Lesson video

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Hi everyone, and welcome back to this unit of work, on practising what you have learned.

I'm Mr. Humphrys, and I'm one of the Citizenship teachers here at the Oak Academy.

And hopefully you have completed the unit that I previously taught you, exploring the question, How does the UK still play a meaningful role in the International community? And today, you've come back to revise that unit, to kind of try and remember what we did there.

So it's really nice to see you again, and I hope that you are ready for today's lesson.

So for today's lesson, you'll need a few things.

You will need some paper or your exercise book, and you'll need a pen, and probably a different coloured pen, and it would also be really useful if you had your notes from when we were doing this unit.

So if you need to go and grab anything, please pause the video now to get those, kind of come back and make sure you're, make sure you're in a nice quiet environment, and we will begin.

Okay, so we're going to look at a couple of things today.

We're going to look at what we previously covered in the unit.

We are going to look at what types of exam questions there are, and we going to look at a technique to help you answer the extended question, and hopefully if you've done some of the other lessons in this calendar unit homework, you you will be familiar with those.

If not, don't worry, we'll go through them.

Kind of from the start.

The first thing to do is probably kind of have a think about what we actually covered in that unit, okay.

'Cause it might be some time kind of since you've done it, or you might recently kind of kind of can, can complete that.

But either way, it's kind of very useful to kind of have a think about what we did.

So it was a six lesson unit and we covered these key questions.

We looked at, what is the UK's role in the United Nations? We looked at, what is it the UK's role in the Commonwealth? We looked at, what is the UK's role in the World Trade Organisation? We looked at, how the UK's relationships in Europe's are changing.

We looked at, what the UK's role is in overcoming global kind of humanitarian problems. And we looked at, what is the UK's role in the global, in global conflict resolution.

Looking at different methods of conflict resolution work of NATO.

So we covered an awful lot of kind of material on a unit.

And it's one of the most prevalent units kind of in citizenship.

It's kind of things always, always in the news about it.

So I'm sure you've got lots of examples kind of added to your knowledge, which is great.

So where does it fit in then? So there are three exam boards, kind of who, who who handle GCSE Citizenship.

And you will be studying either AQA kind of, Edexcel or OCR, okay.

And while they're not, while it's not all identical.

They all do require you to study the material in the unit.

And I'm sure your, your teacher has kind of told you where it fits in, okay.

But if you don't know kind of, there they are.

So we got kind of paper one in AQA like kind of Life in modern Britain.

Over that kind of Theme D in kind of an Edexcel.

And we got Component three in OCR, okay.

And they all take a little bit of a different approach but the core content is pretty much the same.

So your citizenship exam, if you're doing GCSE citizenship is made up of three, three types of questions, okay.

Or three assessment objectives.

Now I'm sure your teacher will have gone through these.

So I'm just going to go through them very quickly, okay.

So it kind of assessment objective one or kind of AO1 is all about the knowledge, it's all about you being able to state and explain pure facts, okay.

This kind of underpins everything.

'Cause you can't really do the other two unless you actually know your stuff.

Kind of assessment objective two is where you use this knowledge and apply it to kind of a context, okay.

So the context might be something that you, you you kind of, you've never covered before or is thinking about, okay, what do I know? And how can I use that in this context? So you might be, you might be presented with a country, for example, that you've never studied.

It kind of, kind of how it works politically what you're asked to make a judgement on how it's similar or different to the UK, okay.

But you will have studied the UK.

So kind of that is what you need to focus on.

And then Assessment Objective three is how we use our knowledge to produce and put forward an argument.

And this is typically in an extended response and the and these differ across the three exam boards, okay.

So that's just a quick overview of the assessment objectives.

And we're going to look at all three in this lesson.

Okay, so I'm going to start with AO1, okay.

We're going to start stating and recalling the basic information.

We're going to look at all of the organisations.

So you can see them all listed here.

So we've got United Nations, The European Union, The Council of Europe, The Commonwealth, World Trade organisation, and NATO.

And what I want to actually do for your first task is I want you to draw the table above or if you want to use a mind map you can do it, it's up to you, how you want to present this.

The purpose of the task is for you to recall and think about what we have studied.

So can you remember the purpose or the aim of the organisation? Can you remember how many members it has? And can you remember one example of the UK's role within each? Okay, so what I would like you to do is pause the video now and have a go at that task.

And when you're finished, come back and we'll go through some of the answers.

