Lesson video

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Hello, Miss Howard here for the second lesson in our writing rhetoric unit.

Now if you remember last lesson, we explored using a particular framework in order to get our ideas across and share views or opinions or more importantly, convince people to agree with us.

So we looked at how to open and build a really strong sense of ethos, bolstering our argument by then moving on once we've got the trust of our reader or our audience to focus on logos, peripheral argument and then closing by making our speech or writing really memorable, appealing to pathos.

The pathos of our audience or being really emotive and that unforgettable language, that figurative unforgettable language or directly addressing our audience.

we're going to keep returning to that particular framework.

But today we're going to focus on a specific type of writing form of writing known as article writing.

We're going to have a look at key writers who use rhetoric and how we might use rhetoric within our school writing before having a go ourselves.

So for now I need you to close down anything that might serve to distract you such as apps or conversations that you might have running in the background, if you know how to do so.

You'll need a pen and a piece of paper for today's lesson.

Close that and put yourself in a quiet space where you know that you won't be disturbed and when you're ready resume video and we'll get started.

In the lesson today, we'll look at the key features of writing rhetorically for a news article, particularly an opinion article.

Now an opinion article and news article are ever so slightly different.

And we'll explore the in a little bit.

We'll draw upon our knowledge of rhetoric So our prior knowledge to explore how rhetoric might help us to persuade others of our opinion around important topics within news articles or opinion articles.

Rhetoric writing within the news and within the media is really widespread.

And now journalists use rhetoric in news.

So not only that we have access to in print news, so print newspapers, but more so online and mobile news including the news on social media channels as well.

Now because our exposure and our access to rhetoric has increased so much.

We see rhetoric in news in so much of what we read.

And next time you read a news article I'd like you to see if you can spot where the writer has used rhetoric to include a viewpoint or an opinion, and how actually, if you can spot the devices that have been used in order to influence you in a particular way.

it's quite rye opening really.

If you remember that last lesson we put together, our three point plan for rhetoric framework, we'll be coming back to that time and again.

And so today we'll look particularly at articles and how that features, and how that helps us to understand how to structure an opinion article.

We'll have a look a bit of a recap of rhetoric, make sure that we remember the key features of rhetoric when we're looking at it.

And we're a piece of writing.

We'll explore what's an opinion article is, so that we have a really secure understanding of that.

We'll then think about how we might plan and write an opinion article using the rhetoric framework.

And I'm going to share with you what that task will look like quite early on in the lesson, so that you can keep that in the back of your mind as we go through the lesson itself.

We'll finish by thinking about why opinion articles use rhetoric? Why is this useful or a particularly useful way of writing when we're writing opinion articles? So to speak or write persuasively, we need to consider these three key aspects, ethos, how credible and trustworthy we are, logos, the content of our argument that backs us up, the proof of what we're saying.

So the facts, the figures and the expert's opinions.

And the lastly pathos.

So to what extent we've managed to evoke, get out an emotional response from our audience.

How have we moved them in such a way emotionally or made what we're saying memorable so that they feel that they need to act upon the advice or the opinions that we've offered.

Now remember, we need to find a perfect blend, When we are trying to create effective rhetoric? We can't just rely on one or two aspects of that triad.

If we just overload us readers with facts and figures and expert opinions, they don't necessarily have any reason to trust us or believe that the information that we're giving to them is credible.

Equally, if we just focus on building trust and appearing as credible, but not actually providing any knowledge to back our argument up, then we'll lose that trust pretty quickly.

Lastly if we just focus on pathos and making our reader feel emotionally moved in some way, but yet not necessarily backing ourselves up or building that trust at the beginning, then we're probably not going to have the impact that we want to by being memorable or unforgettable at the end, because we've not got their trust in the first place.

So here's the task that we're going to look at later in the lesson.

I want you to have an idea so that as you're looking at the examples you can make notes and pick up tips that you can use in your own article later on.

So we're going to explore this question.

Is digital technology making children's lives better? We're going to use our knowledge of opinion articles from today's lesson to plan, or if you like an extra challenge, plan and write your own opinion article on the topic provided.

We're going to look to create that really effective blend of ethos, logos and pathos within our answer.

So before we do that later on in the lesson, we need to understand what an opinion article is.

Well, quite simply an opinion article is a news article around a topic in which the writer shares and explores their own opinion.

