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Hello and welcome to lesson five of six of the inquiry: Why did Kings struggle to rule England? Today's lesson is about Sir Edward I and the title is, "How did Edward I restore royal power?" For today's lesson you're going to need a pen, pencil, some paper and a quiet room so you can work hard in and not be disturbed.

In a second, if you need to, I'd like you to pause the video and go and find that place.

Also, can you please write down the title before we start.

Excellent! Let's get on with today's lesson.

The final few-- If you haven't quite got the title down, if you need to, pause the video now.

Last time of calling.

Right, let's get on with the lesson.

As usual, let's do a quick outline of what the lesson's going to look like.

We're going to start off with a recap.

Like normal, this recap is going to be multiple choice questions.

Remember, there might be more than one answer for each question.

Then we're going to look at Edward I.

How did he rule with Parliament? And what happened between Edward and Wales and Scotland? And finally, did Edward struggle to rule England? Now, it's important that we look at this because Edward might be slightly different to John and Henry.

Right, let's get on with the lesson.

Your first multiple choice recap question.

I know you're going to get it right.

Who created Parliament? So you've got four names there.

Just write down the one you think it is or point at the screen or shout it out.

Five, four, three, two, one.

I can hear you from here shouting out the answer.

It is of course, Simon de Montfort.

Well done for getting that right.

Two, John used these people to help him rule England? Again, think of the answer.

Five, four, three, two, one.

Did you get it right? I now you did! Now, let's be careful of this.

Cause John did rule with English barons at times.

He also turned to his foreign favourites a lot of the time.

So he didn't always rule with these two groups, but at different times they both helped him rule.

I know you made sure that you got that right.

And I also know you didn't need me to explain that.

Final question.

Which group was not part of the new Parliament? This is a 'not' question.


There may be one or more, might not be more though, who were not part of this group? So think very carefully.

Don't get tricked.

Five, four, three, two.

Oh, you've already got the answer now! One, oh, of course you know the answer, it is peasants.

Well done.

So let's look at the lesson then.

I've given you a lovely mediaeval source here, but I want you to think, what can you see in the picture? But I also want you to think about what you've studied on the previous couple of lessons.

So think about Henry's reign.

Think about the changes that happened during Henry's reign.

What do you think is going on in this picture? Is Edward, who's in the middle sat on the throne, is he ruling England properly? Does it look like he's ruling England properly? So, why don't you have a think.

I'm going to give you some hints.

What can you see that might help you? We've got King Edward.

He's sat on the throne in the middle of the picture.

To his left and right are the King of Scotland and the Prince of Wales.

At the edge of each of them, to the far end of the bench, you can see that there's the Church and indeed there's also his Queen.

You also have sat down on that amazingly chequered floor, I mean, who wouldn't want that floor? You have ordinary people.

They might be, let's say townsmen, knights.

You've got bishops on the left hand side of the picture and at the bottom and barons on the right hand side.

So what do you think you can see in this picture? What's going on? And is this showing that Edward was ruling England properly? So pause the video now for a couple of minutes and write down and think, what this picture shows.

Well done! Let's see if we can put this into some form of sentence and paragraph now.

Again, it's the same usual sentence starters.

"In this picture I can see.

." And you're going to write down, think of the arrows I've given you to give you hints.

"This means that Edward was "ruling England properly because.

." So thinking about that bit of evidence, why does that show Edward was ruling England properly? So can you please pause the video now for a couple of minutes to complete those sentences, if you wish to use them.

Brilliant! I know you've done this really, really well.

Here's what I've put.

Now, quickly remember you may not have used exactly the same things as I have.

You may not have written it in the same way as I have.

That doesn't matter.

Cause I know you will have worked really hard at it.

So this is what I put: In this picture I can see ordinary people meeting with the King of England.

This means that Edward was ruling properly because this image is showing a Parliament.

This meant that Edward was ruling with the support of the Parliament and the people.

So I picked out the ordinary people.

I could have mentioned the barons or the knights or the bishops that you can see in the picture.

You may also have talked about royal power, the fact that the King of Scotland and the Prince of Wales are both at this Parliament.

So they are both loyal to Edward.

Well done for the hard work you put in to answering that question.

So we've just established that Edward ruled with Parliament.

Here is Edward and his Parliament.

Same image as the previous slide.

But what did Parliament do? How did Edward use Parliament to gain support for his rule? What does Parliament do today? I can't quite remember, it begins with 'L.

' They pass these things, four letters.

Oh, I can hear you shouting it out! They pass laws.

This is what Edward got them to do.

He got them to pass laws, but not just any laws.

