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- It's me Mr. Furber.

Now this is the second translation lesson for the unit on the conjugation of regular verbs.

We've done one fable in the previous lesson that was about just the one dog and just the one wolf.

And it only involved the singular endings: -o -s -t but this lesson is the sequel, not only because we're going to be moving on, we're going to be doing -o -s -t and -mus, -tis, -nt, but also the fable we're translating involves packs of wolves and packs of dogs and also packs of Latin.

Yeah that's right.

Okay let's have a little look at this fable then.

Practise Translation: The Wolves and the Dogs Our learning objectives are: "Can I translate fluently a Latin passage containing the conjugation of regular verbs?" Plural persons though this time, as I've already mentioned: -mus, -tis, -nt.

And we're consolidating core vocabulary.

So press pause here if you need to.

I have nothing but praise for those of you who have come prepared with all of those things.

Okay but press pause.

You'll make it up to me won't you if you press pause and go get those things now.


First these are the 12 words, only 12 this time, words that you will need to know, have at your fingertips in order to access the passage that you'll be doing independently at the end of this video.

And in order to do that, we're going to do some practising now.

Now an odd thing has happened which is that actually you should be familiar with all of these words.

None of these are sort of weird words that I'm adding like or something.

So actually I'm just going to give you a minute.

Just read over those 12.

Pressing pause to do so now.

Right hands completely free as I said.

As usual do not worry for a second if you don't know any of these words because all we're doing is practising starting now.

"Cur" means what? The clue here is the question.

Oh no that's not just me asking you the question.

"Cur" means "why." If you're curious you always ask why.

Okay "cibus" means what of those two? Good "cibus" is "food." "Cena" is "dinner." "Cibus" is "food." "Est" does "est" mean "I am"? Nodding heads, shaking heads.

Three, two, shaking heads.

"Est" means "he or she is" good.

Does "laboro" mean "I walk"? Nodding heads, shaking heads.

Three, two, one, shaking heads.

"Laboro" means "I work." If something is laborious it requires a lot of work.

A laboratory probably is where scientists work.

"Semper" does "semper" means "always"? Nodding heads, shaking heads.

Three, two, one.

Okay the difference between "nunc" and "non." I ask it all the time what's it mean? What's the difference? Three, two, and right Latin words both have two N's in.

Don't look at "nunc" and think it means "not." That's why I tried to lay this trap for you.

"Nunc" is "now." "Non" all right "non" whatever it's a prefix in English.

"Non" means "not." "Nunc" is "now" "nunc" "now." "Specto" versus "video." This one there's 16-year-olds and above who get this wrong.

Okay let's have a look.

"Specto" is the idea to do with being a "spectator" which is when you watch things.

All right where as "video" is to do with "vision" which is when you see or look.

Okay "specto" "I watch or look at." "Video" "I see or look." Well done if you got that.

"Cur non" you might say, "Cur non?" Means what? Good "why not?" "Why not?" "Cur non?" "Cur semper laboro." It's a question some of us have been asking recently.

Let's have a look.

We know that word.

We know that word.

Put it together.

"Why do I always work?" "Why am I always working?" "Optimus" does "optimus" mean good? Nodding heads or shaking heads? Shaking heads.

"Optimus" means "excellent" or "the best" or "very good." Now bear that in mind because.

"Cibus est optimus" means what? Good tell me big strong voice so I can hear it.

Lovely "the food is excellent." Okay "cibus." And you might say, "Cibus est optimus, sed.

." What's "sed" mean? What changes in that sentence? Great "the food is excellent, but.

." "sed" "but." "Cibum habeo" means which of those three? Good "habeo" is "I have" so "cibum habeo," "I have food." "Cibum semper consumo." Do we still know "semper"? What's that mean? Great "I always eat food" or "I am always eating food." Now we bring me in.

I'm going to be miming some of these Latin words around here to you and I want you to tell me what that Latin word is.

Let's start of with.

In three what's that Latin word? Two, one, it's going to be "cur" meaning what? What does "cur" mean? Meaning "why" good.