It's like a news article, but less objective.

Objective means not influenced by personal feelings or ideas.

Subjective is to share your feelings or opinions.

It's the opposite of being objective.

So to be objective is not influenced by personal feelings or ideas.

It's just the facts and the figures.

To be subjective is still the facts and the figures.

But you also share your opinions.

So an opinion article is subjective.

Because we get an idea of the writer's opinion, as well as the facts and figures.

Pause the video here and have a go at this true or false.

Best of luck.

How did you get on? Fantastic.

If you've got number one and number two, they were both true.

Number three is false.

So true news is available online as well as in print.

Yes, media is very much prevalent online as well as being able to buy a newspaper from a shop and an opinion article is usually subjective, which makes number three false.

Well done.

Now, opinion articles have the added bonus or the headline, like any news article.

Where the writer can establish the argument so that we understand what the topic is that they're going to explore.

Or sometimes the headline will share the writer's opinion before the reader even reads the article itself.

Now we're going to have a look at some headlines and how they might catch our attention.

One thing is worth saying here is that sometimes the writer will withhold their opinion and so the headline is quite factual.

And then later on, we realise quite simply where their opinion lies.

Some writers use headlines to catch our attention because their opinions also maybe controversial or very kind of, they feel very strongly about something.

So let's have a look at some examples.

Digital detox, no such thing for teens.

So this headline uses that alliterated and what's called hypophora.

Now hypophora is where you have a question and then the answer is provided to you.

So you might have come across rhetorical questions before, a question that doesn't have an answer or doesn't require an answer.

Hypophora is where you have a question, and then the answer is provided for you.

So here within the headline, the hypophora asked the question, "Digital detox?" and then it provides the answer.

"No such thing for teens." You also have that use of alliterated hypophora.

So digital detox? No such thing for teens, we have the alliteration in the opening there.

Now we don't really get an idea of the person's opinion here.

We get the idea that the teens don't turn off the teenagers don't turn off from digital technology, that they use it a lot.

That's the impression that we get, but we don't really get an idea as to how the writer feels about it.

So this person has chosen to withhold that information until later on.

Let's have a look at another one.

"Digital damage:The danger of tech." Now this one is slightly more obvious on their opinion.

Isn't it, but let's have a look at what rhetorical devices they use first of all.

So we've got that alliterated introduction to opinion "digital damage" that alliteration there.

And we've also got, as we said, the opinion there "The danger of tech" you've also got that the language is quite emotive.

The idea of damage, that digital technology is damaging, teenagers in some way that it's dangerous as well.

That's quite emotive, It's going to kind of conjure up that worry or anxiety, particularly if parents were reading this article.

But it does very much share their opinion from the outset.

So have a look at another one.

"Switching off? kids say no as technology takes over" again, little bit emotive here.

So "switching off" we've got a hypophora again, "kids say no chance." We have the answer provided to us, to the question.

Technology takes over, again, quite emotive language this idea of something kind of taking over possessing, children, so that they're unable to switch off.

So again we get to an idea, don't we? of the writer's opinion here.

Now pause the video here, and I'd like you to have a go, at one or two of your own headlines using either hypophora, or you could alliterate, or you could just ask a rhetorical question, completely up to you.

But a headline that will catch your reader's attention.

And if you like also share your opinion.

So be subjective.

Pause the video, press play when you're done.

So in order for us to think about where we sit with this question, we need to come up with some arguments using our framework.

Remember from before so four and again, so we use this table last lesson, we're going to use a similar process to plan out our ideas for this opinion article.

So is digital technology making children's lives better? You need to form some sorts of opinion on that.

Don't worry too much if you've not made your mind up, maybe drawing out the table or writing your ideas will help make your mind up.

And so on the left hand side you've got yes, it's definitely making children's lives better.

I think the fact that obviously if you're carrying out this lesson that might work in your favour, the idea that you know, that digital technology can be used for learning is a fantastic start point.

I've also put in there some other examples, it helps people stay connected.

It provides a way to find out about the world besides we have, you know, curious, and we have the world's at our fingertips now, whereas before the internet people just debated and argued about things until, you know, whoever run out steam first was wrong.

So now we're able to find some answers to some things, via digital technology.

And then on the other side, that definitely not, it is definitely not making children's lives better.

We've got the question around safety.

So it isn't always safe and we have to monitor our usage of digital technology.

