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Hello, everybody.

Welcome to our third lesson on materials in this unit.

So, so far we've looked at raw materials.

We've looked at synthetic materials, and today we're going to look at how synthetic materials are made from raw materials.

So what is that change that raw materials go through in order to create a synthetic material? Well, let's find out.

In today's lesson, you are going to need three things.

A pencil and a pen, a ruler and a notebook.

And as ever, I always have my trusty steed, Lenny the Lion here, my favourite Teddy who sits by my screen and helps me my learning.

So if you'd like to go and get those things, pause the video and get them now.


So let's have a quick recap, just like we did at the beginning of a last lesson.

Materials are what? What are materials? Can you tell your screen once you've had a think? What is a material? It's a substance that has a name.

Well done.

Good job.

So we've looked at raw materials and synthetic materials, but let's see what we're going to be doing today.

First of all, we'll do our star words.

Then we'll look at objects that are made of glass.

We'll then look at how synthetic materials are made.

Then we'll look at how glass is made from sand, and then I've got a task for you.


My favourite part of the lesson, are you ready? Star words, star words, star words.

Well done.

The first star word is raw.

Your turn.


Your Turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.

Good job, you know that one well now.


Your turn.

And malleable.

Your turn.

Well done.

Can you tell your screen, what does durable mean again? What does durable mean? Well done.

It means it doesn't get damaged easily and it doesn't break easily, so it tends to last for a long time.

Well done.

So let's have a think.

What object do you know that are made of glass? I showed you one in last lesson, which was a glass bottle that I have.

Can you name any other things? Have a look around your room.

What can you see that's made of glass? Pause the video and see if you can name five things.

Okay, pause it if you've not got to five yet.

I can see a bulb on my lamp.

That's made of glass.

I can see where's it gone? My phone and the front of my phone is made of glass.

And I can see a vase that's made of glass.

I can see my watch.

The front of my watch is made of glass, the face.

I think that's five, have I said windows? Also, my oven is the front of that has made of glass.

Lots of things that's made of glass, but glass is not a natural material.

It's not raw.

You can't find it in the ground.

So you have to make it.

Therefore glass is a what material? Can you tell your screen? Well, done.

Glass is a synthetic material.

I wonder what object can you see on the screen? Can you pause the video and see if you can name them all? Well done.

Pause the video if you need more time.

On the screen, I've shown you some stain glass windows inside a cathedral or church, some glass bottles, some windows inside a car, a window inside a house, and then also some coloured glass in a window as well.

So glass is very, very useful and we have it across lots of objects that we have day to day.

But how on earth does it get from a raw material into glass? What is that process? Let's have a look.

When we want to turn a raw material into a synthetic material, there are three things that we can do.

How many things are there? Three things, well done.

The first way that you can turn a raw material into a synthetic material is by adding heat.

You can heat it up really, really hot.

And then it will turn into a synthetic material through that process.

I wonder, can you remember any materials that I said need heat in order to turn into a synthetic material? Last lesson, there was one that I said that you'd heat it up and you'd put it in a really hot oven.

Do you remember? We'll come back to that in this lesson.

So the second way is you can mix it and you tend to mix it with other chemicals.

The third way is you can react it.

And this is where you add very specific chemicals in order to make it react.

So, although I say chemicals are mixing, you sometimes mix it with chemicals, but not always, but reacting always tends to be with chemicals so that it becomes a synthetic material.

So heating, mixing, and reacting are ways that you can turn a raw material into a synthetic material.

Your turn.

What's the first way? You can add heat.

Well done.

What's the next way? You could add? You can mix it, well done.

So you don't add anything.

And what's the third way? You can react it well done.

You make it react with chemicals.

Good job.

Now that we've remembered those, let's have a think about how glass is made from sand.

So our raw material in this case is sand.

And sand can be converted into a synthetic material through a process.

Like I said, you can't find glass.

It doesn't occur naturally.

We have to make it.

And we'd start with sand.

We mix sand with other materials and then it's heated to a very high temperature.

The temperature is so hot that it becomes a liquid.

This liquid can then be pushed and knocked into whatever shape is needed.

When the liquid cools down, it becomes a solid glass object that stays in the required shape.

You will have made glass at that point.

So for instance, those bottles have come from sand that's been heated into a liquid.

That liquid has been moulded as it cools into a bottle shape.

Then when it cools completely, it's a glass bottle.

So that's how we have all of these glass objects.

So windows and bottles and all of the other glass objects that you find in your house have all been made from which raw material, where did all those objects start off as? They mainly started off as sand.

Isn't that amazing team? I've got to task for you.

What I'd like you to do is I'd like you to write out the steps from turning sand into glass or turning a raw material into a synthetic material.

What was the first thing that happened? We took sand and we mixed it with other raw materials.

That was our first step.

Can you remember the second step? What do we have to add to it? What did we add to our sand mixture? We added heat, well done.

