Lesson video

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Hello, I'm Mr. Olivey and for today's lesson I'll just need you to do two things.

First, can you make sure you've got a pen and some paper so you can write things down at various points of the lesson.

If you haven't got those, pause the video now and go and get them.

Second thing, is can you try and find a reason to be quiet place to work? Because our story today will build on what we've learned so far about the Glorious Revelation and take us to see the consequences of 1688 to 89 in Ireland and in Scotland.

Okay, I can't wait to start the lesson so let's get started.

Okay, so this is lesson three of a four lesson inquiry, and I'll tell you, the lesson is Ireland and Scotland.

And our inquiry question remains how revolutionary was the Glorious Revolution? But before we can get into events in Ireland and Scotland, we first just need to think, how did England go from the restoration to the Glorious Revolution? So let's just recap the story so far, and there will be a question at the end so make sure you're paying close attention.

So the story begins in the British Isles and specifically it begins in England.

Because in 1660, Charles II came back from living in France for 11 years in exile.

And the monarchy was restored.

And people were initially celebrating.

They thought this was going to be brilliant and peaceful and easy but actually it turned out to be very difficult and hard.

Because there were huge sort of tensions in England in relations between the Protestant majority and the Catholic minority population.

Catholics were blamed for starting the great fire of London, even though they had not done it.

There was rumours that there was a popish plot to kill Charles II made up by Titus Oates.

And even though it was false, 23 plus people were executed as a result of it.

And it seemed like everyone in England's worst fears had come true when James II became King in 1685.

James terrified people because he was a Catholic and they thought that he was going to try and undo the Protestant reformation that had turned England into a majority Protestant country years earlier.

So eventually, seven bishops who James had actually thrown in prison or try throw in prison, invited a foreign King to invade.

They invited Prince William of Orange from the Netherlands.

And he landed in November 1688, with 500 ships and 20,000 soldiers.

A huge army, a gorge camptiuos force.

And very soon, James II realised he was pretty doomed.

So he actually fled England in December 1688.

And a few months later, in April 1689, William and Mary were crowned joint monarchs of England.

Mary interestingly enough was actually the daughter of James II, who was married to William of Orange, which obviously would have made things quite awkward for poor James.

Anyway, what was the Glorious Revelation? Pause the video now after you've seen the four options and pick the right one.

Okay, let's find out the Glorious Revolution was when William of Orange arrived in England in 1688 and became King in 1689.

So, our big inquiry question is how revolutionary was the Glorious Revolution.

And to answer this question, we're going to need to think about what kind of change was this? Was it a sudden change? Was it a fast change? Was it a change that affected everyone? Was it a change that had long lasting consequences? Now, what we need to do then is we first need to think about the people that maybe were opposed to this change because while the label glorious revolution makes it sound like this was good for everyone.

The reality was that it well, it wasn't.

Certainly wasn't a very good change for Catholics who lived in England.

Or in other parts of the British settles.

Now we're going to bump into a lot this lesson and next lesson is Jacobitism.

Now you may be thinking, hang on sir, we haven't come across this group yet.

Who were the Jacobites? Well, the Jacobites were people who support James II and wanted to restore him to the throne.

They're basically anyone that didn't like William and wanted to bring James back as King.

The Jacobites weren't really based in England, there were a few there, but there weren't very many.

They were mainly focused in Ireland, in the blue circle and in Scotland in the pink circle.

And that's where we're going to be focusing on this lesson.

I'm going to start up in Ireland and then we're going to go to Scotland.

Quickly though, who did the Jacobites support? Pause the video now and pick the right option.

It was drum roll, James, the Jacobites supported James.

Confusing there, I don't know why they're not called Jamesites, but they're not, they're called Jacobites.

So there we go.

Okay, so the first sort of story we're going to learn this lesson is about a war that took place in Ireland.

Now this war began in Ireland with an event called the Siege of Derry.

And this is when James II he was actually in Ireland and his Jacobites supporters laid siege to a city called Derry that supported William.

And over 4,000 people died in this Siege but it wasn't successful in the end.

Eventually James and his forces gave up.

But William was so enraged by this, that he actually left England, the country that had just become King of and chose to go to Ireland, to fight James there himself.

And they had a huge clash at something called the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.

Now there was no clear winner, of Battle of the Boyne.

But it was pretty obvious to James that he could not win this war.

He knew he didn't have the strength for support.

And so he decided to flee Ireland and went to France.

He ran away again.

But some of his supporters were still left in Ireland and they were only defeated at the Battle of Aughrim a year later in 1691.

And after this battle, William and the Jacobites realised they had to try and make peace, this war couldn't go on any longer.

And so, something called the treaty of Limerick was signed.

And you may be looking at that photo and saying, sir why have you put a photo of a random rock, but it's not.

It's actually a rock in Limerick, which is apparently where the treaty was signed.

I don't know if that's true, but that's the rock.

So we'll just have to believe it.

So what was the treaty of Limerick? Well, basically it was divided into two bits.

There were the military articles to do with the military and the civil articles to do with civilians I.

e, anyone who wasn't a soldier.