And then you've also got that, It isn't necessarily healthy to spend a great deal of time using digital technology.

But there's still very much to be said about spending time with people and getting outside.

And you're not necessarily doing that or giving it your full attention if you're using digital technology all the time.

I'm sure you've got some fantastic ideas that you want to jot down on here.

So pause the video here, draw out the table, add your own ideas and use mine to get started if you're struggling and then press play when you're done.

So let's revisit our rhetoric framework.

So we're going to open with ethos, build our logos through so build our argument via proof and then close with our pathos.

The one thing that we might want to consider with opinion writing is that we can actually withhold our opinion until later on.

So it might be in the ethos stage that you build your argument, establish the topic, establish why it's important.

But you may not share your opinion.

Some writers do some writers don't.

We'll look at this as to why that might be.

So ethos first of all.

If we're opening with our structure with our ethos, we're using lots of collective nouns to build trust.

We're explicitly outlining this is important to me and why it's important, or we might kind of switch up that word for essential or necessary or fundamental.

And then when using anecdotes, which is a really useful way of building trust.

By using anecdotes, it makes the problem or the issue or the topic that we're discussing sound like it's real life.

It's not just impacting one or two people, but it's impacting people like us and enables us to understand the issue or the problem a little bit better.

Now you might want to withhold your opinion at this point, because you're so busy building trust with your reader.

And particularly if you're exploring a topic where there's going to be a lot of disagreement, you may want to include the part, the logos parts of your argument to do the hard work for you.

So you can spend time building trust and being quite subtle in raising this topic and saying, this topic is quite important.

I think we need to discuss it.

And then the logo stage of your argument, provides all the facts and figures that will build up your argument.

As I said particularly if it's controversial.

So the logo stage of our argument, the second part of our framework, is facts and figures, including an expert opinion, but also anticipating the counter argument.

what people on the opposing side of the argument might say.

Some people that disagree with us, what they might say, that's our some might say section.

then what we do is we destroy that argument by providing our own ideas and our own beliefs.

And this is where our personal pronoun comes in handy with our use of "I" to really hammer home.

Why we think that the opposing side doesn't have an argument that stands up.

Lastly, we close with our pathos.

We appeal to our audience or our readers pathos of using emotive language directly addressing them so that they feel involved and they feel a personal responsibility to act on what we've said, or at least form a viewpoint in response to what we've said.

And we plan our powerful final line an anaphora, if you remember from the last lesson, anaphora that repetition of a word or a phrase, and then the final line of our article is a really good place to pop that up.

So pause the video here and have a go at this true or false.

How did get on? This time There was only one that was true.

An opinion article needs a headline that catches the attention of the reader.

Indeed it does.


The writer of an opinion article should not include their own views.

Well, definitely to write an opinion article, you need your own views.

And last one also false.

Opinion articles are only published in print.

Well, we know how widespread, opinion articles are on social media and on the internet widely available online as well.

So that one was false too.

So let's think about how we can use our three phase rhetoric framework to create our own opinion article.

But then to look at an example, to help us out with that.

First of all, I want to introduce you to some new vocabulary that you might be able to use within your plan or within your plan writing your own opinion article.

First up is devastating.

You say it.


Such a lovely word.

If something's devastating, it's causing serious shock or grief.

So for example, effects are devastating.

So if something is causing serious shock or grief it's devastating.

Next up, Noxious.

You say it.


Again, noxious.

Lovely, if something is noxious, it's harmful poisonous or very unpleasant, and that's its worst.

As an example, social media can be noxious.

So social media is harmful, poisonous or very unpleasant.

The last one we're going to look at is fundamental.

You say it.

Lovely, again, fundamental.

If something's fundamental, it's important or essential.

For example, monitoring the use of technology is absolutely fundamental.

Okay so I'm going to take you through an example opinion article in three stages while using our framework of ethos to open building logos for development and closing with pathos.

What I want you to do is after I've read through the section, I'd like you to pause the video and think about how the writer has established a sense of ethos in this opening.

So think about the headline and the opening section overall, do we get an outline of their argument? And do we yet know their opinion on the topic? Digital destruction of the digital dream? It's 7 am and Max should be bouncing out of bed and heading down for breakfast.

Instead he's glued to the addicted brain training app he downloaded last night.

The app might be great for testing memory, but we should stop to think if it's worth skipping a meal for.