Okay, well done for giving that a go.

I hope it was okay.

And don't worry if you couldn't remember a lot, because you know, that's the whole purpose of revision.

So here are some answers.

So we've got the United Nations and their main job really is to maintain international peace and security, okay.

That's probably their primary role, they do do other stuff as well.

So they kind of look acute.

So they look at you kind of humanitarian aid they help kind of ensuring public rights.

Quite that broad it all falls under this idea of peace and security.

It has a 193 members.

And one of the UK's main role is, is a permanent member on the Security Council.

So it's one of the P five members.

And remember they have special veto powers on, on things being put through.

We then next go to the, to The European Union.

And this is an economic and political union of some European countries.

On there are 27 members of X.

And since the 1st of January, 2021 the UK left The European Union.

And there's not a hundred formal role but kind of obviously the UK and The European Union will still be related.

And it will still have conversations about trade or the movement of people, people, and things like that.

But before we left, you know, we, we contributed to the budget of the EU, just like any other member has to.

The Council of Europe, different to The European Union.

We're still a member of this.

And this focuses on human rights, okay.

There are 47 members in this.

And the UK is a signatory of The European Convention on the Human Rights.

And this means that we follow this kind of, kind of human rights.

Kind of treat it.

And we put this into our law in The Human Rights Act of 1998.

So well done if you've got those.

The next one, so we've got The Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth is to encourage cooperation between members to fulfil the Commonwealth Charter, okay.

And this Charter focuses thing, on things like: democracy, trade, gender equality, particular issues with small states development and sustainability, okay.

Now you might not have got all those, even if you just got some of them, well done.

Again that has 47 members.

And the UK is one of many nations who provides expertise for projects, okay.

So the group share experts in particular things.

The World Trade Organisation.

As the name pretty much says it's a trade organisation.

So it kind of negotiates and regulates global trade to ensure trade can flow freely, easily around the world.

Trade is obviously really important.

Without trade we wouldn't have anything.

That has 164 members, and the UK, again, like all of those contributes towards its budget.

And the final organisation is NATO and this is a political and military organisation.

Who aim to resolve conflict and disagreement through, through cooperation and democracy.

But it will use military force if necessary.

And if you remember back, it can invoke Article 5, which means all members must support it.

Like after the attacks on 911.

It has 30 members, and the UK supports NATO missions.

Example kind of in the Baltic's, it kind of offers the RAF to patrol the skies.

So again, a very big well done for all of that.

And if you didn't get anything you can kind of jot some stuff down on your notes.

Okay, so how does all that then apply to the exam? So these types of questions are very common for one or two mark answers, okay.

So this might be a typical question you might get if you are studying the AQA certification.

So which of the following organisation is an economic and political union of some European countries? And what you'd be required to do kind of in the exam is probably shading a circle.

But for now you can just have a go, you can just shout it out, okay.

So if you need to pause, then kind of pause the video but by now I imagine you probably answered it.

Well done you if you got The European Union, excellent.

Okay, next question.

And this might be found in the Edexcel paper.

Using an example, explain one role played by the UK in the Commonwealth, okay.

It's only worth two marks.

It doesn't need a massive amount of information but you are asked to explain.

So you do need to kind of give a reason, okay.

The word because, or this means that, or, you know, kind of things that show you going to develop your point a little bit.

So you need to pause the video now and have a go at that.

Even if you're not doing Edexcel it will still be a good thing to do.

You just don't need to know the knowledge.

So well done for giving that a go.

And I hope you might've got something like this? So one role is it provides expertise for Commonwealth projects.

So actually one mark.

And for example, the UK is playing a leading role in the Blue Charter project by forming the Commonwealth Clear Ocean Alliance to encourage members to rid the world of plastic pollution.

That's your second mark, okay.

And you probably wrote something very similar to that.

So well done.

The final one, we're going to have a go for this one.

It is an OCR one.

Really nice and simple.

State two international organisations that the UK is a member of.

So again, you might need to pause or you might or you might have already said it out loud.

And there we go, I mean it would make sense to take things that we've done.

So The European Union, The Council of Europe, the UN, the World Trade organisation, and the Commonwealth.

Fabulous, so give yourself another two marks, great stuff.

Okay, so we've looked at kind of, AO1 questions.

We're now going to move on to AO2 style questions.

And these are typically done by using sources, okay.

So a source is kind of some information you're given which you're probably unfamiliar with or you might've been lucky and might have studied that issue and you have to apply what you know, okay.

