Lesson video

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Hello, welcome back.

I'm Ms. Richards and this is our second lesson of this non-fiction grammar unit.

So today we are going to be thinking about the introduction to a piece of non-fiction writing.

Let's get going straight away, I can't wait.

As always, before we can begin, you're going to need a pen and paper to write on.

If you were organised and you've got those ready now, fantastic, if you need to, just pop off and grab those.

It can be really helpful as well, if you're somewhere nice and quiet away from any distractions and turn notifications off on your devices as well.

When you're ready, press play and we'll begin.

Let's have a look at today's lesson then.

We're going to start by recapping from Lesson One, Purpose, Audience, and Form.

Then we're going to think about a grammar element of how we use personal pronouns.

That might be familiar to you, it might not be.

Then we're going to focus on that introduction.

How do you write an introduction to a non-fiction piece of writing? You're going to have a go at writing your own introduction and as always, you're going to finish with your quiz.

Now, quite a lot to get through, so let's get going.

Let's see what you remember then from Lesson One, Purpose, Audience, and Form.

Let's have a quick recap.

Our purpose is why we're writing and we said, although there are lots of different purposes, the ones we're going to focus on for these lessons are argue, persuade and inform because they're really common purposes.

Our audience is who we're writing to.

Now, even when we're thinking about school creative pieces, we know our teacher or an examiner when we get to GCSE, is going to be reading those pieces.

That's not the audience we're thinking about.

We're thinking about the imagined or intended audience.

So, at the moment, in our school pieces they're imagined audiences, they're hypothetical audiences, but at some point, you might write a nonfiction piece for a job or some charity work, or some fundraising that you're doing or at school, you might have to write a nonfiction piece to deliver an assembly or to do some fundraising, talk to parents if your prefect, and then you'll have a real audience.

So our audience is not the teacher or the examiner, in these hypothetical tasks, but it's the intended audience whether they're real or imagined from the scenario that we're looking at.

And that's going to be our readers or us listeners of our audience.

And the form is what type of writing it is, and again, there are lots of different types of non-fiction.

You know, we talked last lesson about there being cereal packets and things like that as well, all nonfiction, but we're going to look at speeches, letters, articles, and textbooks.

There are most common ones that you will see day-to-day.

A task for you now then just to check that you really remember that from last lesson.

There are three different scenarios here.

I'd like you to pause the video and identify the purpose, audience, and form.

Press play when you've gotten them all written down and we will go through them together to check.

How did you find it then? Let's look at number one.

Our purpose is asking them to donate, so that's going to be a persuasive piece.

Our audience is parents because that's who the letter is going to be read by and then the form is a letter.

Give yourself ticks if you've got that correct and just make those changes if you need to edit anything.

For number two, this was our celebrity fitness trainer writing an article for a fitness magazine because they're arguing that gym membership should be free, should have been nice and clear that this purpose was to argue.

Now our audience is people reading that fitness magazine, so those who have gone out to buy it, they're going to be people who are really interested in fitness.

You have to use a little bit of inference skills there, but the form is an article.

Give yourself a tick if you've got those things.

And number three, our musician who's giving a speech after winning an award, so the purpose of that is to inform.

Our musician is thanking everyone who's helped them, so they're informing the audience how they feel.

Our audience is going to be everyone who's helped them.

Now you might have said, like, that the audience was celebrities or you might've said it was producers.

That's absolutely fine.

It's who would be a sensible audience for a musician? And the form is a speech.

Give yourself ticks if you've got that correct.

Well done, I hope you're finding that nice and easy, but why, why are we focusing on it? Well, purpose, audience, and form change some of the writing choices we use.

If we know what purpose is, and we know who we're writing to or who we're speaking to and why we're creating that piece, then we can think about the words and the phrases, the language choices we make to influence that.

Let's look at what I mean a bit more closely.

Let's say I'm writing to argue, here's my example.

I know you think all students should wear a non-uniform, but you must consider the families who'd find it difficult to buy lots of different, fashionable outfits.

So this is an argument about whether students should wear school uniform or not.

The language choices here, because the purpose is to argue, there's, "I know you think", there's an acknowledgement of what the opposing side is thinking.

This word, "but" suggests that we're going to suggest a counter, we're going to argue against them with an opposite point of view, and "you must consider it." We're encouraging that person to really listen to our side and our point of view.

That's all language that we'd use in argumentative writing as well as then giving lots of great reasons.

What about if I want to persuade? What's the difference between argument and persuasion? They're really tricky actually and there's not that much difference between them.

I would say that arguing, you're really thinking about somebody else's point of view that is the opposite to yours, and you're telling them that they've got to change their mind.