When you do your reading, you're going to see a word called 'statutes.

' S-T-A-T-U-T-E-S.

Statutes are the most important laws that Parliaments passes.

They are vital for the running of the country.

Edward made sure that Parliament passed these statutes.

And then he could turn around and say that the people of England, the ordinary people because their Parliament, had agreed to them.

Edward got Parliament to pass taxes so he could raise money for the wars that he fought.

Again, he did this to show that he's getting the support of the ordinary people in order to get the money.

He is not trying to force the people of England to pay for wars and not get anything in return.

However, Edward did have other ways of raising money.

One way was by using the Jewish community in England.

In another topic for year seven history, you're going to look at English towns and you're going to look at the role that Jews of England played in English towns.

Well, Edward used the Jews and he taxed them.

He didn't need Parliament's permission for this cause he offered the Jews protection.

And so he taxed them.

And he eventually taxed them to such an extent that they ran out of money.

When they ran out of money, Edward went after the only thing that they had left, which was their possessions, like their houses.

So Edward, unfortunately expelled removed, told the Jewish community of England to leave so that he could take all of their possessions to pay for wars.

This was not a particularly good moment in English history, but generally Edward used Parliament to make sure that he had enough money to do what he wished to do.

And what he wished to do was mostly fight wars.

One area that Edward was very keen on was Wales.

Now our lesson is about restoring royal power.

Wales had a prince, and that prince would swear loyalty to the King of England.

Well, they didn't always, and Henry, Edward's father, had allowed the Prince of Wales to become more powerful.

So they decided that they didn't need to anymore.

Well, Edward was not going to stand for this.

Edward decided that after asking the Prince of Wales on many occasions, to show him the loyalty that he deserved that he'd had enough.

So he invaded Wales.

And on the map, you can see where the invasions happened with the blue arrows.

To make sure that Wales stayed conquered and that the English, once the Prince of Wales had been defeated, could rule Wales properly, Edward built a series of castles and they are beautiful castles.

The Welsh didn't like them.

The English did 'cause they protected them.

But one thing that Edward did do was that he promised the Welsh people that he would give the title, 'Prince of Wales' to somebody that couldn't speak English.

But he was cheeky! He had an infant son.

The child couldn't speak yet, he was only a baby.

And he gave the title 'Prince of Wales' to his son.

The title 'Prince of Wales' has stayed with the eldest son of the English King or Queen since Edward's time.

Even today, Prince Charles, who is the oldest son of our Queen, is called Prince of Wales.

So Edward showed that he was not going to allow people to be disrespectful to him.

They had to show him the loyalty that he deserved.

If they weren't, then he was willing to use force and the army to make sure that they did show the correct loyalty.

So Wales was a clear example of Edward being a brilliant fighter, managing to defeat his enemies, but also showing that he was somebody that demanded and expected loyalty.

And if he didn't get it, there were going to be punishments.

Let's have a look at Scotland.

Before we do that let's do a little recap.

So we did this last lesson.

There are five sentences here.

Again, I've starred out the vowels or I've given you starting letters.

I'm going to ask you to pause the video, copy out the sentences and fill in the answers.

I know you're going to get five out of five and all of your answers are going to be spelled correctly.

So here we go.

Pause the video, and it's going to take you about three, four minutes to do this.

So pause it now.

Well done! You have done amazingly well! I know you've got five out of five, but let's go through the answers.

Edward ruled England with the support of Parliament.

Remember Parliament is a tricky word to spell that people often get wrong.

It's P-A-R-L, then it's the 'I' I know you've remembered the 'I.

' A-M-E-N-T, Parl-E-I-Ment.

Statement two, Parliament.

Remember it's the L-I-A in the middle, was made up of barons, bishops, oh, I know you got this.

Two knights from each shire and two townsmen from each town.

Edward got Parliament to pass statutes.

Remember I said, this is really, really important word.


And what were statutes? Shout it out at the screen! Oh, I can hear you! They're the most important laws that Parliament can pass.

And taxation, T-A-X-A-T-I-O-N.

Edward attacked Wales because the Prince of Wales failed to show Edward loyalty, L-O-Y-A-L-T-Y, loyalty.

Once Edward ruled Wales he built, oh, I love these.

Castles, C-A-S-T-L-E-S.

And gave his son the title 'Prince of Wales.

' Well done on getting all the spellings correct and getting five out of five on that.

I jumped the gun earlier, but let's now look at Scotland.

It has some similarities.

So somethings are the same as Wales.

Here we go.

Scotland was an independent country.

It was separate from England, it had its own King.

Now, if we look back at the earlier slides, we saw the King of Scotland with Edward in the English Parliament.

