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Hello, everybody.

Welcome to your fourth lesson on materials with me, Miss Roberts.

It's so great to see you all back here for our next lesson.

And Lenny, the lion here is also with me and he's excited today because we get to learn how to make paper.

Isn't that exciting? So he always sits by my screen and helps me.

So if you want to go and get your favourite teddy to sit by your screen, you can do that now.

You're also going to need a pencil or a pen, a ruler, and a notebook or something to write on.

So pause the video and go and get your resources now.

Okay, so let's get started.

Let's recap, first of all, what we did last week.

There were three ways that we could turn a raw material into a synthetic material.

But what were those three ways that we learned? What's that one on the left with the fire? What might we be adding there? Can you tell your screen what it is? Well done.

You can add heat to a raw material to turn it into a synthetic material.

What's that picture in the middle representing? What was this way? Well done.

If you mix it with another material.

And the last way, when you're pouring things in.

What else could you add to a raw material that would help it turn into a synthetic material? Well done.

You can add chemicals to it.

So those were our three ways for converting a raw material into a synthetic material.

We're going to look at one of those ways today because we're going to learn all about how paper is made.

So let's look at the structure of our lesson.

First of all, we'll do our Star words.

Then we'll learn how paper is made.

Then we'll look at different types of paper and we'll learn how to make our own paper.

And then I've got a task for you.

So let's get started with our star words.

My turn, your turn.

Star words, star words, star words! Well done.

Your nice and loud and proud today team.

The first word is raw.

Your turn.

The next word is synthetic.

Well done.

The next word is material.

Your turn.

Good job.

The next word is flexible.

Your turn.

The next word is durable.

Your turn.

Make sure you're doing the actions for these team.

Let's do that one again.

Really get your hand flat and your other hand rubbing against it.


Your turn.

Well done.

And the last word is malleable.

Can you say that again? Malleable.

Well done.

And malleable is when you knock a material into its shape.

It's normally metal, when it's hot makes it malleable.

So those are our star words.

You've seen lots of them before.

So, let's get onto the first part of our lesson, which is about how paper is made.

I'd like you to have a look at the images on the screen.

What can you see that's made out of paper? Can you tell your screen? Well done writing paper on the left.

What's that thing in the middle? Well done, It's a notebook and we write on paper with a notebook.

And on the right hand side, what's that? Well done, It's a paper cup.

They're much more recyclable than a plastic cup because plastic doesn't biodegrade.

So paper cups are really good for the environment.

I wonder, can you have a look around where you are? Maybe you're in school, maybe you're at home.

What can you see around you that's made of paper? Can you tell me? Oh, interesting.

What else? Good job.

So I've got some objects made out of paper here.

The first thing I've got is this.

And I like to put letters inside it.

And then I fold it up.

I write an address on the front and it goes in the post.

This is an envelope.

This is a piece of tissue paper.

And I like to wrap presents in it because it's got nice, bright colours.

It's very thin.

So it's not very durable, but it's great for a one use, which is why I like to use it for presents.

You can hear it's quite noisy because it's so thin.

Next thing I've got is what my delivery came in today.

And it's cardboard.

So cardboard is very strong.

It's a very thick type of paper and it keeps it shape.

So you have to really bend it in order to make it change shape.

The last thing I've got is a different type of paper.

What do you use this for? Can you tell your screen? Yes, this is toilet paper and obviously it needs to be very absorbent.

And you all know what we use this for.

But that's four types of paper that I have around my house, all with very different uses.

If my delivery turned up wrapped in toilet paper, I think I'd be a bit confused.

So, how on earth, does paper get made from a raw material? Let's have a look.

So we know that turning a raw material into a synthetic material is something that humans do.

So raw materials are found naturally or in living things and synthetic materials are made.

So what material, what raw material is paper made from? What do you think? Can you tell your screen? Well done? It's made from wood.

Paper doesn't grow in the ground, paper doesn't grow on trees, It comes from wood.

And then it has to be synthetically made by humans by either heating mixing or reacting.

So, wood goes through a number of changes before it becomes paper.

Firstly, the bark of the tree is stripped and then the trunk of the tree is cut up into tiny wood chips, which is that middle picture.

At this point, the wood chips are mixed with water and heat until they make a paste.

Can you say that? Wood chips are mixed with water and heat.

Your turn.

Wood chips are made with, mixed with, water and heat and heated until they make a paste.

Well done.

So you get rid of the bark and you just leave the wood chips.