Now, the treaty of Limerick got rid off the Jacobite army, disbanded it.

And it's soldiers had a couple of options.

Now 14,000 chose to join James II in France.

And this was known as the Flight of the Wild Geese, these soldiers leaving Ireland to go to France instead.

But 1000 actually chose to change sides and joined William's army.

Now the civil article's essentially promised to protect the Irish Catholic land owners who swore an oath of loyalty to William III.

So William said as long as you promise to be loyal to me, you can keep your land and keep some of your freedom.

In reality though, this didn't really happen.

The saying was that the ink was not dry on the treaty before the English broke it.

Because very quickly, lots of land was actually removed from Irish Catholics in spite of the Treaty of Limerick being in place.

And this caused conflict in Ireland for centuries and caused a great deal of sort of resentment and bitterness towards William in parts of Ireland.

So where did the war in Ireland start in 1689? Pick the right option.

It was the Siege of Derry in 1689.

Now, our next story takes place after the William might Wars in Scotland.

And to understand this story of a massacre in Scotland, we need to actually understand a little bit about how Scotland was governed at the end of the 17th century.

Now there's something that still exists to some degree, but in the 17th century, it was much more sort of important how the country was governed called the clan system.

And this is where parts of the country were divided up into smaller areas of land ruled by certain families called clans.

And they were still loyal to the King, but they had a degree of independence in how they ran their bit of land.

Now these clans made William very nervous 'cause he thought that some of them might use to support James instead.

So what he did was he made all the clan chiefs swear an oath of loyalty to him on the 31st of December, 1691.

And if they were any later than that, they would be troubled.

Now, one of these chieftains, Chief Alsadair Ruadh MacDonalds of the clan MacDonald's of Glencoe.

Was a day late to swear this oath.

And he was delayed by the awful December weather in Scotland, there was terrible snow, and he was also delayed by a political rival who wanted to get him into trouble.

Now, the response to him being a day late to swear this oath was brutal.

Soldiers loyal to William III was sent out to Glencoe to punish the MacDonald's plan.

And they stayed with him for 13 days.

And then on the 13th day, they took 38 members of the clan, including the chiefs in the snow and they massacred them.

They were killed, even though they were completely unarmed there were women, men, and children.

And this massacre shocked people throughout England throughout Scotland and Ireland.

They couldn't believe what happened to the people of the MacDonald's clan in Glencoe.

Now, who was killed in the Glencoe massacre? Pause the video now and look at the four options and pick the right one.

Okay, it's number two, is 38 members of the clan MacDonald's.

So these were not soldiers these were ordinary people, you know, men, women, and children.

Shocking violence that really many people just couldn't believe they could not understand how this had happened.

So if we come back to our inquiry question just before we do our bit of reading, if you have any thoughts about what the war in Ireland or the massacre in Scotland might say about how revolutionary, the Glorious Revolution was.

Or actually how glorious it was, is this glorious at all? Then do write them down.

Pause the video now if you want to do that.

If not, pause the video, read the slides on the next page and answer the comprehension questions and resume the video once you're finished.

Right, let's go through the answers.

Question one, who were the Jacobites? Correct answer would be people who supported James II, but a better answer would be, the Jacobites were people who supported James II after William III became King in 1688.

Large numbers of Jacobites came from Ireland and Scotland.

Question two, what events started the Williamite-Jacobite war in Ireland.

The great times would be the Siege of Derry in 1689.

The better answer would be war in Ireland was started by the Siege of Derry in 1689.

James II and the Jacobites tried to take the city almost 4,000 died during the siege.

Question three, what did the treaty of Limerick promise to Irish Catholic landholders? Correct answer would be that they could keep their lands.

For a better answer would be, Treaty of Limerick promised Irish Catholic landowners that they could keep their lands if they swore an oath of loyalty to William.

In reality, however, one million acres of land was taken after 1691.

Question four, what was the Glencoe Massacre of 1692? The correct answer would be, when 38 members of the clan MacDonald were killed in Glencoe.

But the better answer would be, William III asked all the Scottish clan Chieftain to swear an oath of loyalty to him by the 31st of December 1691.

The chieftain at the MacDonalds was a day late to swear this oath.

In response, he and 37 members of his clan were killed.

Question five, Why do events in Ireland and Scotland suggest that the idea of a peaceful Glorious Revolution is wrong? Great answer would be because there was violence in Ireland and Scotland.

But a better answer would be the war in Ireland and the Glencoe Massacre show that beyond England, the Glorious Revolution led to violence and death.

So, based on everything we've looked at this lesson, I'd like you to write down a few more thoughts to how we can answer our inquiring question.

So what does the war in Ireland and the massacre in Scotland say about how revolutionary the Glorious Revolution was? What kind of big things have happened, have changed because of the Glorious Revelation? So pause the video now and write down your thoughts there.

Okay, good.

We've now finished the lesson.

If you'd like to please ask your parent or care to share your work on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, tagging @OakNational and #LearnwithOak.

Well done for all your hard work today.

Next time we're going to finish our inquiry by looking at some of the longer term consequences of the Glorious Revolution.

But until then, bye from me for now, goodbye.