So this is one, this is one what's quite common on kind of AQA.

So source N, okay.

So source N.

Yemen is facing the largest humanitarian crisis in the world.

The country's economy is suffering, with food prices rising so much that many of the population can not afford to buy food.

The country's infrastructure is being destroyed, with many being made homeless and not able to access clean water, shelter or healthcare.

And we talked about Yemen in the unit, kind of didn't we.

So again, here we'll be looking at that week that we looked at Yemen, okay.

But it could be any humanitarian crisis in the world.

And what this question asks you to do is, using source N, explain two responses non-governmental organisations are able to make to the stated humanitarian crisis, okay.

So even if you've not studied kind of Yemen, you're asked to kind of think about what can non-governmental organisations do.

So you're drawing on that knowledge of, kind of, when we look at the types of things, NGOs do.

What, what work do they carry out now? Now kind of sometimes kind of students kind of struggle with source questions.

So here are some top tips, okay.

Use the source, don't copy the source, okay.

The, the examiner knows the source, it's there.

They've read it, don't copy it out, okay.

That's not what the question is asking you it's asking to use it, quote it, you know.

Don't just copy it out again.

Develop ideas from the source, okay.

So hook things and kind of, I'm kind of if you're actually sitting in the exam, it'd be a really good idea to kind of have a highlighter or a pen to underline and circle things as you are going through it, okay.

To develop your hooks from.

Answer the question, what is being asked, okay.

I know that sounds really obvious but sometimes students focus on a word and they don't answer the question, okay.

Consider everything you've learned in Citizenship, okay.

So Citizenship isn't like you know, compartmentalised.

It's a whole thing, okay.

Bring different information from different units together.

And you might want to kind of use the sentence that starts; One response is.

A second response is.

And then the examiner will know clearly where to give you the full marks which you fully deserve.

So what I'm going to ask you to do is pause the video and have a go at that question, okay.

Using Source N, explain two responses non-governmental organisations are able to make to the stated humanitarian crisis.

I would recommend you use my sentence now to respond.

But if you don't want to, you are free not to.

Once you've had a go pop back and we'll go through some answers.

Okay, well done for having a go at that, okay.

And hopefully you got something like this.

So this is where your different coloured could come in handy.

You could go through and mark it.

So kind of one response is kind of NGOs could kind of raise awareness of the crisis.

For example, Oxfam could use their social media platform to inform the world about the crisis in Yemen.

This could encourage people around the world to donate to support Oxfam's work.

So we've got the one response.

So we've got raise awareness and then we've developed it.

So about two responses.

So our, so our two marks there.

And then another response is NGOs could support communities impacted by the crisis.

For example, kind of they could coordinate short term relief such as food and access to sanitation for those who are being displaced, okay.

So again, one mark for the response, a second mark for the development.

And we've used the source that we've clocked onto the fact that, you know, there is a lack of food and sanitation in Yemen.

So this is something NGOs do, okay.

And if you reading the news ever, you know and you see something like this, kind of have a go and read and think, okay, what types of things the NGOs doing just to broaden your kind of knowledge.

There well done for giving that one a go.

Okay, so we're now going to go look at our third and final objective.

Which is kind of AO3.

And that's kind of analysing and evaluating Citizenship content.

And this is typically done through an extended response.

And kind of now I should say at this point, you know the extended response is probably the biggest difference between all three exam boards, okay.

I'm using one, which is quite common, for the AQA, 'cause that's the one I teach.

And although kind of sit with a lot of the skills and the basic idea is similar across all three, kind of depending on the count of the marks.

So you might get a 15 marker, for example, in OCR.

A kind of eight marker in AQA.

Your teacher might have kind of told you to do something specific.

Well this will kind of give you an overview of kind of some of the key things that you should do in any extended response.

So this statement, okay.

So the government should focus on the UK, rather than fulfilling its role in the international community.

So straight away that links so many ideas in my head, okay.

That's a really good question.

It's focusing on the whole unit.

It's not giving you one organisation.

This is like a dream of a question, I think.

Considering a range of views, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the statement? Okay, so you're being asked there to kind of analyse, look at information.

Break it down and then allow it to make a judgement about what you think, okay, based on evidence.

And this will require you to write a longer written response, okay.

I'm going to use what we've done so far, kind of to write this response.

So we're going to employ a technique called BUG.