What about that one? It's going to be three, two, one, "optimus" which means "excellent." Not "good" it means "excellent." What about this what is this going to be? In three, two, that will be pow.

It will be "sed" means "but." Good and then what's that one? What's that? It's not a helicopter.

Come on what's that one? It has to do with time.

It's going to be three, two, one, That's "semper" means "always." Great and then okay let's see if we can put some of these together.

Last of all what's this one if I'm just holding it? I mean it's the one that's not done yet.

Okay it's going to be "habeo" meaning "I have." Okay "cibum" is "food." Let's have "habeo optimum cibum" what's that mean? Good so it will be "I have the best or excellent food." What about "cur habeo optimum cibum" what's that? It's going to be "why do I have the best food?" "Cur semper optimum cibum habeo." One more time.

"Cur semper optimum cibum habeo." Three, two, one it's going to be "why do.

." Now you go to habeo for ".

I always have the best food?" And then last of all "sed sum optimus." "Sed sum optimus" means? Good "But I am the best or excellent." Well if you're so excellent then you can get all of these questions right can't you in the vocab test.

So 1 to 12 down the margin, tell me what those 12 words mean.

Off we go.

Switching to a different coloured pen let's see how we did.

Well done have a look at that.

Okay hands completely free, we're just going to go over now the context for our fable.

What's this fable going to be about? Okay so last lesson, we did just the one "canus" and just the one "lupus." This time as I've mentioned we're doing "canes" which is a plural.

Now we've not officially done plurals yet so we're just going to give you a sneak peak into some of these forms. "Canes" is "dogs." And then "lupi" is not just the one "wolf," but more than one.

This is "wolves." And as usual As always in fact these stories are taken from what's known as the "Corpus Aesopocum." All right which is taken from the fables of Aesop including this one.

Actually I've adapted from the Latin written by as I said a Greek who wrote fables in Latin He's called Phaedrus.

Now dogs and wolves do they get along? Last time we looked at how the dog is domesticated and the wolf is wild.

But this time we are looking at the more brutal side.

Ah I'm giving things away.

We're looking at the.

Well look you'll find out if you're going to sync.

But before we get translating we need to have a look at some of the things that are going to be tricky in this passage.

And the first thing we have to look at, this you'll remember.

This is how it works.

This is the story that you'll be doing.

This is the actual paragraph that you'll be translating on your own in no time.

But before we do that we're going to look at sentences which look like these sentences.

I'm not going to give you the same sentences because that would just be doing it for you.

But what the thing we need to focus on this story is everything in it which is, it's instances of verbs ending with either -mus, -tis, or -nt.

Okay with these plural person endings of verbs.

And also sentences which have a nice accusative on the front or with the "dominum," is the master going to be doing this sentence? No okay it's the accusative first.

Let's have a look at this first sentence.

So here we have "dominum habemus." Okay and it's been mistranslated.

I'm getting mighty sick of seeing this mistake over and over again.

I don't know about you lot all right, but students do it all the time and I insist that you don't do that whatsoever.

What is wrong with "dominum habemus" being mistranslated as "the master has"? I'm going to give you 10 seconds to figure it out.

Go have a little look.

Three, two, and one.

Now let me see what the students have done.

They've gone "dominum" that's the master isn't it? And "habe" that's from "habeo." I know "habeo" that has to do with "having" so it's just the master has.

They've just done step one, got their ingredients, smooshed them together without looking at their endings of anything, and then thought that that's how you do Latin.

Well it's not is it? Okay step two has been skipped.

We look at "habemus." Can you show me with ♪ fingers and thumbs up, ♪ three, two, one, ♪ ♪ who's doing -mus? ♪ ♪ In one, two, three let's have a go.

♪ ♪ "-o -s -t -mus" it's "we" thank you.

♪ Good so -mus.

There's a missing "we" here isn't there.

Should be "we have" right.

Then the next thing we go to, that's step two done, now that next thing that's tricky is we have to look at our case so that's going to be nominative or accusative for "dominum." ♪What letter singular accusatives end in? M.

♪ All right so M on the end therefore is a singular accusative "ACC." I know this is our verb.

