Lesson video

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Hi, and welcome to lesson six of six of this topic on why do people move around the world.

Today we are going to look at the effect of migration on communities.

So for the lesson today, you'll need your notes from previous lessons you need some paper, a pen, possibly a different coloured pen to self assess your work.

And, also you need a quiet place, to sit and complete the lesson.

If you need to get any equipment, or you need to move, please go and do that now.

And pause the video.

Okay, so in today's lesson, we're going to look at three things.

We're going to look at the way migrants are distributed around the UK.

So where the migrant populations live over in the UK, we are going to look at the effects of migration on different UK communities.

And we're going to look at the effects of migration on migrant home communities.

So where migrants are emigrating from.

So as the word migrant is going to be really important in today's lesson, we're just going to make sure you can remember what it means.

Okay, so can you have a think and remember what migrant means? Hopefully, you've got this definition and well done if you did, and don't worry if not.

Somebody who has left where they usually live and crossed an international or internal state border.

So, basically, someone who's moved from where they usually live, okay.

And the UN Migration Agency basically gives us this definition and says that it doesn't matter if their legal status, whether their movement is voluntary or involuntary, what the causes may be or what the length of stay is, if you've left where you live, to go somewhere else for any amount of time, you are classed as a migrant.

So, in 2018, people born outside of the UK, made up an estimated 14% of the UK's population or, 9.

3 million people.

And we're going to understand a little bit more by using some graphs, okay? So, in citizenship, using sources such as graphs is a very important skill to develop.

Because it means that you're able to further your understanding of key ideas.

So let's have a look at this graph.

This graph tracks the foreign born population, so those born outside of the UK, who have then come to migrate to the UK between 2004 and 2018.

And the light blue is the EU migrants and the dark blue are the non-EU migrants.

So, your first task is to have a look at the graph and see what two observations, what two things from this graph, can you understand about the UK's foreign-born population.

Okay, and it can be anything at all.

So it could be the size of the populations, It could be the split between non-EU and EU, could be specific numbers, it could be trends so what's a pattern or where it peaks so when is it at its highest.

Okay, so you probably need to pause the video and just note down two observations, two sentences from what you understand about this graph about the UK's foreign born population.

So, we've got data from 2014.

And some of the observations you might make are the non-EU population has always been bigger than the EU population.

So those outside of the EU are more likely to come to the UK.

The foreign born population has has been increasing.

So you can look at the graph and see it's getting bigger and bigger each year.

And 2017 and 18, the peak years for foreign born populations.

And then very little change between 2017 and 2018.

Okay, so here's another graph.

And this is to show EU born and non-EU born migrants who were residing, so living in different UK regions.

Okay, so we've got all the different UK regions, we've got in the dark blue, we've got EU born.

And then in the lighter blue, we've got non-EU born.

And then we've got UK born, so people who are moving around the UK.

So all we're focusing on are the two.

I mean, the first two, the EU born and the non EU-born.

So again, from from this graph, can you state highest, can you state a region with the highest number of migrants in the UK? Can you state the region with the lowest number of migrants in the UK? And what is the percentage of EU and non EU born migrants in your region? So think about where you live, what the percentage is.

Okay, so again, probably pause the video and just note down those numbers.

So hopefully, you've got London as being the highest.

Northeast being the lowest, and then whatever your area is.

So I'm from the Northwest, so I got 7% for EU and 6% for Non-EU.

Hopefully you managed to do that, okay.

And the final one, and the final task to do with graphs is, we're going to have a look at this graph and see what was the most popular reason for non-EU migrants to migrate to the UK? And what was the most popular reason for EU migrants to migrate to the UK? So the top of the graph is EU, so the lighter blue.

On the bottom, the other graph, the darker blue, is non-EU.

Okay, so non-EU migration is family and EU migration is employment.

So now we've got a better understanding of where migrants are found in the UK.

We're now going to have a look at the effects of migration into UK communities.

So, what impact does migration into the UK have on different UK communities? Okay, and you can look at effects in a number of different ways.

And I'm sure you do this in subjects like history and geography.

I'm going to group the effects into economic, social and political.

Okay, and your task is to have to think about all the stuff you've learned in the previous lessons.

And think about any effects which might fall under the categories of both.

Okay, so effects can be positive or negative.

And some effects might cross over more than one category.

To help think back to last lesson and the arguments for and against controlling immigration, and you can use them to support your ideas.

Okay, so what are the effects of migration into UK communities? And if you're not too sure what those words mean, economic is to do with money and finance.

So how do things to do with money and finance impact and link to migration? Social to do with society and how people relate and mix to each other.

How might that impact migration? On politics, are things to do with government, okay, and things that government is doing or introducing.

How might that lead to migration? So if you think you can come up with some of the ideas, fabulous! You can pause the video and get on with that.