You're being really commanded.

You've using lots and lots of imperatives and it's that they must think the same as you.

When you're persuading, you still understand that someone else might think differently, or maybe they've never thought about the topic at all, but persuading is tempting them.

It's giving them all the reasons why they should, but it's letting them make up their mind.

Arguing as much more forceful.

You're really, really acknowledging that somebody else has a different opinion, but it's wrong and you want them to have your opinion.

Persuading is much more about letting them be tempted and coming around to your way of thinking.

So let's think about our persuasive language then.

Here's my example, if we do not get more volunteers at the charity run, then we will have to cancel it.

How is this persuasive then? Well, saying it's really easy to help is suggesting, so it's persuading them that they could join in and support, that they could become a volunteer.

"All we need from you," we're making this really easy.

We're saying we need something from you, but, "All we need," so it's going to be a small amount.

And then, "Could you help us out?" Look at that personalization of you and help us, so it's really tempting them to come on side, but it's letting them make that choice and then giving them some reasons why they should because they're going to feel great about it and they're going to have helped a really worthwhile charity.

And then our last purpose is to inform or to teach and again, the language for that is really, really different.

Let me just jump out of the way there, because otherwise my face is going to be covering this.

Did you know that in Iceland there is only one breed of horse? No, well, let me tell you more.

So the, "Did you know" and "Let me tell you more" suggests that your audience is going to be taught something right now.

And then you get lots and lots of information here that's all factual, so this is teaching or informing, giving people information about the Icelandic horse.

So our language changes based on the purpose of what we're trying to say.

You're going to have a go at some examples now, see if you can think about what the purpose of them is.

If I said, in a piece of nonfiction, you must consider how you feel.

Am I arguing, persuading, or informing? You must reconsider.

Pause the video, make your decision, press play when you're ready This is arguing, it's saying, "You must reconsider." It's not giving the other person a choice.

Let's have a think about this example then.

It's worth reflecting on how you would feel if.

If I was going to use a phrase like that, am I arguing, persuading, or informing? Pause the video, have a think, press play when you're ready.

This one's persuasive.

You want somebody to reflect on how they would feel in the scenario, in the hope that they change their mind.

You're trying to tempt them to reflect and change.

Hopefully this one's nice and easy.

Let me tell you the solution to all your problems. Arguing, persuading or informing, what do you think? If you said informing.

you are absolutely correct because it's, "Let me tell you," so the person speaking or writing is going to tell the audience the solutions, teaching them something.

What about this one then? Just think how many benefits you will feel when you switch.

I said that this one's persuasive because it's saying about the different benefits and it's tempting them to switch over, but you might have said argue because it's got that instruction there of "when you switch".

It's suggesting that they're going to.

I think I'd allow a tick for either of those.

I think it's just slightly more persuasive because of the idea of benefits is persuading them to change.

It's not an argument where you're just telling them that they have to, you're giving them the reasons why they should.

Whilst I understand your thoughts, I feel you are not considering.

Does this argue, persuade, or inform? Did you say argue? Well done if you did because you're saying that you get that they've got a different opinion to you, but you feel they need to think about the opposite side.

So it's an argument because you're suggesting opposites.

Fantastic, well done.

So now that we've thought about a purpose for writing and we know a writing is going to change, we want to look at some different grammatical things that we can use in nonfiction writing to change our writing, to be more persuasive, to be more argumentative and to make sure our writing is really technically correct as well.

We're going to start with personal pronouns.

This might be a phrase and a technique that you're really familiar with, that you've done with your teacher or it might be something new.

Let's find out.

Pronouns are words that can be used instead of a noun in a sentence so that you don't repeat yourself.

And when we're talking about personal pronouns, we mean he, she, they, it, our, us, I, you, so these can replace the noun in our sentence so that we don't end up repeating the noun all the time.

Here's a rule for us then.

If we refer to a noun in two consecutive sentences, then we use the pronoun in the second sentence.

That is a rule.

If our noun is in two consecutive, that means one after the other sentences, then we'll use the pronoun in the second sentence.

If my sentence is Jess and Patrikas went to the shop.

Jeff and Patrikas bought a drink.

Well, I'm repeating Jess and Patrikas, so in my second sentence, I would change the pronoun to they.

Nice and easy, that might be something you already knew, that rule or something that maybe you didn't know the rule, but you already did it automatically.

Well done, here's another one then.

The puppy barked at the postman.

The puppy's bark was really loud.

Because I'm repeating the puppy twice, I change it in that second sentence to it.

We don't know the gender of the puppy, so it becomes it.