We want success for our children, is screen time nice, or noxious? pause the video cam and make some bullet point notes about where the writer has established a sense of ethos.

For an additional challenge.

Do we yet know their opinion on the topic that they're writing on? Press play when you're done.


So let's have a look at the headline, first of all.

Digital destruction or the digital dream? So we've gotten that alliteration, haven't we? to make it quite memorable, but they've asked us a rhetorical question.

They've asked us a question that they haven't yet answered.

It also provides a sense of balance.

So from the headline alone destruction or dream, we don't know what their opinion is yet.

They then go on to use this anecdote of Max bouncing out of bed and heading down for breakfast, but he's too addicted, he's too glued to the addictive brain training app that he downloaded.

And so it provides an anecdote, but again it doesn't yet stablish what their opinion is.

Whether they think digital technology is good, is effective or ineffective.

they provided an anecdote of it being ineffective, but it doesn't necessarily really give us an idea as to what they think? We've got this great use of collective nouns.

We should stop to think if it is worth skipping a meal for.

We want success for our children.

So they've created that sense of trust that this topic isn't just important to the reader, but it's also important to them as the writer.

Then we've got this question at the end, haven't we? that they pose.

So they've withheld their opinion from us.

They've provided an anecdote and they've established that the topic is important, but we don't yet know their viewpoint.

So they've put, "we want success for our children, "but screen time nice, or noxious." So to create that balance they've withheld their opinion so far.

Now that might be because they want to use logos to establish their argument.

That might be why.

Let's see, once we get to the second section.

Before we do, pause the video hand and answer this question.

Opinion articles should build ethos within the opening to, you have two answers here available, press play when you're done.

Brilliant work if you got option one and option three.

Opinion articles should build ethos within the opening to establish the argument and present the topic as important both to themselves and the reader.

Why might it be good to withhold your opinion until later on? Again, you have two answers here.

Best of luck.

You can use logos to evidence the argument later on so that's why you might want to withhold that.

And the other reason that it's quite handy sometimes is you want to appear balanced to help build trust.

It's quite helpful if you're speaking about something controversial or something that's going to divide people, have a lot of difference of opinions.

You might want to appear balanced at the beginning and let the logos speak for itself, the facts and the figures that you choose to use.

So let's have a look at the second part, which is building our logos.

88% of children age three to 10 years, spent more than five hours a day in front of a screen.

I find this utterly mind blowing.


McDonald outlines "tech is the magical monster of a modern world.

"where it has many perks for young children." Perks is like benefits.

"Like anything, we need to be aware of finding balance." So pause the video here, where has this person felt a strong sense of logos within this section? Don't forget to press play when you're done.

So how did you get on? Okay so we've got this opening of statistics at the beginning 88% of children, three to 10 spend more than five hours a day in front of a screen.

We also have this kind of ethos with quite emotive language here as well.

I find this utterly mind blowing.

So it doesn't necessarily give an impression that they find it particularly pleasing to find out that information.

We've also got where they've used an expert opinion.

They've got a doctor in here we have a quotation from the doctor and to kind of bolster up their logos.

"Tech is the magical monster of the modern world, "where it has many parts for young people like anything "we need to be aware of finding a balance." And so it's this idea that they create, this sense that digital technology maybe can be both.

It can be a good thing and a bad thing.

Let's see.

Whilst some many argue.

so what's this part? That's right.

This is our counter argument, isn't it? So this person has anticipated this writer anticipated what the other side of the argument might be to saying that it's not necessarily a good thing.

So we're still looking for elements of logos.


Whilst some may argue that Google is the new corner-cutting gateway to knowledge, the facts say otherwise.

50% of people get the wrong answer to questions when using a search engine.

So what are they using in logos? What kind of opinion are they using logos to establish? Eight out of 10 report losing an hour or more to browsing when they intended to have a five minute scroll and with many of us suffering from a vitamin D deficiency, it's time to step away from the screen.

Pause the video here, and find examples for me of where this person has built logos Don't forget to press play when you're done.

Okay so this is that counter argument, isn't it? which is really strong logos.

They've anticipated what the other person might say about how beneficial digital technology is.

Now this is the first hint as to definitely definitely sure where this writer stands.

We had kind of, you know, mind blown before, but now we are definitely sure that they are not in support of digital technology being used all of the time.