If you think, oh, maybe I'm not too sure, I don't really know, you can keep watching.

And I'm going to give you a list to help.

Okay, so, here's a list of effects migration has on UK communities, okay? Your job is to think about which of the three categories they belong to.

So political, social, or economic, okay.

So pause the video and note down these in the correct category.

Okay, I suggest a table, but it's up to you.

Okay, so let's have a look at some feedback.

So economic impacts or effects.

So you might have migrants fill employment gaps.

So if there is a gap in employment, the migrants could come and fill that, okay.

And we might also have the idea that some migrants come to the UK as they are unable to find work at home, so in their home country.

And this may mean that they are prepared to work for less money than non migrants, and therefore could be favoured for jobs by some employers.

Okay, I'm going to unpack that a bit more a bit later on in the lesson.

Taxes, okay.

So when migrants work they contribute towards a tax system and these taxes pay for things.

To be included in society and invest in and build up public services like schools and military and roads and other things our tax money goes.

In services, some migrants might need additional support to access public services, e.


language interpreters, that help them access healthcare and education, and this will require additional resources, okay.

So what about the social? So we've got migrants might introduce new cultural activities into their community.

So this may make the community more diverse e.


food, music, cinema and literature.

So if you have come from a different country, you might have your own types of food, or music, or your own kind of cinema, and books and things like that which you might share with the people around you to make that community more diverse.

Okay, so I can think about food.

So if we walk on a standard High Street in the UK, think about how many different cuisines are there.

And this is only possible because of migration, okay.

If communities are mixing together, then it means that we become more understanding.

And we develop things like tolerance and respect.

And we can learn from each other.

And this makes us more informed and cohesive community.

And again services can cross over from economic and social because of the impact they might have on the services.

But then they also can, migrants can also help support services by working in them.

So for example, the NHS has a lot of migrant workers in it.

And that has been such a great help to support the NHS too.

And finally, political.

So migrants may bring some new ideas, and this could influence UK politics.

So for example, if they stand for an election in a local area, this may make the area better.

There's often a lot of debate in politics about migration and immigration, and this could encourage you to support or not support a political party, depending on their reasoning.

Might encourage political activism.

So it might encourage people to go out and say, well actually we don't agree with this and we want change.

So you become an active citizen, or it might make the government think about policies they need to introduce to help tackle issues migrants face.

So for example, if children come unaccompanied by an adult, what happens then, how do they get looked after? How do they receive the support that they need? Okay, so now we've looked at some of the effects.

We are going to look at some case studies and see how these effects actually play out in UK society.

So, what I would like you to do is access a worksheet attached to the lesson.

And I'm going to ask you to read the case studies and watch task five, clips or videos, and then explain how each of them exemplify one of the effects you looked at in the previous activity.

And you're going to write a paragraph to summarise your thinking.

So, the INTERAct Project shows how migration can affect UK communities because, So how does a particular project show how migration affects the UK communities? So when you read the information about that, that will become clearer.

Fruit picking and NHS jobs shows how migration can affect UK communities because, Again, when you watch the clips, you will be able to think about what issues are raised in that.

And the Horizons Festival shows how migration can affect UK communities because, Again, once you read that, you will be able to talk about how it affects UK communities.

So pause the video, exit the video, go into the worksheets and have a go at that task.

So pause the video now to have a go at the task.

Okay, so well done for having a go at that.

Hopefully you found it can be interesting to see how these things play out in wider UK society, and you might live in a community where you can see the effects of this yourself and you might notice some other effects.

So, the INTERAct Project shows how migration can affect UK communities because, it may allow for different groups of people to come together who might not normally do so.

By coming together with different groups our understanding of diversity develops and the values of tolerance and respect grow between different groups.

So because we have migrants, and because we have a project like the INTERAct Project, we develop our understanding of tolerance and respect.

Okay, fruit picking and NHS jobs show how migration can affect UK communities because it highlights how some industries and sectors rely on migrant workers.

So you too have seen how fruit picking and different jobs in the NHS are really supported by migrant workers and migrant workers come to the UK to do these jobs and without them, some industries like this would really struggle to function.

And, however some people argue that well, migrant workers come in and do the jobs but that might stop UK people doing them.

And, we saw this a little bit with COVID and fruit picking when their farmers asked a lot of UK people to come and help out and many did.

But because of the nature of work, it was quite difficult for a lot of people.

So migrant workers come in fill a gap where there is one emerging to allow industries to flourish.

And the Horizon Festival shows how migration can affect UK communities because it highlights the skills and talents of migrants.

Okay, so again, this festival showed what migrants and what migration can bring to the UK in terms of talents, in terms of skills and how these can be passed on to the UK community, migrant or non migrant.

Okay, so, I'm going to show you a number of headlines.

