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Hello, and welcome to lesson 16 of "Animal Farm" on Naivety and Manipulation.

Last lesson, we discovered that Napoleon was actually representing Stalin from the Russian Revolution.

And we also discovered that Napoleon had been training his dogs in secret, and now they come out to chase Snowball away from the farm.

So we're left with Animal Farm, Napoleon in charge and no Snowball.

Let's see what happens next.

Grab yourself a quiet space to work, or at least somewhere you can concentrate and then get yourself something to write with and something to write on and we can get started with today's lesson.

And here is another opportunity for you to just make sure you have everything you need and you're ready to learn.

If you need to pause the video to get settled, then please do so now, otherwise, if you're ready, we will get started.

And in today's lesson, we will begin with our recap as always before moving on to exploring propaganda and what that word means and what propaganda is.

And then we'll use that knowledge to look at an extract together and start to think about how the animals are being manipulated.

And then you will write your own paragraph.

So you are going to have some support with that, but you did write a paragraph last lesson, so we're now are going to practise that once again.

And finally, we trust the exit quiz that we can use to find out how much we have remembered from the lesson.

So for the recap today, the question you need to answer is what made Snowball leave the farm? Was it that he was chased because the animals disagreed with his plans? Was it Napoleon seeing Snowball as a threat and instructing the dogs to chase him? Was Snowball scared of Napoleon? Or was snowball unhappy that his plans were not being put into place.

So what made Snowball leave the farm? Pause the video here, select the option that you think is correct, and then press play when you're ready.

And the correct answer was option two.

So if you've got that right, give yourself a big thumbs up or a big smile, you did really, really well.

We know that it's Snowball left the farm because Napoleon saw him as a threat and the dogs chased him away.

So Snowball was not scared of Napoleon, he was probably scared of being chased by big scary dogs, but he wasn't scared of Napoleon.

And option four isn't quite right either because actually snowball's plans were going to be put into place, when the vote was happening, it looked as though all the animals were going to vote for Snowball and that's why Napoleon chased him away.

So, let's have a look at a new word today.

And the new word is propaganda.

I'll say that a couple more times for you, propaganda, propaganda, okay.

I can hear you all repeating it at the screen and it sounds wonderful.

Now, you might've had a propaganda if you have studied it in history or you might've even come across it in English as well, but we will just talk about it very briefly, because it's really important for us to understand propaganda before we can continue with the lesson.

Propaganda is used usually by governments to encourage society to make certain decisions or to agree with the political opinion of the government.

The information is usually biassed and even false.

For example, it's making things sound better than they really are or scarier than they really are, in order to get people to act in a desired way.

So if a government is using propaganda, a really common use of propaganda is to use propaganda to get soldiers to sign up to war.

So it's to encourage people to do things that probably aren't in the best idea, but they need it to happen anyway.

So they use things like posters or songs or speeches to encourage people to do something.

Here is a shorter definition.

And this is an opportunity if you want to pause the video and copy this one down.

So propaganda is ideas or statements that are usually false or exaggerated.

So they're not necessarily completely untrue but they might be bending the truth a little and that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, et cetera.

So these are false or exaggerated ideas are spread amongst people to help something.

So it might be to help a leader.

It might be to help a some kind of cause that the government want to happen.

So some examples in sentences are on the screen.

He was accused of spreading propaganda.

A propaganda campaign.

And the report was nothing but lies and propaganda.

So that's how we use it in sentences.

As I've said, if you would like to pause the video to copy that down, please feel free to do so.

So, let's do some quick fire, true or false to see what you know.

Propaganda makes things sound better than they are, true or false? Shout it out for me nice and loud.

Okay, excellent, that is definitely true.

Propaganda does indeed make things sound better than they really are, well done.

Propaganda is used to control people.

This one's a bit more tricky.

Do you think this one is true or false? Is propaganda used to control people? Okay, let's see.

That is true.

Now, the reason that this is true, is because if you remember we've said, propaganda is used to get people to act in a desired way.

If something is used to get people to act a certain way, that suggests you're trying to control them.

So propaganda is definitely used to control people.

Right, now, new vocabulary alert.

And I know you're probably thinking, well, we've just had a new piece of vocabulary, but we have another one.

So get ready.

The new word is naive, naive.

So it sounds very different to how it looks I think.

so if you can repeat that after me, naive.

Excellent, good try, try again for me, after me, naive.

Lovely, so, naive is showing a lack of experience, wisdom or judgement.

