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Lesson video

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Oh, hi Mr. Wnuk and today's lesson we're going to be looking at speed.

Let's do this.

If you're unsure about doing any of the activities in this lesson, make sure you have a trusted adult nearby when you start them.

The session should take place in a space indoors such as your living room.

Ensure there is space for you to work safely including overhead.

Use bare feet not socks.

Make sure the floor is not slippery.

Wear comfortable clothing, put your hair up if needed and remove any jewellery.

Pause the video now if there's anything you need to get ready.

It's time for us to do our warm-up now.

As you've already done a few warm-ups with me before in previous lessons, you should know what to do.

I'd like you to do your pulse raiser and your stretching and mobility exercises.

And then join me for stage three which will be the skill related practise.

Hopefully you've now completed your warm-up.

You've done stage one, which is called what? The pulse raiser, excellent.

Stage two, which was the mobility exercises and now we're to stage three which you've joined me now for.

So for stage three, I've just put two markers out, one there and one there.

And all I'm going to do is you're going to, 'cause we're doing speed work today, I'm going to be just running through as quick as I can.

We're just going to do straight forward run throughs first.

I'm going to face this way and when I'm ready, I'm going to sprint through you.

And you stop, turn around and go the other way.

Now do a couple of those as part of your stage three of the warm-up, which is your skill related practise.

Before we carry on now, I wanted to ask you and talk to you about why warm-ups reduce the risk of injuries.

Well, firstly, it increases the flexibility of your muscles, your tendons and your ligaments.

So we know what muscles are, they're the soft tissues that contract to create movement.

Now tendons, they are what join your muscles to your bones.

And then you have ligaments which hold your joints together and they join bone to bone.

So what is the answer to this question? It's a true or false question.

And here we go, so tendons join bone to bone, is it true or is it false? It's false, well done.

Muscles so are joined by tendons to bone.

Ligaments join bone to bone.

So what's the testing going to look like then? Well, we've already completed the warm-up.

We're going to then move into our first activity which is speed, going in a forwards direction.

We're going to then do some experimenting and see how quickly we can move.

We're going to design a interval training programme or an interval training programme focusing on speed.

And then we're going to finish off with an exit quiz.

So, let's look at some key words from today's lesson.

The first is muscles.

Now muscles are soft tissues that pull on bones to create movement.

Now that movement happens at joints and they can only move cause the muscles contracting and that's shortening, which means it's pulling on the bone at the joint, which creates movement.

Another key word is joint.

Well, just mentioned it.

But joint is where two or more bones meet.

And this is the only place where movement can occur in the skeleton.

And that's how we move because of joints.

You got many joints around your body.

The picture there is showing you the shoulder joint.

So quickly have a look at this question.

Which of these are not a benefit of a warm-up? So we've done our warm-up.

We've talked about warm-ups plenty of times before, which of these are not a warm-up benefit? Is it option one, increased muscle flexibility? Is it option two, increased ligament flexibility? Is it option three, increased skin flexibility or option four increased tendon flexibility? So which is not a benefit of a warm-up? I'm hoping you said option three and if you did fantastic.

Yes, it isn't and your about increased skin flexibility but all the other options increase muscle flexibility, ligament flexibility and tendon flexibility, all come from our warm-ups.

So we're going to look at our skills now which is our speed sessions.

The first keyword we're going to be focusing on in this section is interval training.

Now, I've mentioned it briefly before but it involves periods of intense work with breaks in the sessions to allow for recovery.

So you may be running, you have a rest and then you run again.

Our lesson's going to focus on these elements of speed and speed training.

Speed training involves in many sports, invasion games, net games, gymnastics, athletics, individual activities.

There's a load of activities that rely on speed.

So the movements we're going to look at, forward based movements with high knees, fast feet, arm pumping and leg gaits.

And then we're going to follow up with our speed experiment looking at our starting technique, different positions we can start from.

Another of the key words that you would have heard me saying a fair bit already is speed.