And what I would like to do is have a think about what links all the headlines together.

So in 2017, nearly 580,000 highly educated Poles lived in another EU country, which is the highest total among the 28 EU member states.

According to a report on the brain drain by the European Committee of the Regions.

Ghana gets tough on brain drain.

Brain drain is becoming a cause for concern in India.

Philippines enacts law to reverse brain drain.

French brain drain worse than imagined.

So maybe pause the video, and just take a couple of seconds or a minute to have a think about what links all those headlines, what is the main theme of those headlines? Okay, so hopefully you've gotten the idea of brain drain.

Okay, now what might brain drain mean? Have you got any idea? If not, don't worry, we're going to look at that in a second.

But what we're going to focus on in this part of the lesson are the effects of migration on migrant home communities.

So we've looked at a lot of the effect or the impact of the effects of migration on communities migrants go to.

So, you know this idea of immigration if they move there permanently.

But what about what where they come from? What about the home communities? What effect does it have on them? Okay, now, you might have already got the idea that this is actually called brain drain.

Okay, so brain drain, or sometimes it's called human capital flight.

And this is the emigration of highly trained or qualified people from a particular country.

Now, you might want to have a look at that.

And you might want to note that down into your notes, so you've got it for future reference.

And this concept I feel really highlights a two way effects of migration and the impact it can have on emigrating countries.

Because the effects of migration aren't just one way.

And we'll have a little look at this in real life, on Nigeria.

I'm going to ask you to access the worksheet, I'm going to ask you to watch the clip about brain drain in Nigeria, it's about the health service in Nigeria, and produce a because, but, so, paragraph, okay, in response to the question below.

Exploiting the effects of brain drain in Nigeria, your response will consider the effects on the individual and country and therefore you'll highlight both positive and negative effects.

So your one paragraph will highlight the positive and negatives of this, okay? And you'll use the words 'because', 'but' and 'so' to connect the paragraph together.

Now I have an example of one about Poland, okay.

Obviously yours would be about Nigeria, but, you know, there will be some similarities.

So the brain drain affects Poland because it means educated and skilled Polish people leave Poland and work elsewhere.

This leaves Poland with a smaller population and less people to fill jobs.

This means a country could have potentially less taxes and therefore less money to invest in the country.

So basically that because paragraph is looking at the effects of brain drain Okay, what is brain drain doing to Poland? But the the opportunities brought by leaving Poland could be beneficial for Polish people, because it allows them to experience a different country and develop their skills outside of Poland.

She then goes on to say, well actually this could be beneficial because, and then so, although the brain drain could have a negative impact on the country as a whole, it could bring the number of benefits for individuals, long term, Polish people could return to Poland and use their new skills and further education in the country.

Okay, so what are the overall effects of the issue? So, have a go at writing a because, but, so, paragraph in response to the question, explain the effects of brain drain on Nigeria.

Pause this video now, to do that.

Okay, so you might have got something like this.

It might be a bit different and that's okay if it is, don't worry.

The brain drain affects Nigeria because many qualified medical staff, e.


doctors and nurses, are leaving the country to work abroad.

This means that there is a shortage of medical staff in Nigerian hospitals.

But this is beneficial for individual medical staff, as it may allow them to develop their knowledge and skills and experience in a new country.

So although the brain drain is having a negative impact on the country as a whole, it could bring a number of benefits for the individual.

Long term, however, it may encourage the Nigerian government to invest further in the health system to encourage those who have trained in Nigeria to stay.

Furthermore, Nigerian medical staff may develop their knowledge and skills abroad, but then return to Nigeria to help improve the system.

Okay, so if you like anything I've got in there that you've not got in yours, can your get your pen and just add it to it.

And so, that's it, that brings the lesson to the end.

Hopefully, you can now state where migrants are found within the UK.

You can categorise the effects of migration on different communities, you can look at the social, political and economic effects, and you can recognise effects of migration on migrant home communities, like brain drain, you can talk about Nigeria, talk about Poland, et cetera.

So not only does that bring the lesson to the end, it also brings the whole unit to the end.

And so hopefully you looked all six lessons.

And all these lesson titles are familiar.

And you really furthered your understanding and knowledge of the issue of migration.

And you have a bit of a better idea about why people move around the world.

Okay, I very much enjoyed teaching the unit.

And I hope you've enjoyed it too.

And please make sure you carry on learning with Oak, and do some other citizenship modules too.

So now you have completed the lesson.

Please don't forget to complete the quiz to assess your learning from today's lesson, and also because it is the last lesson of the topic.

Please do ask your parent or carer to tweet us any work that you would like to share on the unit, the Twitter handle is @OakNational and the hashtag is #LearnwithOak And then we can see all the great things that you've been doing.

And I thank you.