So it's counter-argument, whilst some may argue, they use facts to come back to do the convince, convince, convince don't they? The facts say otherwise.

And they use that quite strong statistics to come back with.

That 50% of people get the wrong answers.

So they're saying that, google isn't necessarily the best way to find answers to your questions on the internet.

also use that additional statistic, eight out of 10 report losing an hour or more to browsing, and the vitamin D deficiency.

So they provide us with quite quick successive, statistics or facts and figures to back themselves up to say, actually, this can be quite a negative thing and we need to find a sense of balance.

Overuse is actually what makes it, not a beneficial act for children.

So what you're going to do is finish off that article by writing your own paragraph of pathos.

How will you appeal to your reader to find a balance for children's tech time? So you might want to revisit your table to think about which elements haven't been used yet, which arguments haven't been used yet, but your focus will be on appealing to the audience, the readers pathos.

So using emotive language, directly addressing your reader and perhaps in your final powerful line, you might want to use anaphora, that repetition at the start of each course or sentence.

I've given you a sentence to start you off that might help you out.

As an additional challenge, I'd really like you to try and use some of our new vocabulary today.

Particularly if they were brand new to you.

It's always nice to have an experiment and have a try with new vocabulary.

Before you get started on yours.

I'll give you an example answer so that you understand what it might look like.

So let's read through my example pathos section.

If we want children to journey through their childhood, with knowledge of the world within the screen, but experience of the world outside of one, we must act now to avoid the devastating possibility of eternal square eyes.

Well, if that's not emotive.

so that use of devastating has been used really emotively hasn't it?.

We've also got the figurative language metaphor eternal square eyes here we don't necessarily actually have square eyes.

They've also used collective noun we must act now and that's imperative command.

We must act now.

So there's quite a lot going on there within just a short sentence.

I urge you, direct address, to pay attention to the next time a child asks you to Google it and instead? Grapple it.


So they've used that hypophora again, instead? Grapple it that question.

And they've also used that anaphora share the things we don't know, share the things we were already do, which is quite nice.

That repetition there to appealing to pathos.

And spend your lives on the adventure of discovery.

That figurative language, where the Internet acts as a doorway, not a prison, again figurative language, really nice, very emotive as well.

The idea of the internet being a prison rather than a doorway.

Opening up a lifetime of opportunity for us all.

So this person has really thought about being quite emotive in their final sentence here, but they've made use of at least devastating haven't they.

I would argue that they could have attempted to fit in fundamental as well.

Remember they used noxious in the very opening as well.

So over to you.

Time to write the final paragraph of our news article, Your own paragraph of pathos.


So think about how you're going to appeal to your reader.

Think about how you're going to make use of our key devices use to appeal to pathos.

And there's a sentence there if you're struggling to get started.

If you love a challenge, try and include our vocabulary that we've learned today as well.

Don't forget to use the example on the next slide.

If you do get stuck or want some ideas.

Best of luck.

Can't wait to see what you come up with.

Press play when you're done.

Fantastic work.

Particularly finishing off an article that's already been started.

That's an incredible challenge so you should be very proud of yourself.

Let's just finish up today by thinking about this question.

Why do opinion articles use rhetoric? Why would that be useful? Well, if you're providing your opinion, then you're trying to convince somebody of your opinion and that it's correct.

So what better tool to use than rhetorical language? In fact, as I said at the beginning of the lesson, I think we overlook how much rhetorical language we're actually subjected to every day in great data and all aspects of what we read, it's really important to maybe pay a little bit more attention to it.

Because actually we're being influenced or manipulated in some ways.

And we'll look at that over the course of the rest of the unit.

Pause the video here and just jot down your answer in 15 words or less to that question.

Don't forget to press play when you're done.

And that's the end of the lesson.

Fantastic work on the end of your opinion article.

Feel free to go and compile your own opinion article in full or maybe have a look at other opinion articles.

See if like I said before, you can spot that use of rhetoric within the news.

That's maybe influencing us or pushing us to agree with a particular opinion or disagree without us necessarily even noticing it.

I'd like you to do two things for me today.

I'd like you to write down three things that you've learned across the units so far.

So last lesson and today's lesson as well.

I'd also like you to complete the quiz before you go.

I'm really interested to see how much you've learned as you should be as well.

You've worked incredibly hard today.

Take care and I'll see you next time.