So the King of Scotland was meant to show loyalty to the King of England.

Well, that didn't quite happen.

The King of Scotland made an alliance, that is a friendship, with the King of France.

Now, hopefully we should remember from John and Henry, that the King of England was not always friends with the King of France, often England and France were at war.

So now, if Scotland had an alliance with France, if England attacked France, then Scotland in theory should help France by attacking England.

That's not showing loyalty to the King of England, is it? So Edward decided that was it.

And as usual, if loyalty wasn't shown there was a punishment.

Edward invaded Scotland.

And on the image you can see on your screen, you have the King of Scotland, King John Balliol in front of Edward, kneeling.

This is John asking for forgiveness from Edward.

Unfortunately, Edward was not in the mood to give forgiveness.

So Edward tried to rule Scotland himself, unlike in Wales, where he built lots and lots of castles, in Scotland, he didn't have the support of the local barons or the people.

So he faced lots of resistance and indeed Edward died whilst he was on route to try and invade Scotland yet again, to put down the resistance that he was facing.

So Scotland was one of those cases that Edward, on occasions was very successful.

He attacked them.

He defeated them.

He took over Scotland and tried to rule it, but he didn't completely finish the job.

And Scottish resistance continued after his death until Scotland finally became an independent country.

Let's look at whether Edward did actually rule England properly.

There's Edward.

He ruled with Parliament.

So he ruled within the laws that he had watched his father be forded to make.

And he always sought and wanted Parliaments acceptance and approval for taxation and to pass laws.

This meant that Edward was well supported in England.

He was incredibly popular.

He was fantastic at war.

He defeated the Welsh.

He defeated the French.

He defeated the Scots.

Not fully defeated the Scots, but he still defeated them.

But he did, because of all the wars and the castle making, he needed money.

So actually taxation was quite high in England.

So that was starting to cause a problem for him.

So on the whole, Edward did not struggle to rule England, but there were elements, so parts of his reign, that meant that he may have struggled at times, but nowhere near the same extent as his father or grandfather.

So here's our glossary.

Statutes, I know you spelled this correctly earlier.

So acts of law passed by Parliament.

Consent, when someone is allowed to do something.

Expelled, when someone is removed from an area.

Homage, I've given you a really fancy word now for homage, the service where someone promises to be loyal to another person.

You saw part of the homage with John to Edward, except for Edward decided that he wasn't going to accept it.

Alliance, when one country agrees to be friends with another.

They will often help each other out if one is attacked.

Let's just quickly reflect on which two countries had an alliance, 'S' and 'F'.

And it was against England.

Oh what was it, what was it? What was it? Oh, well done! Scotland and France had an alliance against England.

Well done.

So let's go on with our comprehension questions.

What did Edward use Parliament to pass? How did Edward try to raise money without Parliament? What caused Edward to attack Wales? What caused Edward to attack Scotland? Why was Edward successful in ruling England? Now, I know you're going to get all of those right.

If you wish to use the sentence starter for question five, then please do so.

So let's have a go at the extension question once you've done all of those, but before you try the extension we're going to plan it, cause it's always good to plan your answers.

Especially when you're going to write more than one paragraph.

Please pause the video now, read the slides on the next page and answer your comprehension questions.

Thank you.

Oh, well done! You must have worked really, really hard.

Let's have a look at the answers, but before please remember, I know you've worked incredibly hard on your answers.

They do not have to be the same as what I have written.

So, I know you've tried really, really hard.

So let's have a go.

What did Edward use Parliament to pass? An acceptable answer would just be: Laws.

But again, I'm going to remind you a good answer is going to use key words from the question and be in full sentences.

So good answer for this is: Edward used Parliament to pass statutes.

Remember that's a key word.

It was in the glossary.

We spoke about earlier in the presentation.

And taxes.

Statutes are the most important acts to be passed by Parliament.

Edward also his Parliament to pass taxes.

This showed he was ruling with their consent.

Well done, I know you got that right and I know you did a good answer.

How did Edward try to raise money without Parliament? An acceptable answer would be: Taxing Jewish people.

Well, let's expand upon that.

Edward made Jewish people pay money to him.

This meant that he could use Jewish people instead of getting Parliament to increase taxes.

Unfortunately, Edward made the Jewish people run out of money, so he expelled them.

Again, using a key word.

From England and took their property as payment.

Question three.

What caused Edward to attack Wales? An acceptable one would be: Loyalty.

But let's go into a bit more detail than that.

Edward attacked Wales to make sure that the Prince of Wales was loyal to him.

Llewelyn had refused to pay homage to Edward.