This paste can then be adjusted to create lots of different types of paper In order to make it white, Like your notebook, It is bleached.

To give it colour, A dye would be added.

The paste would then be flattened.

Water is squeezed out and then it's left to dry until the paper is formed.

At this point, it can be cut into a range of sizes until it's the right shape that's required.

So if you have a notebook, it's going to be cut into a rectangle shape On my envelope, It will be cut into this shape.

I know there are exercise books at school, they're stapled together.

Lots of thin sheets of white paper and someone has printed lines on them to help us as well.

So just to recap, paper is made from wood chips by adding? What are the two things that are added? Water and heat well done.

And then what did I say to make it flat? Well done.

It's squeezed so that it's really flat in order to get all of the? What comes out of it when it's squeezed and flattened? The water well done.

So now I've got some questions for you to see how well you were listening.

Question one.

What are the wood chips mixed with in order to make a paste? Question two.

This paste is made by heating, mixing, or combining with other chemicals? What was that method? And what is added to make white paper? I want you to pause the video and write down the answer to your questions now.


Pause the video if you need more time, because I'm going to go through the answers.

Are you ready? Wood chips are mixed with heat and water.

Give yourself a tick if you've got both of those correct.

If you've missed one that's okay.

You can just add it in now with your pencil or pen.

The paste is made by heating.

Because remember we said heat and water.

And thirdly, bleach is added to make white paper.

Well done team! I'm going to give you an awesome cheer because you're working so hard so far this lesson well done.

So I've shown you some examples of paper so far.

So let's have another think about different types of paper that we know Tissue paper comes in a range of bright colours and is often used to wrap presents or it can be used for making art.

Can you have think about tissue paper for a second? Cause you will have used this maybe when you were younger, maybe with glue and stuck it onto a piece of paper.

It tears very easily.

So does that make it thin or thick? Well done, It makes it very thin and it makes it not very durable.

But it does do a very good job of being a beautifully bright colour when in presents or sometimes even as confetti.

Sugar paper on the right hand side of your screen is also sometimes called parchment paper.

And it's used in baking.

It is made in a way that means it can be used at very high temperatures in ovens.

So you can see on the screen there, what's somebody been baking? well done.

I can see some brownies, and that means it doesn't stick to the oven.

It peels off nicely.

That's a form of paper.

Then toilet paper.

We know what toilet paper is used for.

It's not hard like cardboard, it's soft and gentle and it's used on your skin.

However, if it was as thin as tissue paper, it wouldn't be very useful.

The main property of toilet paper is that it's absorbent.

What does absorbent mean? Can you tell your screen? Well done.

It means it sucks up liquids, which makes it very useful as toilet paper.

The last example is cardboard.

Cardboard's very thick paper.

It's lots of layers of paper on top of each other, which makes it very hard.

It's very strong, which makes it useful for carrying things in boxes.

And also it means it keeps its shape.

The main property of cardboard is that it's durable.

It's much more durable than tissue paper.

I couldn't carry very much with tissue paper cause it would tear.

Whereas cardboard, we know that things get delivered in boxes.

If you're moving house or if you order something on the internet, it'll arrive in a cardboard box.

I wonder, which of these do you have around your house? Can you tell your screen? Some of you have all of them around your house.


There's lots of different things that are made with paper.

Sometimes you don't even think about it.


Let's keep going because now we're going to make our own paper.

If you want to have a go at this experiment with me, you must make sure that you ask a grownup before having a go.

They need to be with you just in case anything goes wrong.

You'll need some newspaper, some warm water and some foil.

The newspaper can be from any day of the week.

It could be an old one that somebody has already read, so make sure you're not ripping one up that somebody hasn't read yet.

So let's take a look at how I did the investigation and then you can have a go if you want to.


So the first thing I'm going to do is I've got some old newspaper here.

And I'm going to rip it up into really small, tiny pieces.

So little, tiny pieces and I've got a container that I am just putting it in.

Rip your newspaper up into small pieces.

So you've got lots and lots, pretending this is wood chips.

So although we don't have wood chips, we're pretending and we're going to make a version of our own.

So, I'm going to carry on doing this so see you for the next stage.


So the next stage is, I've ripped up lots of newspaper and I've got some warm water in this cup and I'm going to put it.

You need to ask your grow up If you want to use some water, you need to make sure that you're asking permission and how they can help you if it's hot water as well.

So now I've got lots of water inside my wood chippings.

Well, my newspaper, my ripped up newspaper.