All right now, BUG is really useful for the kind of extended answers but it can be used in any response, okay.

So it's just like looking at the source question before.

Kind of parts of this can be used on, on that as well.

'Cause it really helps you focus on the question.

So, BUG, okay.

There is a little bug too.

So the B, box around the command words, okay.

So what is the exam question asking you to do.

U, underline keywords and phrases.

So we're focusing on the key demands of the question.

And G, glance back at the question regularly, making sure you are answering the question you're being asked not what you want to write about, okay.

That's really important 'cause that's how we lose marks.

So what I would like you to do is jot that question down on your paper and have a go at BUGging it, okay.

What would you box, underline and then when we're writing it, we'll practise the glancing.

So pause the video now and have a go of that, please.

Okay, so the box will appear around the kind of extent do you agree or disagree? So that's the key question, okay.

It is do you agree or disagree with the statement.

And then we're going to be underlining a lot.

So we're going to be underlining, focus kind of on the UK.

We're going to be focusing we're going to be underlining its role.

We're going to be underlining international community.

So you, might've got kind of the similar things to me.

You might have a slight difference.

And that's absolutely fine.

But please make sure you have had a go at that.

Right, so the second successful kind of element of an extended answer, is planning.

And it might see you might, you know you just want to, you read the question and your like right, I'm just going to start writing furiously, okay.

I really do urge you to take a couple of minutes just to plan your answer, okay.

What are you going to write about, before you dive in? A simple table or a quick kind of annotation around the question is all you need.

So if we, if we look at this question then, the UK should focus, the government should focus on the UK rather than fulfilling its role in the international community.

What are we going to write? What arguments can we think of to agree and disagree? So I would like to take a few minutes and just have a think, what would we put, okay? Key words, few key ideas on either side.

Okay, well done for doing that.

And hopefully you got some things similar to me.

If not, that's okay too.

You know, that's a joyful thing about Citizenship, there are so many ways to answer a question.

So to agree, you know, you might have got things like there are lots of issues facing the UK.

If you think about like, I might know the time writing this and kind of why we're all kind of at home and COVID that's cost a lot of money.

So you know, that that's having an impact on the economy.

It's quite kind of a negative.

You could call into question the effectiveness of the organisations, you know are they doing what they're meant to be doing? Is conflict being reduced, you know is peace being kept in the world? My, so my argue, what's the point of being a member if you know, they're not really working.

And although we support in kind of international services where we could use this money to support UK services.

So for example, the Armed Forces.

However, you know kind of some people might argue, well, you know, we've got a big economy, we're doing quite well.

We're quite prosperous.

We can afford to do both.

If we're, if we're managing the kind of finances, right? The kind of things like COVID, you know and kind of war and terrorism, you know all require a global response because they're global problems. So it wouldn't make sense to just do it by ourselves.

Although there are many kinds of, factors, kind of elements which are ineffective.

There's been some massive successes.

So the UN for example, have kind of ensured many, many people around the world have access to access to their human rights.

The UK has been involved in, you know kind of negotiating and mediating peace deals.

There have been some good things.

Kind of again, global problems impact our countries.

So we need to have these global organisations like NATO stop terrorism.

So hopefully you got some similar ideas and what we're going to do, we're going to extend these a little bit into an answer.

So structuring an essay, okay.

Now again, this is where your teacher might give you their own structure, their own thinking.

Well, you know, the basic elements will be; some arguments for, some arguments against.

Kind of a conclusion where you bring it all together.

Some will actually ask kind of writing instruction, kind of some won't, it kind of depends, okay.

All kind of these are kind of elements of a successful essay.

So let's start with the introduction.

So, for the introduction, the introduction tells the, tells the reader where you're going to go, okay.

What are you going to do? So we're going to set the scene.

We're going to give a little teaser of an argument for, a little teaser and argument against.

So the UK plays a key role international community.

It brings a wealth of knowledge and expertise to a range of global problems, along with using its strong economy which can financially support projects and organisations.

Yes, some would say the government needs to focus on the UK rather than support the international community.

So you kind of set the scene in that.

You kind of said, you got to say this and this.

Now you would, you would write something like that.

So when we're writing an argument, we writing a paragraph, we're going to use a PEE structure, which is probably quite similar and kind of like, kind of familiar to you all.

We're going to do Point, Evidence, Explain.

Okay, so let's have a look at how that looks.

So, an example agree paragraph there.

In support of the statement.

