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- Are we ready for stage number two of the Dido and Aenaes story? Things were going so well, weren't they? They just fell in love in that first episode.

Now Aenaes has got some decisions to make.

And it involves the gods and it also involves this word that's in the title called , what's that mean? We're going to find out, let's have a look.

Aeneas' , what does that word mean? Well we're going to find out and let's have a look.

So our learning objectives are can I translate fluently a Latin passage containing relative clauses in the nominative case? And have I consolidated previous core vocabulary? Press pause if you need to in order to get anything to prepare for today's lesson.

Onto let's have a look at these words over here.

Now it's the same shpeel at the beginning of every translation now these are the 14 words that you must have at your fingertips in order to access today's passage they are the most frequent and the most difficult and we're going to take a closer look at these four here first of all, And, derivations, maybe you've seen this one before.

Derivations are this word "peril," if you are in "peril," if a situation is perilous, then you are in danger and the situation is dangerous.

So what you do is you take the "c" and the "u" out, alright, and you think peril, and then you think danger, alright? Next up, we've seen before I'm going to go over it one more time.

Or you may have seen this word with me before.

And a derivation is a computer.

Is a computer is a machine that thinks with you.

So is "with," thinks with you, right? It's a thinking machine.

is "I think." Do not confuse it for a second, however, with Which is "I seek, beg, ask for, attack," alright? And "make for." Alright, so don't confuse these two.

And again you may have seen this one before with me, if you abscond or abstain if you're abstinent, something abnormal, something to do with things being from or away from something else, you're abstinent, you're away from that location.

So is from or away.

And last of all, don't confuse that with "ad." If you advance, you go toward someone.

is away, towards, right.

And then last of all, And it doesn't mean circle, alright? Obviously you get the word circle for it, alright? You might think also of circumference, which is to do with- Sometimes when I teach this, students don't know what a circumference is, which is extremely worrying.

But anyway the circumference, you'll remember, is the distance- it's not the area, anyway circumference is around the circle, isn't it? Okay.

The length, sorry not the distance, around the circle.

Now, these are our words again, I'd like you to just press pause and just read these 14 words once over do not worry for a second if you don't remember them all immediately.

We're going to practise them a lot.

Just press pause here, give them a read once.

Right, let's have a look.

What does mean? It's "I," a computer, the machine that helps you, think, thank you.

What's the difference between is land like terrain, isn't it? you're going to see is the sea as in marine, or maritime.

it's not , what's the difference between ? Good, this is a form of meaning "I save," don't just see and think it has to do with "slave," okay? forms that one, that's "slave." , what's the difference? Two, and.

is a god, means down or about.

You descend when you go down, you describe, you write about something.

What's the difference between ? Good, means "I give" a donation or commendation.

Don't just look at that and think it means "I do," because "I do" is isn't it? Difference between ? Didn't do this in the first grammar lesson on this, did we? Okay, are "who" or "which" and is "what," alright? , I'm just going to tell you "because" is another "qu" word which is tell me if you remember.

Good, ! Very nice.



Answers in three, two, and- There you go.

Now we just did , meaning downabouts.

is a god, is owe or ought.

And what is "I give" in Latin begins with a "d" it is? , good you got all those words.

means what? If is "I something," is going to be what? "You" singular "make or do." , therefore would be what? If is "I something," is "Something something." is? "You" singular "stay," or "remain." Let's go for stay.

Good, "You" singular "see." Now, what's the difference between ? Have a guess, it's a tricky one.

Okay answer in two, and- There we go, this is present tense from.

Right now is the third person "they" form of say the irregular perfect tense it repeats itself it's like or.

Right, so "I gave," , "They gave." Here we go, so this is your present tense.

Um wouldn't be "sended" in English, just goes to "sent." meant what? Good! "You" singular "do" or "make." , what's that mean? Going to mean, "what," make it a question, "what are you making," or perhaps more fluently, "What are you doing?" Alright, is what? So is that "I put?" is "I.

." for computer.

is "I think," right? Remember that.

Would be, let's have a look, two, one.

"I think about the danger," wouldn't be down the danger.