And I'm going to leave that for a few hours, probably about three hours.

We'll give it the best chance it's going to soak up all of that water and that water there is also going to help as well, because we know that when you add heat and water to wood chippings, we're going to get a pulp that we can then turn into water.


So let's see what happens next.


So I've ripped up a newspaper.

I've mixed it with warm water and I've left it for three hours.

Do you want to have a look at what mine looks like? Let me show you.

And we'll think about the next step too.


So let me just focus.

There we go.


So here is my paper.

It's soaked up all that water and then I got rid of the excess water as well.

So what I'm going to do is I'm going to here's the pulp.

It doesn't look like newspaper anymore, does it? I can't read the article.

So I'm going to squeeze it and you can see the water coming out of it.

I'll squeeze it really hard, as hard as I can.

It's got most of that water out, okay.

So then I'm going to move that.

So I'm left with my pulp.

So using the pulp and some aluminium foil, here's what I'm going to do next.

Let me just dry my hands.

So I'm going to put the pulp on the aluminium foil and actually with the back, the base, sorry, of a glass, I'm going to squeeze it down.

And what I'm going to do is I'm going to try, if I can, going to turn it into a square if I can.

So it resembles a nice little shape.

I've made a really small piece of paper just to make it slightly easier today.

You can make as big a piece of paper as you like.

So I'm going to make that into a shape, and then I'm going to cover the foil over the top again.

This is important.

Cover it over.

And then I'm going to use that cup to squeeze as hard as I can.

So you can see it in the bottom of the cup there.

And I'm going to press.

Going to really give it a good old press.

So that all of that water, one more squeeze, there we go.


There we go.

It should be now nice and flat.

Now it doesn't look very nice, But I also used some coloured paper.

You could add some food colouring to it as well, If you wanted to.

And then now what I'm going to do is I'm going to leave that to dry overnight.

So it's going to take some time to dry.

So if you want to have a go, don't forget, you could also add some food colouring if you want some coloured paper as well.

And I'm sure mine is going to look nice and different once it's finished drying overnight.

Okay, have a go yourself.


So now you've seen me have a go, I'd like you to have a go at making paper as well.

Make sure you ask your grownup before you do this so that they're aware of what you're doing and they can help keep you safe.

The equipment that I used was an old newspaper, a bowl of warm water and some tinfoil.

If you want to, you could use some food colouring or a weighted, flat object.

The weighted object is to make sure that you're flattening your paper really nice and flat, and that makes all of the water come out of it so that it can dry really easily.

You'll notice on this screen that the equipment list is using bullet points.

That's because when we write up investigations, the equipment list is always written with bullet points because there isn't a particular order that you need to collect these resources in, you just need all of them ready.

before you start.

And this is my method.

Before we read it together, you'll notice that there aren't bullet points here.

There are numbered steps.

Why do you think the method is in numbered steps and not in bullet points? Can you have a think? Now can you tell your screen? Well done, because it needs to be done in a particular order.

I can't do remove the tinfoil in the morning if I've not made the paper yet, because that would be silly.

So it must be carried out all in the correct order.

So let's read numbers one to eight for our method, and then you're ready to go.

So, first, rip up the old newspaper into very small pieces.

Make sure you're reading with me team.

Let me make it bigger for you.

Then leave the ripped paper in warm water for a few hours.

Step three, add a colour to your mixture if you would like your paper to be coloured.

Step four, after the pulp has been soaked for a few hours, squeeze out the water from the paste.

Step five, place the pulp onto aluminium foil in a rectangle to make your sheet of paper.

Step six, place more foil on top of your paper and push down on it.

You can use heavy weights, to do this if you wish, to make it as flat as possible.

Step seven, take the top layer of foil off and leave it somewhere to dry overnight.

Lastly, remove the foil in the morning and you have your paper.

So those are the steps that I carried out.

I'd like you to have a go as well and like to see the paper that you can make.

I wonder if you could make different colours.

Okay, so, lastly, to finish off, let's have a think.

Why is it a good thing to recycle paper? When we put paper in a recycling bin, it gets taken to the recycling plant and then it's made and recycled with other old bits of paper put together and it creates new paper.

Why is that a good thing to do, do you think? I'd like you to have a think about that.

What do you think? And then I'd like you to speak to somebody either at home or at school about that question too.

Then you can have a scientific conversation about it.

Well done today everybody, I've been really impressed with your learning.

We'll see you next time for lesson five on materials.

Bye everybody.