So if someone is naive, it means that they don't have much experience or maybe they're not very wise or their judgement of things is off, so they can't really judge things very well.

So for example, they were naive to think they could be lazy and still pass their exams. So this example is bad judgement.

They were naive to think they could be lazy and pass their exams. It means they haven't judged their exams very well.

Primrose Everdeen from the "Hunger Games," one of my favourite books, if you've only seen the film, you should definitely have a read of the books, they're amazing.

So Primrose Everdeen from the "Hunger Games" is a naive character.

She's naive because she doesn't have much experience of the world of life.

So she is naive.

Again, another one of my absolute favourites and you should definitely read the books as well as see the films, Harry Potter was naive when he first joined the wizarding world.

So Harry Potter joins the wizarding world aged 11 and he had no idea about it before.

So he had no experience of the wizarding world, he didn't know much about it, so he was naive.

Now, you've learned propaganda, you've learned naive and both of those words are going to be really important for the rest of the lesson.

So now we'll move on to reading an extract.

And I'm just going to give you a quick recap of what's going on on the farm.

"After Snowball had been chased from the farm, "Napoleon announced that the regular meetings "would no longer take place.

"Instead, all decisions would be made "by the pigs, who would meet privately.

"The animals were upset by this "but were silenced by the dogs growling." So this is interesting.

The animals are used to having regular meetings on a Sunday where they get to discuss everything on the farm.

But now Napoleon has said, no, that's not going to happen.

And what we're going to do is make our own decisions.

Amongst the pigs, we will meet in private and we'll make the decisions for the farm.

When the animals got a bit upset by this, the dogs started growling.

So that's the situation we're in on the farm.

Now in the extract that we're going to read, I want you to think about the question, how are the animals being manipulated? And if you remember manipulation is using skill to control or influence someone.

So in your head, while we're reading I want you to be thinking, how are the animals being manipulated? And the extracts we're going to read is Squealer talking to the animals.

"No one believed more firmly than Comrade Napoleon "that all animals are equal.

"He would be only too happy "to let you make your decisions for yourselves "but sometimes you might make the wrong decisions comrades, "and then where should we be? "Suppose you had decided to follow Snowball "with his moonshine of windmills, "Snowball, who as we now know, "was no better than a criminal.

"'He fought bravely at the Battle of the Cowshed,' "said somebody, 'bravery is not enough, said Squealer.

"'Loyalty and obedience are more important "And as to the Battle of the Cowshed, "I believe the time will come, "When we shall find that it Snowball's parts in it "was much exaggerated.

'" So in this extract, we have Squealer telling the animals that Napoleon is doing this for their own benefit.

Napoleon is saying that actually the pigs know best.

So it's better for us to make the decisions for you.

He then goes on to say that Snowball was a criminal and he's trying to convince the animals that Snowball was not a hero, not good for the farm, but a criminal.

And when someone argues and says, "but hold on, "he fought bravely at the Battle of the Cowshed." Squealer says, "no, that's not enough.

"And actually the Battle of the Cowshed, "I don't think we remember that quite right.

"I think we exaggerated what a Snowball did there." So already we can see Squealer trying to rewrite history.

He's using his skill to manipulate the animals into thinking about different memories, into fooling them into thinking they have different memories.

So what I'd like you to do, if you have the extract printed, I want you to choose some key quotations from this extract that answer the question, how are the animals being manipulated? If you don't have the print out of the extract, pause the video on this slide here and use the extract on the screen to answer the question, how are the animals being manipulated? I don't expect you to write big, long paragraphs, I just want you to choose some quotations that tell us how the animals are being manipulated.

So press pause and then when you've selected something you think is helpful, press play and we'll do some feedback together, good luck.

How did we do, what did everyone choose? I've chosen two key quotations to show where propaganda is being used.

So the first one, "suppose you had decided "to follow Snowball with his moonshine of windmills, "Snowball, who as we now know, "was no better than a criminal?" And I've also chosen the part where says, "I believe the time will come when we shall find "that Snowballs part in it was much exaggerated." So, Squealer is getting the animals to believe what the pigs want them to believe.

He's changing what has actually happened.

And he's saying, well, Snowball was a criminal and actually Snowball's part in the Battle of the Cowshed was not what we thought it was.

So with propaganda, because what Squealer is doing is giving false information to make the animals believe something that isn't necessarily true.

So if you haven't chosen those quotations, be a good idea to pause now and make sure you have them annotated or write them down if you're working on paper or in an exercise book.

And then when you've done that, press play and we'll move on to the next extract.