Do we just leave verb there when we're going to do sentences like this? Nodding heads or shaking heads? Shaking heads okay because you need verb plus "NOM." All right then when we translate as our nominative is in the verb, look at this that's one verb in Latin and then we get two words from it when we translate it into English.

Therefore when we're looking at our word order, we need to have this.

This needs to have two labels.

It's going to be this bit, this bit, this bit.

I know you knew it about a minute ago, but tell your screen now in a big strong voice.

It doesn't mean "the master has." What does "dominum habemus" mean? Big strong voice three, two, one.

Go it means? Thank you good.

We start with the -mus.

We have a.

This is one thing the dogs might be saying this to the wolves, won't they? They might say, "We have a master." With a capital "We" in full stop.

Take one last look at it because it's going to go.

And "dominum habemus" you won't get that exact sentence.

It will look a bit like that.

In three, two and it's gone.

Right number two.

Similarly this is one where the accusative first.

It's not quite as much as a blunder as the accusative first blunder.

But the student has just gone, they've just done step one.

"Semper laboramus" five seconds tell me -mus, What's wrong with this translation here? Go.

One and zero so great well done.

Fingers and thumbs up for three, two, one.

Who's doing -mus here? After one, two, three it's "we." Yeah so they've missed out the -mus.

They've missed out that verb ending.

Step one's been done.

Missed out the verb endings.

So we need a "we" here.

For "we always work" all right.

Okay we don't need to worry about case because there's no accusative here.

Right now similarly what's wrong with this one? "Sed spectatis" similarly five seconds, What's wrong with it? Go.

Two, one and so this student also has just gone like "But watch." "But watch" that's all that means.

It's fine in the bag.

On to the next one.

Doesn't make any sense all right.

We look step one's been done.

We go to our verb ending and you show me with ♪ fingers and thumbs ♪ after three, two, one, who's doing -tis? ♪ It's not "we" it's going to be -mus.

Thank you -mus -tis "you ." Great so this is "but you watch." Okay done all right.

What does "habetis" mean? "-betis." Let's remind ourselves how -o -s -t goes.

Let's find out after.

Now "habetis" with a -tis ending.

"-o -s -t -mus -tis." "You have." Bear that in mind.

What's "laboratis" therefore mean? Answer nice and quickly.

Three, two, one.

Let's run it through -o -s -t -mus.

It's the same it's "you ," but the verb is "work" now.

Now I'm going to change, "labora" is going to stay, but I'm changing -tis to -mus.

What does this therefore mean? Good let's run it through.

Looking for the -mus ending.

"-o -s -t -mus" "we work." Good we just did a bunch of examples.

"Spectamus" therefore I'm picking up the pace actually.

So I'll give you three, two.

I'm not going to do the -o -s -t and -mus is "we watch." "Spectatis" three seconds.

Three, two, -tis was "you watch." Great "consumimus" therefore in three, two, one.

It's "we eat." Interesting right.

I'm just going to model how to do this one here.

It's a couple of instances when translating Latin, where you actually have to have the word "do" and one of them is with "non" and the other one is with another word that I've forgotten.

But the big one's with "non." So here we've got look, step one word beginnings.

It's going to be "cur" "why" "non," now does "non" mean "no"? Does "non" mean "no"? "Non" means "not." All right "why not".

Then we got "labour" has to do with "work." Step one we do our verb endings.

"-o -s -t -mus -tis" from memory, who's doing -tis after three, two, one? Singular or plural? Plural lovely.

It's going to be "you ." Step two's done.

We don't need to worry about accusatives because there aren't any verbs.

So that's done.

So we translate here.

We just got two adverbs here.

It's a question word which is a form of an adverb.

Times two this is a verb plus NOM.

So actually what we've got, is a situation where it should be that word, that word and we just need to make the other ones make sense.

All right so we got "You work not why." Make that make sense for me.

Off you go.

Good yes so it would be "Why don't you" or "Why do you not work?" "Why do you not work." Do we see how we have to have the word "do" in order to make this make sense? "Why do you" singular or plural? plural "not work?" There are some legitimate instances where you're allowed to add words in Latin.

