could have said about silk is that it's got a low density which makes it light and comfortable when used in clothing.

You could say that it is one of the strongest natural fibres.

You know, it's got a nice shiny shimmery surface to it, but it's actually not slippy.

It looks slippy but it's not.

The insulation properties as well with silk, you know it keeps you cool in the warm weather and in the cold weather it can keep you cool.

So the only one bad thing, well there's probably more one bad thing about silk is that when you pull it, it's ruined.

You know, if you pull it, it holds that shape.

It doesn't bounce back.

Now bearing those things in mind.

My next question for you is what items do you think can be made from silk? Keeping those properties in mind okay.

Pause the video, give yourself a minute write down some answers and we'll come back and check.

So another wardrobe change.

I don't own many silk items unfortunately.

I do own this tie, which is pure silk.

And you can see it's quite shiny.

It's very smooth and it's light.

It's beautiful.

It's comfortable.

So you can have still ties silk scarves, headscarves and neck scarves that are made out of silk.

Think about wedding dresses or ball dresses and gowns that are quite, long, and beautiful, and flowy, and drapey.

That's because that's how silk is structured, quite elegant.

It looks nice.

Could have pyjamas, sleepwear that is light, keeps you cool bedsheets as well.

And you may not know this.

You may know.

You may not know They use silk in parachutes as well.

Didn't know that? So there's some new knowledge for you as well.

We're going to just look at one more natural source of where we get fibres from and then we're going to move on to our task.

So let's do this.

So the last natural fibre we're going to look at now is linen.

And that comes from the flax plant.

Beautiful flower.

Now linen out of all the plant-based fabrics it is an expensive one.

It's actually the most expensive one, but the reason being because not only is it hard to produce but it's hard to grow it, and harvest it and treat it how it's supposed to be treated in comparison to other materials.

Now linen you might see in the shop, it's expensive but it has good properties and some real good qualities as well.

So let's look at some of these great qualities and properties.

Now, first of all if you've ever worn linen you will know is comfortable.

Oh my God, I've got linen shirts I love them , definitely comfortable definitely cosy and most natural fibres tend to be very comfortable in all honesty.

It's hypoallergenic.

So the natural flax of the material is hypoallergenic.

What that means is when you're wearing it or sleeping or laying on it, the chances that you're going to have an allergic reaction are really slim, not impossible but really slim.

It's a great thermo-regulated material as well.

So just like silk and wool, when you're cold or in the cold weather it can keep you warm.

And when you're in the warm weather it actually draws away the heat.

So for example, my linen shirts I'd wear on the beach , linen shorts is a win.

It's also a very durable material.

It's a strong material allegedly the second strongest after silk.

This T-shirt here, which is a hundred percent acrylic Linen is 80 percent stronger than this.

so now what we're going to do, take this information and I'm going to put it into your next task.

So what I want you to do now is create a visual mood board is a natural fibres.

Okay? So natural animal fibres using fashion.

So we've looked at some animals.

We discussed them already.

What I want you to do is just take your page, create a font for your title, select the images of the natural animal where the fibre comes from, show some images of its use and write a simple explanation about what you've done why you've done it and what you've learned from this.

Okay, I'm going to show you an example on the next page.

This is your example.

So where we said sketch a creative title put something nice and pretty in the middle select the images of the natural fibres.

So I've shown you the natural plant.

If we were to do a rabbit or a camel, you put those pictures over there.

I selected images showing the potential uses of the fibre.

So I've shown you it being used in clothes and a rogue and shirts, et cetera.

And then I wrote a simple explanation about what I've done.

So I've looked at the materials, I've looked at where it's come from and I've done this.

So I understand X, Y, and Z, right? So that's your example.

So pause the video now, and complete the task.

So welcome back.

I really hope you enjoy that task.

And I look forward to seeing what you've done or completed.

Now we're going to move on and look at synthetic fibre sources or artificial fibres.

So I'm going to start with a quick true or false first question.

Synthetic fibres, such as this here can be made from coal.

Is that true or false shout out your answers now.

Yeah, that's right.

If it's a true that is.

So it is true.

Synthetic fibre can be made from coal and crude oil which we know are fossil fuels, which aren't great for the environment.

So it all ties in.

So what we're going to do is just look at three materials.

We're just going to go over the properties of them.

I'd like you to pause the video when we're going through it and make sure you're writing these down because you will need them for your next task.

So acrylic like this here we've said that it can resemble wool.

So remember when I said earlier I was wearing wool items. A little luxurious.

It can be dyed on or it can be printed on as well, which is a bonus.

And it's resistant to shrinking.

So I can put this in the wash and nothing happens to it unlike when I put my wool in the wash.

Now elastane, I have no elastane items, sorry but elastane has a good resistance to tearing.

It can stretch nice and easily and go back to its shape.

And it's very durable, which means it's very, that's right.

If you said it didn't go and look it up.

And polyester, we've all got some polyester items. I promise you.

It's a really strong fibre it's resistant to stretching, it doesn't shrink.

You can put it in the wash.

You can rub it against loads of different things.

And it just probably has good strong material.

That will be low polyester.

So pause the video now, write down these items mentioned items, information and then when you come back, we'll do the next task.

So welcome back.


It's time for our tasks.

So you should have wrote down all these properties and characteristics of these fibres.

Now we've got six products.

What I'd like to do is match these products to the properties or quantities of those synthetic materials.

One of them have already gave you the answer for basically.