"I think about the danger." Now if you see, I actually did something wrong here, because that's, should be over here, alright? Now, if you see, have a guess, what do you think that makes? What do you think that's going to mean? Okay, really well done if you got this, we get rid of the pronoun, this is called the imperative form, this just means "Think about the danger." "Think about the danger!" Goodness sake.

Does that mean "you save?" What's , what's that mean? It's a bit of pronoun revision.

Good, is "I save," takes the accusative so "I save you." Remember that, I'm going to add two words.

, what's that mean? Good is "from," isn't it so "I save you from danger." , and this is where we come in for the miming, isn't it? So, I'd like you to mime that to me, in two, and one, it's going to be, now does it mean "circle?" It means "around," and can you mime for me, what's mean? means.

Two, one, is "I think," lovely.


Let's have a look at these words so pen or pencil and have one through 14 done in the margin and press pause, what do they mean? Okay, fantastic, now hands completely free let's see what we're going to be learning about today.

Let's look at let's do some preliminary learning about the next chapter of the Dido and Aeneas romance.

So, you'll remember, let's do the backstory, Aeneas, he is a Trojan prince, you might say he's a Trojan hero.

And instead of fighting and dying at Troy when the Greeks capture it he escapes with his family, his son there, lulus, and his father, alright? And he is told by the ghost of his wife, his Trojan wife, that he has a destiny to go to some western place called Italy, or something, and then found some city that's going to be important or something, you probably haven't heard of it, I think it's called Rome, could be anything, alright? Now, on the way though, he has a whole bunch of trials and tribulations, somewhat like Ulysses or Odysseus and one of them is a storm blows his ships off course, he shipwrecks on the coast of North Africa where in Carthage a Regina Queen called Dido rescues his men and rescues him.

At dinner that night he tells his story of everything he's been through, and Dido listens and falls in love with Aeneas.

That's what we got up to.

Now, this next stage is to do with this Latin word up here.

What's that about? Well, it's linked to the English word "pious," which you might have heard, and is, one sense of it is to do with one's duty.

You've already heard about Aeneas, his duty is to go west and found this city called Rome.

Now, another part of this duty is linked to lulus his son, because Aeneas will be the founder, he will lay the foundations, but lulus will go on to be the first in a long line of important kings, one of which, we'll eventually go to Romulus and Remus, who are the second founders of Rome, you might of heard of Romulus and Remus, right? Now the other element of the is a religious element, I would say would probably translate as a religious duty.

It's a very specific Latin word.

And that means there's going to be gods on the scene, and goddesses.

Right, now, luppiter, Jupiter, the "i" changes to a "j" and we get rid of the "p," similarly for "luno" there changes to "Juno." So Jupiter is, he's Rex, he's king of the gods, and he's sort of in charge of making sure destiny happens, alright? And Venus is "mater," the mother of Jupiter, no.

Venus is the mother of Aeneas! Haven't told you that before, have I? So Aeneas is, in fact, the son of a goddess.

His father, Anchises over here, is mortal.

He's a human, whereas his mother is a goddess.

But on the other side of things, is Juno, regina, queen of the gods, now Juno loves Carthage and is a huge supporter of Dido.

Dido's one of her favourites.

And she, in fact, knows another element of some destiny, of the future which is that Rome and Carthage will eventually be enemies, alright? And that's why she's actually trying to keep Aeneas and Dido in love so that they don't end up, that's not going to work, is it Juno? So that Aeneas and Dido don't end up being enemies? No! And it was Juno, actually, way back, who caused the storm in the first place that sent Aeneas's ship to North Africa.

How about that? So, you've got these sort of warring, battling gods happening way up in the , or up in Olympus, I suppose, whilst Dido and Aeneas, sort of victims of their machinations.

Right, lots of characters in this story.

Aeneas, who is Aeneas's partner, it's Dido, isn't it? Who is Jupiter's wife? Jupiter's wife is.

Point at her, it's Juno.

Now, Aeneas's mother is.

Venus or Juno? It's going to be Venus.


Aeneas's son is.

who? Point at Aeneas's son here, lulus.

Now, lulus's destiny is to do what? Is he going to cook some breakfast, what's he going to do? He's going to be a first in line of a lot of kings.


Right, now what's the link between Mercury and Jupiter? They are, Mercury is Jupiter's messenger.