One of them is "the" or "a" or "an" to use articles and the other one is with some adverbs you have to put the word "do" in it in order to make the sentences make sense.

But don't go thinking you can just add words like "and" in or something like that.

That's not allowed.

"Cur non laboratis." "Why don't you" or "why do you not work?" One last look.

And I believe, it's time for you to do one one your own.

Pressing pause to do "sed cibum consumimus." In three -mus two and pause.

What do you think? Okay different coloured pen.

How did we do? Now don't worry at all for our labelling if we're missing off "sed" which is technically a conjunction.

Okay but we've got accusative verb plus NOM in brackets.

"But we eat food." Okay good.

That's what I'm going to say.

Really well done.

You're going to be fine.

There's loads of sentences that look like this in this passage.

So just what you did there, if you got that right, just do that a dozen more times and you're going to be fine.

What's the actual story about then? Let's have a little look.

So and the last one "dominum habetis." Does this mean "the master has"? Does this mean "the master has" for goodness sake.

What's it mean? "-o -s -t -mus -tis" "you have a master." That's just my tiny little clue for the first sentence of the translation.

Let's have a look at the first passage together.

It's a fairly short one.

This is the -o -s -t -mus -tis -nt.

Who's doing these -nt verbs? We've not even done that word yet -nt.

It's going to be "they" okay.

Now we're jumping ahead a bit because this is plurals so I'll give you a hand, but you can do this.

The "lupi" the "wolves" "non" they "non consumunt," "they don't eat" so "the wolves don't eat." So "the wolves" "they walk." You need "they." "The wolves walk away from." "They walk around." "They walk at." "Walk." "Towards the dogs" and "they" "inquunt," and "they say." Now these are very sneaky wolves.

They say.

So they say "adspicite." "Consider our differences as canine species." "Habemus" "habemus." "We have" "similitudines et discrimina." "We have similarities and differences." This is their method of persuasion.

All right and you're going to read the proposal that these wolves have for these dogs in the passage that you're doing which is this one.

What does that sentence mean? Okay pressing pause you'll really go on your own.

Off you go.

What do the wolves say? And if you would like to, it's only a few sentences, like to take five minutes to translate the last few sentences of this passage including some tricky plural work, jumping ahead a bit, then please do so now.

Okay right different coloured pen time.

Let's see what's happened.

I'm going to read the latter now because I like this story a lot.

The wolves are speaking.


Right "you ." Now if you've missed out the plurals, please put them in now.

This is the plural.

This is the sequel.

We're looking at plurals in this lesson aren't we.

"You have a master." "We do not have a master." "We don't have a master." "You always work." "We do not work." "You have collars." "We do not have collars." "You always watch the sheep," "but you only eat bones." "We always eat sheep." "Why don't" or "why do you not," "why don't you eat with us?" Now here you've got a choice.

"Sheep are excellent food." "We will share." Hmm should you trust a wolf? Oh dear this is a bit of very.

Get a load of this ending.

All right here we go.

"The dogs they" "audiunt" "they listen." And yeah sounds like a good idea.

Why are we doing all this chore? Why are we doing this work? Let's just be away with the wolves.

And they "invitant" invite the "lupos" the wolves in "fundum." They invite them not "in," "into" the farm.

The "lupi intrant" and what happens? Oh those dogs.

"Lupi canes necant." Now "neco" is a verb which you may have had to look up on the vocab list is "kill." "The wolves kill the dogs." They were just lying to them the whole time.

Never trust a wolf.

Never trust a wolf.

Right once we've done that, there's two things left and one of them is the thing that we're going to do after first thing, but the second thing is to do the exit quiz.

And the thing to do before that is to say "valete." One more time after three, ♪ finger in the air and -o -s -t -mus -tis -nt.

♪ You're turn ♪ -o -s -t -mus -tis -nt very nice.

Okay really well done.

I hope you enjoyed those dog and wolf fables.

Those silly dogs.

They made the wrong decision okay.

Right and valete and hopefully I'll see you on some future units all right? And make sure that you remember your -o -s -t for the rest of your life.

I have why wouldn't you do that? Valete very well done.