And this is the amount of time it takes to perform a particular action, or cover a particular distance.

Then you may see this as this equation or this diagram, which basically is speed is distance divided by time or speed is distance over time.

And it is often represented like that diagram in books.

We're going to start our interval training now, working on speed.

We're going to be working in straight line direction speed.

You're going to need something like a ball of socks to put down as markers.

If you're doing this outside, making sure you've got appropriate footer on such as trainers.

If you're doing this inside, bare feet in case you slip on a carpet.

Make sure the area around you're going to be working is clear, you're not going to slip or trip on anything and hurt yourself.

So the first exercise we're going to do is just high knee pumping.

So we're going to start at that end and I'm going to drive my arms and legs as hard as I can, pumping my knees up, nice and fast.

We do this five times, no, you're going to do this five times.

So from here, high knees.

So knees up.

Okay, so as you saw me do it, I didn't rush through it.

I took my time, but I was driving my hands and arms up and my knees up very quickly.

I'll show you one more time.

This time I'm going to go for side on.

So, high knees.

I want you to do five sets of them and then have a rest.

And while you're resting, try to think about this answer, this question, what is the correct definition of speed? Is it distance times time? Is it distance divided by time? Is it speed times time or is it force times distance? Think about that.

Practise your five repetitions, have a rest and then you can tell me the answer.

So pause this video, practise and then come back to me with the answer.

Excellent, so before I sent you off the task to doing the practise, I asked you that question, which is the right definition of speed? Was it distance times time? Was it distance divided by time? Was it speed times time or is it force times distance? Well, what's the answer? Distance divided by time.

Excellent, so how long it takes you to get from point a to point B? That's speed.

Great work.

This next drill we're going to be doing is called fast feet.

And the idea is to get from point a to point B slowly but moving your feet as fast as possible.

So we're not going to be travelling quickly along here but we're going to be moving off it really rapidly.

So watch this.

Start at one cone.

We're going to be really moving our feet fast.

So, fast feet.


So you see how I did it quite slowly moving, travelling but my feet were really moving very rapidly.

I'll show you from the side of.

So your task is to do five repetitions of this, moving from point A to point B fast feet as possible.

Once you've finished, pause the video we're having a rest at that point.

You've had your rest, done your five repetitions.

And I'm going to ask you, well explain to you the benefits of interval training.

Now interval training is where you work and you have a block of rest and you work again.

So one of the benefits is it allows recovery.

So your muscles, you can get oxygen back into the muscles, really, You can recover from the exercise and gain more energy.

So the next block of exercise, your ready to go full power again or full effort again.

It obviously improves your health and fitness 'cause any training is going to improve your health and fitness.

And it's a flexible training method.

You can train in different ways.

So you can use like I'm doing now, you can do longer intervals, you can do shorter intervals.

It doesn't matter, but we can adapt it to what the sport is.

And then finally, you can train in different commands of fitness.

So now we're working speed but you could work on power.

You could be working on strength.

The idea is to rest, allow recovery to happen and then you go again with your energy levels back up.

The next drill we're going to be working up is working on our arm action.

And our arm action is to pump your arms but really try and drive them up to gain momentum and speed.

So when we move your arms backwards and forwards, alternatively.

Try and keep your arm in a right angle.

It's all about pumping your arms. So we're going to do the same running, but at this time I'm going to really be focus on pumping my arms. Just have a watch.

To the point A, driving my arms. I'm going to my fast feet this time.

Got to pump your my arms up, elbows up, arms up.

So it's really just focusing on my arms there.

The same knee, same feet action.

But driving my arms, watch from the side.

What you can notice is that my arms and feet are working alternatively.

So that's my right arm, leg comes up, my left arm comes up, my right arm goes back and so on and so forth.

So we've just done, we're all working on interval training.

So we went through five sets of those arm pumping sprints and then take a break.

So pause the video, do that and then come back to me.