Good, now, Dido, which goddess favours Dido, is it Venus or Juno? Venus or Juno? It's going to be Juno, good.

And, what is the relationship between Jupiter and Venus? Good, so they both, they're both pro-Aeneas, they're both for Aeneas completing his destiny.

Venus, you might know, is Jupiter's daughter, who is Aeneas's son, sorry, yeah, who's Aeneas's son? Is lulus, who's lulus's grandmother? It's Venus! Who's lulus's great-grandfather? It's Jupiter, okay fine.

Right, what's going to be tricky about this passage is how it all looks, so.

The first thing that might cause a spot of bother, this is the passage you're going to be doing in no time, but the first thing we're going to look at are all these instances of relative clauses, alright? So here is example number one,.

And there's a mistake down below, and it is "The god, who sent me, watches the sea." What's gone wrong with this, 10 seconds, off you go.

Three, two, one, and.


We can see here we did a lot of work on this you bracket off your relative clause, and you make sure you've got like that you've got nominative here, verb, accusative there.

And so the order's going to be, now, am I going to go nominative and then over to my verb? No.

So once I start with my nominative I have to go inside the relative clause, once I'm there I then do, "who watches the sea," then I've got this tricky situation happening which then I need to go- "sent me." Do we see that? And what this person has done they've gone "The god who" and then they've gone "well I've got my who, I need to go to a verb," "the god who sent me watches the sea" they've jumped outside the relative clause.

Once you're inside the relative clause you have to stay there, okay? You remember this from the previous lesson, alright? So this is just a classic mistake of just moving, shuffling words around into the wrong place.

Keep that relative clause in it's own little unit.

Alright? Next up, what's happened here? What's wrong with this one? 10 seconds.

One, and, so.

This one, I think it's much more easy, this spot.

"I think about the son who" and then they just treated it like a conveyor belt here, "who me from danger saved, who I," I mean you can change words around no matter, "who I saved from danger." No no no, "Who," nominative, verb, "saved me from danger." Yeah? Okay, good, so "Who saved me." And the other mistake here is this.

We've done work on this in the quiz, is going to be I'm from danger, isn't it "who saved me from." Okay? What's wrong with this one? This is, come on, it'll be fine just five seconds on this, okay? Mistranslated as "I see the danger, because it stays." Okay, right, five seconds, go.

Two, one, and.

I believe can be two things.

And perhaps you'd like to tell me what those two things are.

What's that? You want to tell me, go on then.

Fantastic, okay, one of those "because," and the other is "which," and this one we want to have "which" instead, because look.

We jump one back from our "because" and we see, I mean first of all, it sort of makes more sense, we jump one back though, and we see we've got a noun in front of our , therefore this is going to be the relative pronoun and not the conjunction, and therefore it will mean "which." So "I see the danger which stays." Or "which remains" sort of makes a little bit more sense in English.

Okay? Right, and the second thing that's tricky is all these instances of verbs that haven't got a pronoun at the front, , you've also got and , and I think, is there one up here that I'm covering up? No there isn't, okay fine.


What's the difference between ? We did this a bit in the quiz, but do remember it.

So we look, So.

"ost," "I." Alright, whereas this one is called the imperative, you might just see an exclamation mark over here to give you a clue.

If you see a verb first, well really this should be over here, alright? If you see a verb right at the front, in the nice short form or the on the end, it's the order form and you don't need a pronoun on the front.

What's the difference between , therefore? Good, so "o" on the end, "I leave." Okay, which means "leave." What's the difference between ? So "ost" so that's "you stay," and is "to stay." , this'll be fine.

Good, so is "you look" and would just be "look!" And onto the third thing, which is to do with just this use of the possessive adjective here.

Okay, just making sure you know what we're doing.

So, we've got a mistranslation here, alright? Mistranslated, quite a quick, simple mistake.

Off you go.

Five seconds.

One, zero.

So, "He gave" or "she gave the land." "which," good, not "who" because the land is a thing, so "the land which is" Now, is "you," will be "your." It is another lesson we need to add here.

Which is this thing that English does.