So, Squealer continues talking to the animals.

"'Discipline comrades, iron discipline.

"'That is the watch word for today.

"'One false step and now our enemies would be upon us.

"'Surely comrades you do not want Jones back?' "Once again this argument was unanswerable.

"Certainly the animals did not want Jones back.

"If the holding of debates on Sunday mornings "was liable to bring him back, then the debates must stop.

"Boxer who had now had time to think things over, "voiced the general feeling by saying, "'if Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right.

' "And from then on he adopted the maxim.

"'Napoleon is always right.

' "In addition to his private motto of, I will work harder." So in this extract, we see the animals being manipulated.

We see squeal and manipulating them into thinking that everything Napoleon says they must follow and it must be correct.

So what I'd like you to do is pause the video and select a quotation or more than one quotation that shows how Squealer is manipulating the animals.

Press pause here, try your best and then press play when you're ready to check for feedback.

So, these are the two quotations that I have chosen.

If you have different ones, they may still be correct, so you will need to double check that with a teacher or someone who's working with you.

But these are the two that I really think you need to have down.

So you can add these onto your own work.

First of all, we have Squealer saying, "one false step and our enemies would be upon us.

"Surely comrade, you do not want Jones back?" This is propaganda because Squealer is threatening the animals with what could happen.

He's manipulating them because he's making them think that without Napoleon and without the support of the pigs making all of the decisions, farmer Jones will come back.

And we've had this before, Squealer has used this before, it was really successful and so he's using it again.

And then the other part that I think is really important is when Boxer has had time to think things over and then he says, "if Comrade Napoleon says it, "it must be right." And from then on, he uses the maxims, if you remember the maxim was the short statement that expresses a truth.

And he says, "Napoleon is always right." Now, Boxer, if you remember from the beginning is one of those animals who is considered to be unintelligent.

But actually what we might say is that Boxer is naive.

He's naive because he doesn't have much experience of the world.

His experience is very limited.

He's lived on the farm all his life.

So Boxer is naive and that means that he assumes the pigs care about the animals and will make the right decisions.

Why would he think otherwise? Squealer is telling him, "we are doing this for you.

"We love the animals.

"We want to make sure you're okay." What reason does Boxer have to not believe Squealer? So the animals naivety, Boxer and the other animals being naive means it is very easy for Squealer, Napoleon, the pigs to manipulate and to take advantage of them.

So pause the video here if you need to add any of that information, rewind it as well if you need to, and then press play when you're ready to move forward together.

So, as Snowball is talking to them, he goes on to tell the animals that the windmill was actually Napoleon's idea all along.

And because he said that, this is how the animals react.

"Why then, asked somebody, "had he spoken so strongly against it? So the animals are, they're thinking about this, and they're saying, well if Napoleon wanted the windmill the whole time, why was he so against the windmill? And then this is how Squealer replies.

"Here, Squealer looked very sly that he said "was Comrade Napoleon's cunning.

"He had seemed to oppose the windmill simply "as a manoeuvre to get rid of Snowball "who was a dangerous character and a bad influence.

"Now that Snowball was out of the way, "the plan could go forward without his interference.

"This, said squealer, was something called tactics.

"He repeated a number of times, tactics comrades, tactics, "skipping round, and whisking his tail with a merry laugh.

"The animals were not certain what the word meant "but Squealer spokes so persuasively "and the three dogs who happened to be with him growled "so threateningly, that they accepted his explanation "without further questions." So Squealer's response to the animals asking why Napoleon had spoken against the windmill, is that it was Napoleon big plan all along and that Napoleon deliberately wanted to oppose the windmill so that he could get rid of Snowball because Snowball was dangerous and a bad influence.

And the animals, they're not really certain what the word tactics is.

They don't really understand what Squealer is saying, but the dogs who were with squealer growled so threateningly, that the animal stopped asking questions.

So that's what's happened in this extract.

Can you pick out the key parts or the key quotations in this extract which suggest that animals are being manipulated? So press pause, try your best to find some evidence that the animals are being manipulated and then press play when you're ready to go.

So, I think the major part of that previous extract is the part you can see on the screen now.

The animals were not certain what the word meant but squealer spoke so persuasively and the three dogs who happened to be with him growled so threateningly, that they accepted his explanation without further questions.

So highlight that on your extract or write this quotation down because we're going to annotate it all together.

The first thing you need to add to it, is that the animals were not certain what the word meant.

This is showing that the pigs are taking advantage of the animals naivety.