So you've come back, quick question, true or false question.

Interval training is where you might do a block of five high knees, followed by a rest, then another block of five high knees, followed by a rest.

Is that true or is that false? Yes, it's true.

Well done, brilliant work guys.

The rest is an important part for interval training.

The next exercise we're going to look at is gait and try and improve our gait.

Now gait is how we walk, how we move our feet.

And we're going to look at gait length.

So I'm going to try and cover this distance here, with the minimum amount of steps possible.

I can't get in two.

You can make it longer or shorter and see if we can challenge ourselves.

I'm starting here.


Nearly get the camera, right? So I can make it longer if I wanted to, I can take some steps in over in two steps.

So to make it harder you can make the distance longer and challenge yourself.

See how fewer steps you can take.

Have a go, five repetitions of increasing your gait, pause the video while you're practising it, then come back to me.

So let's assume you've done that.

How are we going to improve our speed? Well, firstly, we can work on our arm action.

So having a correct arm pumping it's going to improve our speed.

Remember we'd alternate arms and leg action.

Then we looked to our knee lifts.

So driving your knees up and high will increase your speed.

The fast feet action, the turnover your feet, the quicker you can move your feet, the faster you're going to be.

And then finally the length of strides.

When you look at Usain Bolt, he can travel, you have massive distance when he runs and he takes very few steps over the hard course of a 100 metres.

Part of the reason why he was so fast.

True or false question coming to you now.

If you're running your arms and legs need to be going at the same arm and same leg at the same time.

Is that true or false? It's false, you're right.

Alternate arm and alternate legs.

So when you pump your arm, the opposite leg comes up.

Pump your arm, opposite leg comes up.

So well done guys.

I'll see you in a few minutes.

Well, I hope you enjoyed that practical.

One of the words or muscles that I've mentioned today is the gastrocnemius.

These are the muscles that found in the back of your lower leg, often your calf, we call it the calf muscle, but it's actually called the gastrocnemius.

It's a big word, but it's a scientific word and do we need to start using it? Another the key word is gait.

Now we've looked at this in our forward movement gait.

It means, it's a way of moving on your feet involving support and propulsion.

Which basically means when you're walking or running how long is your stride? And we talk about your gait length.

Or if you weren't using that terminology, gait is how long you walk or how you walk.

So a quick question for you.

What is the name of the muscle on the back of the lower part of your leg? Is it your hamstring or is it your gastrocnemius? Well, if you said gastrocnemius, you are correct, well done.

Another key word for you is gluteals, more muscles.

These are the muscles of the buttocks.

Yes, that's right.

Your bottom.

These are the largest muscle is called your gluteus maximus.

Yes, it means big gluteals.

It's basically one of the biggest muscles in your body.

Which of these statements explains the gluteus maximus muscle? Have a quick read of them on the screen.

Is it option one, the muscle found at the back of the lower leg? Is it option two, the muscle found at the front of the lower leg? Option three, the muscles found at the rear of the body, the top of the leg or four, the muscle found at the front of the upper leg? Take your time and have a good read of this one.

So what's the answer? It's option three.

Your bottom is found at the top of the rear of your leg.

We're going to get into experiment.

So you're going to need to grab your timing device which would probably be your mobile phone.

So we're going to get into this experiment now.

The equipment you're going to need as I've mentioned already is something you can time yourself with.

And ideally something that you can put on the floor and touch like a pillow or a t-shirt, or a pair of socks or a trainer.

Now for this experiment, you're going to place the item on the floor and then take a step back about two metres back from it.

You're then going to time how quickly you can get to that object.

How quickly you can touch that object? And there are a few conditions.

So I want you to do it from lying on your back, lying on your front, from sitting, standing up straight, from leaning forwards and from a sprint start.

If you've got someone around who can give you a hand by getting you to start saying on your marks, get set, go.

And if they can time you that'll be great.

But if you haven't, you can this by yourself.

That's not a problem.

So let's have a quick watch about and look.