When that sand and that mixture got really, really hot it turns into a what? Can you tell your screen? A liquid, well done.

Once that liquid is starting to cool, what can happen or what can we do? Does that give you a clue? Can you tell your screen? Well done.

It can be knocked into shape, there it will cool and it will become a glass object.

So your task team is to write out the steps.

So using your pen and your notebook, I'd like you to write out the first step.

I've done the first sentence to help you.

First sand is mixed with what did we say? Here's a clue.

What type of materials? Can you tell your screen or write it down? Well done.

With other materials.

What I'd now like you to do is write up the other three steps.

So you should have four steps for turning glass, sorry, turning sand into glass.

If you need a reminder, you can go back to the slide that has the pictures on it to help you.

Pause the video and write out all of the steps that you can remember now.

Okay, pause the video if you need more time, because I'm going to give you the answers.

So I wrote first sand is mixed with other materials.

Next heat is added until the sand reaches a very high temperature.

This heat melts the sand into a liquid.

This can gradually be knocked into shape as it cools down and becomes a solid.

Give yourself a tick, if you've got them right.

It doesn't need to be exactly word for word like mine is, but you need to have the key points in there.

If you didn't write that down, then that's okay.

If you said it to your screen and you've got all four steps correct you can give yourself a yes, because you've been working really hard.

So well done team.

The next task I have for you, I'm going to show you on the screen.

I'd like you to have a think about what glass is used for and then decide which properties makes this useful.

So for instance, windows, I'm going to look out my window right now.

And luckily those windows don't let any water in.

Luckily they stay in their shape and I can also see through it.

So those are some good things about making windows out of glass.

Okay, on the next screen, I'm going to show you a list of properties that you'll want to use in order to fill in this table.

So before we do that, I'd like to pause the video and draw out the table into your notebook now.

Or you can download the worksheet.

Okay, pause if you need more time, because I'm going to go onto properties.

So let's read them out together.

Are you ready? Remember we always go along the line and then onto the next row.

Okay? So let's read them together.

Hard, strong, flexible, soft, malleable, shiny, durable, transparent.


Let's read those again.

This time, I'm going to do my turn, your turn with the actions.

Are you ready? So my turn, hard.

Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.


Your turn.

And transparent.

Your turn.

What does transparent mean again, team? Can you tell your screen? Well done.

It means you can see through it.

So my bottle here, it's made of plastic, but it's mainly transparent because I can see through it.

And that's the same with my window, I can see outside.

So now what I'd like you to do is choose the properties that best suit the object that's made of glass.

I've done the first one for you to show you the windows have the properties of being transparent, durable, and hard.

What I'd now like you to do is fill in the rest of the table, using the properties that best match the object.

Pause the video now on the table, or I'm going to go onto the property list so that you can use that to help you.

There you go.

Pause the video and complete the table now.


If you need more time as ever, you know what to do, you need to pause the video because I'm going to give you the answers, my favourite moment, are you ready? There we go.

So glasses to drink from are durable, hard and strong.

That makes them really useful.

If I had a glass that wasn't strong and wasn't very durable, then it would break really easily.

And that would not be very useful.

I want to be able to use a glass to drink from over and over again.

Decorations and jewellery are shiny, transparent, hard, and durable.

I hope you got all four of those.

Now, I also know that sometimes they're not transparent.

You need to double check that they're made of glass.

For instance, I have a pendant on my necklace, but this blue is not made of glass and it's not transparent.

So if you're talking about jewellery that's glass, you need to double check what is really made of, and then glasses to help people see better.

They can be malleable, transparent, strong, and hard.

So with glasses, they need to be knocked into shape so that they suit the person's face shape, or they also fit inside the frame.

And that's really important when making glasses.

Okay, well done.

I'm going to give you an awesome cheer because you filled in that table really, really well, using your knowledge of properties of glass.

So well done.

Just before I give you your think question.

I want you to just recap, what are the three ways that you could turn a raw material into a synthetic material.

With glass today, from sand, we said that you could do what, what was the first thing? You could add heat? Well done.

What was the second way? You could mix.

And what was the third way? You could react.

Well done.

So those were three ways to turn a raw material into a synthetic material.

Good job team.

And finally, I've got you a think question just to see what you think would happen.

So have a look.

Why do you think glass was first invented? What do you think? Ooh, that's a good question.

Why do you think glass was first invented? Hmm.

I wonder.

I want you to do what I asked you to do last week, which is firstly, have a think yourself? What do you think? Why was glass first invented? Was there someone who needed something transparent, strong, hard, and durable.

Then once you've had to think about what you think, I'd like you to ask somebody who, you know, maybe that's at school and your friend or your teacher, maybe that's at home.

Maybe it's your brother or sister, or maybe it's your adult at home.

Have a really good think about that.

And I've been really impressed with your learning today.

All about turning raw materials into synthetic materials.

So well done everyone.

And I'll see you feel fourth lesson on materials.

Well done everyone.