The animals are naive, they don't really have the experience of the world, so they don't know what tactics means.

And this means that the pigs can say the word a lot and just confuse the animals because they're not sure what's going on.

And the next we have Squealer speaking so persuasively, which has proven that Squealer's rhetoric is being used as propaganda to manipulate the animals.

Now I know there's a few big pieces of vocabulary that we've learned in there so I'll just explain that again.

Squealer's rhetoric so that squealers excellent use of language is being used as propaganda.

It's being used as something which will, it's false information.

It's information that's not a 100% correct but it's getting the animals to do something.

And in this case, it's getting the animals to believe that Snowball is not a good character and that Napoleon has done the right thing.

So Squealer's rhetoric is being used as propaganda and that propaganda is manipulating the animals.

And then finally we have the dogs growling.

So here we can see the pigs using violence as a threat to manipulate the animals.

They're using violence to make the animals agree with them.

So make sure you have all of that information written down either on your extract that you've got printed out or on your exercise book, piece of paper, wherever you're working because you will need it for the next activity.

Pause if you need to, to complete this activity and then press play to carry on or we can carry on together now.

So let's just check what we know so far.

How does Squealer manipulate the animals? Does he number one, use facts to manipulate the animals? Does he number two, use violence? Does he number three, take advantage of their naivety? Or does he number four, use propaganda? So take your time, read through the options, their is more than one, correct answer to this.

So you are going to choose more than one correct answer, and then press play when you're ready to find out how you've done.

So, we have two correct answers here.

Squealer takes advantage of their naivety and Squealer uses propaganda to manipulate the animals.

Now, option two, you may have chosen.

Now the reason option two is not quite correct is because violence isn't physically used rather it's the threat of violence, okay? So that one's really, really tricky.

Option two, I completely understand if you chose it, but no animals have actually been hurt in this extract, instead the dog simply growled at them.

So it's the threat of violence that's being used, not violence itself.

So, we're on the final activity for today's lesson.

And I want you to answer the question, how are the animals manipulated? To help you answer that, I've given you four bullet points to break down your answer.

So you need to answer who manipulates the animals and how they're manipulated by that person.

So that would be something like the use of propaganda, of rhetoric, of the threat of violence, et cetera.

So everything we've just spoken about.

And then I want you to find one quotation.

So if you have the extracts in front of you, you can use those to find it.

And if you've been working on paper, you've probably written quite a few quotations down, so you can use those.

But if you need to, you can always rewind the video to find an extract that you can use and pause it on there.

And then finally, which part of the quotation shows the manipulation of the animals? So which part of the quotation shows a manipulation? And that's where you're going to select the key word that Orwell has used that shows us what you're trying to say.

So try your absolute best.

If you need to, you can flick back to lesson 15 and see the paragraph that you wrote there 'cause that might help you.

You have two options, you can press pause have a go and then press play and have a look at a model answer to compare your own.

Or alternatively, you can keep watching now to find out the model answer, and then use that model answer to have a go at your own.

So two options, pause the video, have a go and then press play when you're done.

Keep watching now is your second option to find out a model answer before you start.

So choose your option either pause or stay with us and then we'll move on.

Here is my model answer.

So if you've carried the video straight on without pausing, you haven't written yours yet.

So you can use this as a model and then you can write your own to finish the lesson.

If you did pause the video, you will have your very own paragraph that you've already written, and you can use this one to compare to your own.

So how are the animals manipulated? Squealer manipulates the animals by using propaganda and taking advantage of the animals naivety.

That's your first two bullet points there.

You're telling me who's done it and you're telling me how they've done it.

Squealer asks the animals, "surely comrades, "you do not want Jones back?" That's your third bullet point, the quotation.

The word surely makes it sound as though there is only one answer to the question.

This therefore takes advantage of the animal's naivety because they assume the pigs know all the answers.

And that's your final bullet point.

I chose the one part of the quotation and in this case it was the word surely, which really helps me explain my point.

The word surely makes it sound as though there is only one answer to the question and that therefore takes advantage of the animal's naivety because they assume the pigs know all the answers.

So check your own paragraph against this one or have a go at writing your own.

Now you've seen an example and then you will have completed the lesson for today.

You've done some wonderful work.

You've written an entire paragraph.

You've learned loads of new vocabulary and we've read even more of the story.

So please join me next time for lesson 17, we're now getting towards the nearly to the end of the story.

So we've only got a handful of lessons left, really looking forward to working with you soon and a massive well done again for all of your hard work today, see you soon.