But this is a nonfiction unit, so what does that mean in terms of non-fiction? Well, that's a really long piece of writing here on climate change and when you look at it, climate change has been repeated three times.

Climate change is a major threat to our environment.

If we keep producing emissions, then climate change will increase.

The danger of climate change getting worse is that we will see a reduction in our animal populations, with many more species becoming extinct.

But that piece has repeated climate change three times.

So in nonfiction writing our topic, we can replace with pronouns as and where it's sensible to.

In this example, I'm only going to change it in that third repetition.

And that's because in our sentence, number one I've got the noun of climate change and the noun of environment, so if I said, "Climate change is a major threat to our environment.

If we can keep producing emissions then it will increase," that it would sound like it was the environment would increase which wouldn't make sense.

So I can keep the repetition in the second sentence because then that's being really clear and specific which noun it is but, because I got climate change in the second sentence, and that's the last noun that was mentioned, when I come to my third sentence, I can change that to it.

Here's another example then.

At Shakespeare Academy our students become well-rounded individuals.

Our students are inspired by culture and love music.

Our students love putting on concerts and performances.

It's a lot of repetition of our students then.

So I can change that to "They are inspired by culture and love music," and then go back to "Our students love putting on concerts and performances," so that I don't end up repeating they twice as well.

Our second rule when we're using personal pronouns in non-fiction, is that they can help include the audience and make it seem like everyone is equal.

If I go back to that example that we were just on about Shakespeare Academy, I can change our personal pronouns to we.

"At Shakespeare Academy, we become well rounded individuals.

We are inspired by culture and music.

We love putting on concerts and performances." By using we I'm including the audience as members of Shakespeare Academy.

Now, if this was being read by potential students, that would help make them already feel a part of the school.

In this one, I've got the village of Badwell and they're raising money for the local school.

They're going to have a fair and during this event, there'll be a cake sale on a tombola as well as lots of rides to entertain the whole family.

Well, I can add in some personal pronouns here to make this feel really inclusive.

Rather than the local school, I can change it to our.

That makes the person reading it feel like they have ownership over the school Rather than saying the village about Badwell and repeating that, say, "We are.

." That, again, makes the reader feel like they're already involved in it before they've even decided they're going.

And then rather than entertaining the whole family, If we say, "Entertain us all," then again, your reader feels like they're already part of it.

They're already going to enjoy themselves.

And it helps persuade them to go.

It makes them feel like the decision's already been made for them.

That's what it would read like.

"The village of Badwell is raising money for our local school.

We are going to have a fair.

During this event, there'll be a cake sale and a tombola as well as lots of rides to entertain us all." And then we could add a rhetorical question.

"Will you come with your family?" There's two personal pronouns in there, the "Will you" and "Your family".

So "you" and "your" are really directly addressing the reader and making them feel, or the listener, and making them feel that they're already a part of it.

They're being addressed directly.

So personal pronouns really help us talk to our audience.

I'd like you now have a little task, So you're going to pause the video and fill in the blanks with personal pronouns, so that's we, you, they, I, he, she, it.

Have a read of each of these sentences and fill in the personal pronouns.

Pause the video now, press play when you're ready.

How'd you get on? Let's look at the answers then.

As students, we want to raise money for the school prom, do you want to help us? Battersea cats' home needs donations.

We need blankets, food and toys for the animals.

Could you donate anything? Our community needs us to come together and protect the local woodland.

This weekend we want everyone to join in a litter pick.

Give yourself lots of tick if you got those and make any corrections that you need to.

Fantastic, well done there.

So, I said that we're going to be writing some nonfiction and we've looked at kind of things to include a nonfiction and how to think about our purpose, audience, form.

Now we need to start thinking about what we're actually going to be writing.

So we're going to start the introduction.

Our introduction is designed to introduce the topic, explain a point of view, address the audience so that they're really hooked from the beginning, and make an argument or a case.

You're explaining what you're there for or what the topic is.

Let's have a look at these three examples then.

Introduction one, "Hi, I want to talk to you about how to improve your test scores.

You should listen to me because I did well at my GCSE's." "Are you worried about your GCSEs exams? Today, I'd like to share with you some guidance and advice I found helpful when I took my exams. I'd like to think it could help you too, so listen carefully." Introduction three, "I did really well at my GCSE exams. I knew that I had to work really hard, so I made sure to make myself a schedule.

I found it useful to go for a run after school each day too and then revise," Which is our best introduction there? I would say introduction two is a really good introduction.

And let's look at why.

So introduction two, firstly, it introduces the topic with a rhetorical question, which is quite nice.

"Are you worried about your GCSE exams?" But also addressing the audience straight away too.