So first feet, place your item on the floor and then take a step back about two metres.

So for the first condition, you're going to lie on your back.

And then your assistant is going to say marks, set go and you're going to jump to your feet and touch the pillow.

Excellent, now pause the video and have a try that yourself.

The next condition is lying on your tummy, face down.

Jump to your feet, touch the pillow.

Now, pause the video and have a go yourself.

The next one I'm showing you is standing up straight, I'm not showing you from sitting, but I'm sure you know how to do it from sitting.

So you stand up straight.

I've got two lines, a line on the floor with my socks and then I go, touch the pillow and come back.

Pause it, have a go yourself? Now, the next one is going to be leaning forwards.

One opposite arm, opposite foot and it's a slight sprint to the start.

Pause the video, have a go yourself, the leaning forwards.

The final one we're going to do is a sprinter's stance, which I will show you how to do the technique properly next video, but try it anyhow.

And let's see what times you got.

So if you haven't managed to try all those conditions, have a go now and try on each of those and keep a note with your scores.

And next, I'm going to show you how to do the sprinters start.

So I'm going to talk you through how to do a sprinters start now and you need a line.

So I've just made a line with two cones.

You can just lay your socks out if you want to make a line.

And what you're going to do is you're going to start on that line two feet together.

Then you're going to make an L-shape with one foot.

So you're going to put one foot facing forwards, I'm going to point my other foot facing that way.

So I've made an L-shape and make another step backwards.

And create the L there, that makes it one that's facing this way, other foot, now still facing forwards but touching the back foot, so it's there.

So I'm going to put my weight on this leg, my left leg.

I'm going to make a fist and put my fist on my back heel and then drop my knee next to my fist.

So that's our starting position.

Then I'm going to put my hands on the floor, I put my knee on the floor.

I'm on my fingertips.

So my fingers, not my palms, my fingers.

My knees just tucked inside my arm and I'm just going to look down the floor in front of me.

Then I'm going to push my bottom in the air.

When I hear set, and then I'm going to go, bang, go.

I'm going to show you from side of these, keep them aside of.

So at the start you said, take your marks.

So two feet together, one foots facing forwards, another foots facing sideways.

So a right angle.

Then I'm going to take another step back here, toe to heel.

And I get my fist, roll it up, put it by my heel and my knee goes down to the ground.

So we're going to take our marks, put my fingers down, not my palms, my fingers.

My knees just tucked in my own there, you see.

So let's take your marks, when they say set, just going to straighten my leg up like that.

When the gun goes by, bang, go, and step forwards and power through.

So you're going to have to play back that a few times to perfect that, but have a go.

Keep practising till you get it perfectly right.

How'd you find that experiment? I hope you managed to challenge yourself and overcome some challenges that you set yourself, and kept yourself motivated, just self motivation is a great thing to have.

So what are the factors that affected your starting speed in that experiment? Well, it could have been the height of your starting position, whether your starting low or whether we were higher, which was faster.

The angle of your starting position.

It depends how far forward you lean, if you're too upright that can also slow you down.

So you need to be at the right angle.

The directions of the force that's being applied.

Now the force comes from your muscles pushing your feet into the ground.

So what was the direction you were pushing? The amount of force that was being applied, obviously, the stronger your muscles the more force you can apply that can increase your speed.

And your reaction time.

So how could respond to a stimulus, for example? So our key word is force, this is the action that alters the motion of a body.

Now, there are many forces that you've probably heard about in your science lessons, such as the gravity.

But the force that we're talking about is a muscular force and the ability of our muscles to push our body, to move our body.

If we didn't push, if our muscles didn't contract, we would just stay still.

So we have to alter the motion of our body by pushing it our muscles on, using our muscles, sorry, to push ourselves off the ground.

I also mentioned reaction time and this is the time it takes to respond to a stimulus.

So in the a 100 metre sprint starting this is generally the gun that goes off, and the time it takes to process that gun and then start the movement, it's called the reaction time.