So pause the video give yourself a few minutes to complete this task and we'll check back in a moment with the answers.

Welcome back.

So you may have said acrylic for the teddy bear and acrylic for the jumper, because like you said they both have wool looking tendencies that can be dyed and take colour very well.

So there's acrylic.

Now elastane, you know we said that it's good stretch and it doesn't tear and it comes back to his regular shape.

So thinking about yoga pants or gym wear or my boxers or your boxers.

Elastane stretchy combat elastic.

So last but not least polyester, you said is great.

We've done a rough abrasion.

We've got the ropes and we've got our artificial grass because we want up and down with slide tackling.

It shouldn't be, but you might be slightly or think about the roof's been hoisted off and rubbing against the metal, they're still got to stay strong.

So these are some synthetic fibres.

If you got them right, well done.

If you need to make any corrections, let's do that now and then we'll move on.

So now we've looked at different fibres.

We're going to do a short exercise to understand how fibres are then woven and turned into a sheet of fabric.

It's a short exercise and then we'll be moving on to our practical.

So there are three stages to making fabrics.

And I've put them in order for you already.

We've spinning, weaving, and finching.

What I'd like to do is figure out which explanation matches which stage and put the blank word in the right space.

Pause the video now, give it a go.

And when you come back, we'll check your answers.

So welcome back.

So your answers should look something like this.

So in the spinning stage is where fibres are spun into yarns.

That makes sense, spinning then spun.

The weaving and the knitting, this is where the yarn instead comes the fabric.

So that's where we turn it into the sheets of material.

And when it's finished the fabric is then made into something useful such as a T-shirt or nice stuff, so those are the stages of making fabric.

So now we're going to move on to a practical please make sure you have adult supervision and adult permission before you take part.

So for the final part of this lesson what we're going to do is look at patterns.

This is where our practical comes in.

Now, when I'm saying patterns I don't mean like a leopard print or stripes and stars, I don't mean anything like that.

What we mean is the template that they use in the industry that they put on the garments to draw around to make the items that we're going to wear.

Here is a template or my pattern of the product that we are going to make and our practical.

So, unfortunately, I couldn't get you a proper pattern from my mum who actually makes wedding dresses.

And I could have shown you all the symbols and things that are used but I couldn't.

So unfortunately you got to make deal with my pattern here.

Now patterns in textiles is just like our orthographic drawings in engineering or in product design.

They have markings that are recognised by everyone.

So they got universal markings that indicate where buttons would go or where the stitching will go where you'd have to shorten apart.

Symbols that if you looked at it, it will look like alien language and to someone in the industry makes perfect sense.

Now, as you can see my pattern here, it has a title.

So it's a no-sew so face mask and it's got its measurements on it.

So 107 to 1.

5 mil by 178 mil.

So, and I've told you where the nose is going to be and where we cut and fold.

So a pattern gives you basic instructions and sizes of what it is that you're going to be making.

So quick question, why do you think we actually need to use patterns in the industry? Oh yeah, that's right.

'Cause we need accuracy.

So we use our templates or our patterns to make sure we're crossing things out accurately.

We can assemble them and we can check the form of them before we actually made the product.


And it's part of the quality assurance process.

Now patterns tend to be made out of paper, but you can make them out of card or you can even make them out of a thicker card that is corrugated card if you wanted to.

So now I'm going to show you a quick practical of how I use my pattern and I'm a create a mask.

Once I do that I get my T-shirt, I'm going to fold it in half, like so.

And then on the fold, I'm going to put my template and I'm gong to draw around my pattern.

Next you're going to start cutting around your pattern, let your scissors onto your garment.

This is when a good pair of fabric scissors will come in handy and make sure you put out air your hole as well.

So then once you've done all of that you should have two pieces of material to give out that look like so.

You're going to pop them on, and you're going to twist it and put it on our ears.

And then you have your own face mask.

Now, once you get to this stage there's one or two things you can do.

you can either that glue underneath, seal it so you can put a filter in the top.

That's totally optional.

But one thing you have to do is go away and decorate it, personalise it, create your own mask.

I'm going to put some pictures up now to show you step by step of how easy this is.

You can find a template or pattern online for 'no-sow mask'.

So what I'd like to do next is find some more material or an old vest or T-shirt, some sort.

Look online see if you can find a mask pattern that you can copy.

Remember try and get the right size for yourself.

Follow my instructions and then share your finished mask.

Get an adult to share your finished mask on Twitter.

Hashtagging #LearnWithOak.

You can now follow my easier pictorial step-by-step guide.

So pause the video now complete each component, continue when you're ready.

So now you have the option to use a fabric glue and seal the bottom of your mask, so you can put a filter in through the top.

I chose not to do it, but feel free.

But what you all have to go away and do now is create a design to put onto your mask to make it personal for yourself.

It could be a pattern.

It could be a name, you could go and dye it using natural dye, who knows.

So what I like to do now pull the video, go home pick your design wreck.

When you've got a finished product, you can come back to me.

Welcome to the end of another fantastic lesson.

We've made our own personalised business, you know D T T D T.

So I hope you enjoyed today's lesson as much as I did.

I'd love to see your work that you produced shared online.

Remember, you must get a responsible adult to be the one you know, your parent or your carer.

They must be the ones to share that online.

So the go to the Twitter nationals and the hashtag is learning with Oak LW.

I'll be there to look at your work I'd like to see who's really done the master.

I'd like to see which ones are the most creative.

I'll see you next lesson.