So I'm using a key word, 'homage.

' Homage means loyalty.

It's where you promise to be loyal.

This was a disgrace, so Edward had to force Llewellyn to obey him.

However, after promising to be loyal, Llewelyn's brother attacked the English.

How dare he! This forced England to attack Wales again.

Cause that's not showing loyalty is it? Edward ruled Wales after this because he couldn't trust them anymore and gave his son the title 'Prince of Wales.

' What caused Edward to attack Scotland? Again, simple 'Loyalty.

' Edward chose the new King of Scotland after the previous one died.

Edward asked the new King to promise loyalty to him.

This promise was broken.

So Edward decided to punish the King of Scotland.

He did this by attacking Scotland and stripping, so taking off the King of Scotland, of his title.

Edward then ruled Scotland himself, but faced opposition.

So I've gone into a bit more detail.

Why was Edward successful in ruling England? So an acceptable answer would be: He ruled with Parliament.

He was successful at war.

He defeated the Welsh.

He defeated and ruled Scotland.

So you've got some ideas on how to answer the question, but that's not a good answer.

A good answer is going to have some detail and then it's going to explain.

This is what I've put: Edward was successful in ruling England because.

I've used my sentence starter that I gave you earlier.

He had the support of Parliament.

He used Parliament, which was made up of many different groups of English society, to pass important laws and set taxation.

You may well have turned around and said, who made up Parliament.

The barons, the bishops, the knights, the townsmen.

That's perfectly acceptable and well done for remembering that.

So I've given a bit of detail, but now I need to give some explanation.

This meant that more people had a say in how England was run.

There's also.

So, I'm now developing my explanation.

Also meant that there would be less opposition to Edward's rule because more people had agreed to the new laws or taxation.

This was completely different to John or Henry.

So now I'm comparing Edward to his father and grandfather.

They tried to rule England alone or with foreign favourites.

So you've got a brief comparison between Edward and John and Henry.

That way you can really bring out why King Edward was so successful.

Now I know you did really well on those questions.

You've got a five out of five.

And I definitely am sure that you did good solid answers.

And well done for all the effort.

But let's have a go at this extension question.

So here it is again: Why was Edward a more successful king than his father or grandfather? So I've given you the sentence starters and I've given you the key words.

We're going to look at this in virtually the same way as we have done for four out of the five lessons.

So here we go.

Think about it.

Why or how can we measure a king's success? So just pause the video for about 30 seconds and think about that.

Oh, well done.

I know you've remembered the three categories that we used to see whether John and Henry were successful.

Or why they struggled to rule England.

So here we go.

Reason 1- War.

And I've given you: Edward conquered Wales.

That makes him successful.

Reason 2- Barons.

Edward ruled with their support.

Reason 3- Church.

Edward did not argue with the Church.

Well, perhaps John and Henry did.

Perhaps Edward did more than the others to show that he was more successful.

So what I'd like you to do is in a moment, pause the video for a couple of minutes, whilst you then bullet point down some more reasons for each box.

Pause the video now.

Reminder, you may not have got all of the things that I've got down, but add to your list, if you haven't and if you've got more, well done! So for 'war' I've added that Edward conquered Scotland.

So Edward was a more successful king than his father or grandfather because he conquered Wales.

He almost conquered Scotland.

He defeated them in the battles.

That's a lot more than his father or grandfather did.

Who either lost land or couldn't regain the lost land.

The 'barons.

' If you think John and Henry ruled generally without the support of the barons, which is why they faced such anger.

And then they ultimately faced rebellion.

While Edward ruled with their support.

He ruled with Parliament.

And he made sure that all important laws passed were with Parliament's approval.

So he was again, more successful in making sure that he had the support of the barons and the people.

Finally, the Church.

Edward again, was more successful to a certain extent.

He did not argue with the Church.

He was loved by the Church because he went on crusades, much like Richard had done.

Remember we mentioned Richard, all the way back in the first lesson as an example of a great King.

And he stayed out of Church matters.

He didn't try to appoint anybody or give them jobs in the Church, which is what John had done.

So Edward to a large extent was a more successful king than his father or grandfather.

What I'd like you to do then, is to have a go at answering this question.

I'd like you to pause the video in a moment.

If you wish to, you can use the sentence starters.

Try to include the key words in your answer.

So pause the video now.

Brilliant! I am so impressed with how hard you've worked today.

But as a reminder, if you wish to share your work can you please ask your parents, guardian or carer to do so and they can do it on any of these lovely social media sites.

Really well done! And we've only got one more lesson left of this inquiry.

So we look forward to seeing you for that lesson.

Well done!.