So we're now going to look at training for speed via interval training.

So a quick question for you, is this true or false? Interval training involves completing repetitive sets of work with no rest? Is it true or is it false? The answer is false and I'm sure you got that one right.

But if you didn't, just remember that interval training involves completing sets of work with periods of rest in between them.

So what is speed? I'm going to pause the video, whilst you write down the answer using this sentence starter.

Speed is.

Hopefully you managed to get speed is the amount of time it takes the performer to perform a particular action or cover a particular distance.

That was a mouthful.

Speed equals distance divided by time.

So if you put that equation as a bonus, marks to you, well done.

So which of these statements demonstrates interval training? Is it option one, continuous running that has a few or no rest periods? Is option two, high knees times five, fast feet times five? Is option three, high knees times five, rest, fast feet times five, with a rest? Or option four, combinations of running, stretching and skipping? Which option do you think it is? I'm sure you got that one right? Option three, yes, there is a rest in between each of those two activity.

Well done, you.

So when we're building a speed interval training session, it might look something like this.

So my example here is eight sets of high knees with a two-minute rest, five sets of fast feet with a two minute rest, and then eight sets of arm pump runs and then finally, two minutes rest.

So there's plenty of rest periods breaking up your training period.

That rest allows you to replenish your energy stores, just to get back into the next activity.

So what I'm going to ask you to do now is to pause the video and complete this task.

Where you're going to design your own interval training session.

Your training session needs to be focused on improving speed and use some of the exercises that we have learned today to help you get started.

The first activity could be eight shutter runs, followed by a rest remember.

So pause the video now, have a go at planning your interval session and then complete it.

It's time for our cool-down.

Time to cool-down.

So what are the stages of a cool-down, there's two of them.

What's the first one, can we remember? That's right, pulse lower.

And in this case, the pulse lower, just you could be walking around, walking back and forward up and down your circuit.

You could be walking around your living room if you're doing this inside.

And then we follow it up with some stretches.

So while we're stretching, I'm going to ask you a quick question.

So I'm going to do, as I do my legs I'm going to work on my leg stretches.

So I pick my foot up, knees together, push my hips forward.

This is awkward, so we're stretching now.

So while we're doing this, we want to think about why we should cool down.

Well it's firstly, you're going to slowly reduce your heart rate.

And your heart rate if you just stop and your heart rates still beating quite fast, you're going to get quite light headed 'cause the blood's not getting pushed around your body.

Change legs from here.

It's going to help you reduce your levels of lactic acid and lactic acid builds up in your muscles.

'Cause when we have too much carbon dioxide in our blood and that can be a painful cramping feeling.

And as I mentioned earlier it can reduce the risk of fainting.

I'm just going to work on a gastrocnemius stretch.

One foot in front of the other, both heels down.

Both feet facing forward so just lean into our stretch, so you can feel at the back of your leg.

Change legs.

Now you can carry on doing some stretches, but I have a quick question.

So why should we cool-down? Is it one, to increase your heart rate? Two, to reduce your flexibility? Three, to return to pre-exercise state and four to have a rest? Which is the reason why we do a cool-down? And if you said it's to return to pre exercise state, then you're right.

We try to return our body through a cool-down to our normal resting levels, our normal states.

So as we finish the lesson, lets return to our original question, what is speed and how do we train it? Well, speed is the time it takes to cover a particular distance.

So it is distance divided by time or distance over time.

And we've looked at ways we can improve it and how we can train it.

So, speed is affected, for example, by our force that we can generate in our muscles and the direction we apply that force.

And we looked at how can train it.

So we looked at interval training.

Now, remember, interval training involves having rest periods and that rest allows you to replenish those energy stores, so you can take the next block of training on, with your full amount or near to your full amount of energy as possible.

So, well done for today's lesson.

I hope you improved your speed and overcome some challenges while you've been doing so.

And I will see you in the next lesson.