The point of view is really clearly explained, that they're going to share some guidance and advice that they found helpful, so they're speaking from a personal point of view.

"I'd like to think it could help you," is addressing the audience and then the argument or that case.

Now we don't have a full argument about why they should change their mind, but it is telling them to listen carefully because it could help them.

So their argument or their case for talking is that they're going to be helping.

It's a really good introduction.

It's nice and straightforward, really easy to understand.

It also doesn't share the entire contents of the speech or the article all in one go Now, I said, we're going to be writing introduction.

And I said, we're going to be looking at different types of non-fiction writing across this course of lessons.

What we're going to do is we're going to have one big task and each lesson we're going to learn how to add another element to it.

So our big task is going to be on this, but there should be more spaces and activities available for teenagers in their local community.

Write a speech for your local council in which you argue for more funding to create local community space for young people.

Pause the video now.

You're not going to write it.

Don't panic, but I'd like you to pause the video now and write that down so that you've got this task because we're going to be looking at this task every lesson and adding a new section to it.

Pause it now, get it written down, press play when you're ready.

Okay, I want us to just break this down.

So we've got that our purpose is to argue, that it's going to be to a local council.

That's going to be our audience and it's a speech, so it's going to be heard, it's going to be listened to.

You might find it useful now to highlight or annotate where you've written this down and just add the purpose, audience, and form.

Over the next few lessons, we're going to look at lots of different elements.

Now, these elements will combine to create a whole piece of writing, so we're going to start with the introduction in this lesson.

Your next lesson, lesson three, is going to be the supporting paragraph and how you argue in favour or for something, then you're going to learn how to do a counter paragraph to argue against something.

We're going to learn how to write a balanced paragraph where we consider both sides.

And finally, you're going to learn how to write a conclusion and call people to action.

Today though, we just want to worry about that introduction, how we introduce a topic.

So, I said to you that there were four elements and the first one was introducing it.

My example would be, today, I would like to raise with you the lack of community spaces available for young people.

I then need to explain my point of view.

I believe that more needs to be done to support the youth of our town.

I'm going to address my audience.

As our council representatives is your job to review the needs of every young person in this town, not just those over the voting age.

So I'm addressing them as council representatives.

I'm telling them what their job is and I'm reminding them as well about young people, people that I think they're not considering.

Lastly, I said a good introduction makes an argument or a case.

So my argument or my case is, I am here, therefore, to argue that you must step up to that responsibility by listening to and considering the needs of young people in our town.

When I put that altogether my introduction might sound like this, Today, I would like to raise with you the lack of community spaces available for young people.

I believe that more needs to be done to support the youth of our town.

As our council representatives, it's your job to review the need of every young person in this town, not just those over the voting age.

I am here, therefore, to argue that you must step up to that responsibility by listening to, and considering the needs of young people in our town.

This introduction does the four things that I told you that an introduction should do to be a really good opener.

You'll also notice I've used lots of personal pronouns.

I've used I, because it's my opinion, it's my speech.

You, to directly address my audience, as well as our, to suggest that there's a sense of ownership and that we're all in this together and remind them it's our town, it's not theirs.

It's not mine.

We're all in it together.

So personal pronouns have come into my introduction to be really persuasive and really address my audience.

Your turn then.

On our next slide, there's going to be some instructions before the task.

You're then going to pause the video and have a go.

Here's your task then.

You're going to write an introduction, so there should be more spaces and activities available for teenagers in their local community.

Remember, it's a speech to your local council.

You want to introduce the topic, explain your point of view, address the audience, and make an argument or a case.

We're only writing the introduction today.

You don't need to do this whole piece because each lesson is going to talk you through how to add a bit more.

If you're really confident and happy, pause the video now and get going.

If you're a little bit uncertain, just keep watching, I'm going to give you some sentence starters to help.

Here they are then.

To introduce your topic, you could start with, "Are you concerned about," then go back up to that statement and have a look, think about what your topic is.

To explain your point of view, you could say, "Today, I'd like to share," then you could say that, "It's important that you," Now, when we mean you, we're thinking about the audience, that's how we're going to address them and to make your argument okay, you want to go, "Therefore, please," So use those sentence starters now to write your introduction, to argue that there should be more space and activities available for teenagers in their local community.

Well done, you.

Look how much we've packed into that lesson.

I hope you're really proud of your introductions.

Check that it's done those four things and remember to keep it a really safe place because, in our next lesson, we're going to add the next section to this piece that we're going to layer up to build a full piece of extended writings, so keep hold of it, keep it safe.

Don't forget to do your quiz and I'll see you for Lesson Three.