So we're signposting the examiner to what we're going to write, okay.

I really like a sign post.

And on the worksheet attached to this lesson you'll find some statements and some phrases you can use.

So kind of a support statement: The UK has many problems. For example, there are many sections of society facing the effects of poverty as recently highlighted by the media.

So you probably seen or heard of the Marcus Rushford campaign.

Kind of, for those who are living in absolute poverty this means they are going about the basic essentials, which is food, water, and shelter.

Some argue the UK government kind of has a responsibility as well, towards this group, before fulfilling its role internationally, for example, increasing welfare spending.

So that is a power gap, which will support that statement.

Kind of agree with that.

You know, the UK should focus on the UK first.

However, on the flip side, you know.

So we've used the word, however to show that's a contracting argument.

And I always like to try and mirror and link my arguments, so kind of make them relate to one another.

Kind of, however, kind of others may argue the UK can, and does, do both successfully.

For example, there are many people across the globe in poverty, not just the UK.

The World Bank suggest extreme poverty impacts around 9% of the world.

With it's strong and prosperous economy, the UK has the ability to help all.

For example, funding projects in the Commonwealth, supporting sustainable development and financing a strong welfare state within the UK to support groups who need it.

It shouldn't be one or the other.

So again, that's a disagreeing paragraph.

Right, what you're going to do now is you're going to have a go at writing your own agree and disagree paragraph, okay.

Using the structure, the information, the knowledge we have gone through.

So pause the video now and have a go at doing that.

And there's the question just in case you forgot.

Okay, well done for giving that a go, okay.

Now kind of, obviously I can't read yours but hopefully you got something like this and I'm sure your teacher will be very pleased to kind of see it.

In further support, kind of statement.

The UK is currently supporting the population through the COVID-19 pandemic.

For example, funding the NHS, buying vaccines and paying furlough to those who cannot work.

Therefore if the UK didn't contribute to so many international budgets, such as the United Nations.

Linking it back to the question, using the ideas within the question.

It would have more money to support the UK in its fight against COVID.

Example disagree paragraph.

Yet, COVID is a global problem like many, which requires a global response.

It is only by working together, that the global problems such as disease can be overcome.

The government should play a leading role in this, not only helping those in the UK, but adopting a global outlook.

For example, funding the WHO, so the World Health Organisation, at the United Nations, to support the globe in researching and overcoming COVID and future health disasters.

So our two paragraphs, kind of have a similar idea in them.

And I'm sure you've done something the same.

So well done.

So this might be a way we can set out a conclusion.

So we will set the scene, okay.

So, it is clear that there are many arguments kind of, for the government to focus its efforts on the UK, however, there are also strong reasons for the UK to fulfil its role internationally.

So you're kind of reflecting on the question there.

I want to offer some evaluation.

So we're going to say, well, you know, what kind of, kind of we're going to pass some judgement.

So there is no denying that the UK needs to support the citizens it governs, as it is why they are elected.

But I do not find these arguments fully convincing.

So you pass some kind of judgement there.

And then you're going to end with your decision, you know, you're going to answer the question 'cause it asks you to consider a range of views.

Do you agree or disagree? So overall, I disagree with this statement.

I think the UK government should focus on developing its role internationally.

After all, it is only through global cooperation and kind of innovation I know that the world can become a better place.

If the world is free of disease, poverty, conflict, and inequality, et cetera, the UK will benefit, not only the international community.

Okay, so that decision, it's really important in your conclusion.

So that's mine.

What I want you to do is have a go at writing your own.

So using the structure, have a go at writing your own conclusion.

Pause the video now and then pop out.

Okay, well done for that.

And that brings us to the end of the lesson, really.

So we've had a look at some of the content we have kind of studied in the topic or unit on the, on the UK role in, in the international community.

We've looked at the different styles of exam questions.

We booked, and we've worked out and BUG an exam question.


So candour would be really great, if you would like to share your example, kind of paragraphs or your example conclusion.

Please do ask a parent or carer to Tweet your work kind of using the addresses and hashtags below.

I do regularly kind of have a look at the hashtags and see if anyone's Tweeted anything kind of for my units.

So please do do that if you are able.

And of course, don't forget to complete the exit quiz after you leave the lesson.

So a massive well done for all your hard work today.

Kind of what I hope that you found the lesson useful.

Kind of help you revise the content.

And if you do have an exam coming up the very best of luck.

Thank you and have a good day.