So, I suppose, one thing you say, "He gave the land which is your." How else can you do that? "He gave the land which is yours." Yeah? So this is just this thing that English does which is that if there's no noun next to the possessive adjective, you need to put an "s" on the end for "your." "My" becomes "mine," yeah? "Our" becomes "ours." So just bear that in mind.

It's going to come up.

Now, what's the difference? Assuming we still know our pronouns.

is "you" singular nominative, one's nominative and the other's accusative, yeah? What's the difference between ? Good, we just saw and it was "your" or do we see, in this case we'll see it meaning "yours." Right? Right, let's get translating, let's have a little look.



, "Over the entire winter," ".

were loving, they were in love.

Alright? "In a hunt," so "during a hunt," "they went hunting." "The goddess, Juno," go to your verb, , "makes," or "made," "made both of them," or "them" they made them what? Made them "husband and wife." So actually they've now been, they're now married, alright? And Juno is the goddess of marriage, it's one of her things that happens, alright.

, "now," Aeneas , "he did not want" not , "he did not want to seek Italy." , "therefore," "Jupiter angry" or "the angry Jupiter," , "sent his son, Mercury, to Aeneas.

The gods," so which god's that? Is that Jupiter? That'll be Mercury.

So, Mercury, the messenger god, now "the god's man," I think that is? No no no no what do I do? I've got nominative and accusative and , I'm going to go where? I'm going to go way over here to my verb, so "the gods found the man who" so the man is Aeneas, alright? And what's he doing, though, is he just sat back, is he ignoring, is he being undutiful? Is he being unhelpful, well look what he's doing.


"He was making" remember he saw these in the previous chapter, previous part of the story.

He's making, he's building the walls around the city.

He's embellishing the city.

So he's actually he's building a city but it's the wrong one, alright? "who was making walls around the city he found him, and he".

"He ordered him," and you're going to read Mercury's instructions, you're going to translate Mercury's instructions now.

Are we ready, off you go, what did Mercury say? And if you would like to do the last paragraph independently as a challenge then you may do so now, pressing pause.

Okay, different colour pen at the ready, what just happened? Aeneas! This is what Mercury says, "Aeneas! Jupiter" did we get the spelling correct? Just the one "p." "Jupiter, who watches the land and sea, sent me." Now, this is a question here,.

Now if you just translated it as not a question then just make some quick amendments here.

"Are you now making," so here "making" makes more sense, "making a beautiful city?" "Alas!" Now, "What are you doing?" Here, is going to be "you, what are you doing?" There it will mean "you are making." So make sure you get the context correct, right? "What are you doing? The fates gave a city, which is yours." So you've been allotted a city by fate, alright? , "Think about your mother, who saved you from danger.

Think about your son, who" "ought to be king." there is "to be," really well done there if you got that.

You might have just been able to figure it out.

"Who ought to be king.

Why do you stay in a hostile land?" So he calls Carthage, again he's aware of the fact that Rome and Carthage are going to be enemies in the future and he says, "Look.

These people don't like you, it's not going to work out for you.

Why do you stay in a hostile land? Do you see the" , "the danger which stands around you? Leave immediately." So he's very clear to Aeneas, he says "You got to get out," alright, "Stop hanging around in Carthage, it's not your destiny, it's not what your family wants, also, probably going to work out for you badly, you're in danger, get out." Whew, let's have a look.

Oh, dear.

"The god spoke, and he and he vanished, he was off." Then, Aeneas, now he , he was thinking, , literally, with him- , with himself, to himself you might say.

, for a long time.

And he was , he was asking , he was asking himself.

He says , "What am I able," , "to do? What can I do!?" "He should, he ought to, leave immediately, but" , "he love the queen," Not just deeply, but he loved her very deeply.

He does love Dido, it's not like he just wants to hang out, because he feels like it, right, it's a mutual relationship.

Even though Dido, obviously, fell in love with him first.

He loves her back.

He just has conflicting duties, doesn't he? What do we think's going to happen? You're going to have to do the next translation, aren't you? Alright, and I will obviously see you there, there's two things to do before that though.

And one of them is to do the exit quiz, and the other one is to say to me.

And I'll see to all of you out there.

Okay, so very well done.

And we're going to see what happens in that final episode.

Final chapter of the Dido and Aeneas story in a couple of lessons time.

I will see you there.