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- This is Mr. Ferber and you're doing Latin on Oak Nation Academy.

And this is the first of two translation lessons to do with the conjugation of regular verbs.

O, S, T.

But we're only going to be looking at the singulars today.

We're going to be looking at O S T and we're going to be using that grammatical knowledge to translate a fable about a dog, ruff, ruff and a wolf.

Do we think the dog and the wolf when they meet each other, they're going to be friends? Well, I don't know, let's find out.

Let's have a look.

Practise Translation: The Wolf and the Dog.

Our learning objectives, otherwise known in Latin as discenda are, can I translate fluently a Latin passage containing the conjugation of regular verbs, just a singular persons, the O S T.

And have I consolidated core vocabulary? Press pause here if you need to to get the items required for today's learning.

Other than that let's move on and have a look at core vocab.

So these are the 14 words that you will need to have at your fingertips.

You'll need to know as many as possible in order to access today's passage for translation.

They are the most frequent or the most difficult.

And we're going to take a close up look, which ones are going to be.

At circum over here, all right, now meaning around, you may have seen it before.

But let's have a quick look at it again.

So circum, we get English words like circumference, which is the distance.

Some students, when I teach circum think it's the area.

And for goodness sake, it's the distance around, around, a circle isn't it.

Alright, circum.

Obviously we get the word circle sort of from circum but don't think it means circle.

Circum is a preposition.

You're going to have a noun over here, right.

and it means around, circum, around.

Now what we do is we have a little look.

I'd like you to press pause a just take one minute to read over these 14 words one time.

Do not worry for a second if you don't know any of them.

That's what I'm here for.

That's what we're here for.

We're going to be practising them now, but just familiarise yourself in general with them.

Off you go.

Right, hands can be free, set up straight.

What does cicrum mean? It's around.

Now you've got two people or two things, point at canis in three, two, and that one's a canis with its three heads.

And then pointing out therefore, a dominis in two, one.

That's going to be your master.

There's your dog.

I mean this is in fact, the God is a master who's a God, the God Pluto.

Anyway, what's the difference between est and sum? Good, three, two, and sum is I am and est is he or she.

Is est canis? What did est just mean? I just said it.

What's est canis therefore mean? So look in, it's going to be now, he, she, or it is a dog.

Got that.

Est is he is, canis is dog.

Est, he is a dog you might say or is this a dog, right.

Sed versus semper, what's the difference? Answers in two and it's one or the other.

Sed is but, semper is always.

Do you remember this little trick for sed and semper? Sed has only got three letters, just like but.

Look at that.

And Semper, six letters just like always.


Right, okay remember, both of those are going to be coming up loads.

Nunc and non, what's the difference? Answers in three, two, and they both have two n's in, right? Yeah.

Don't think that nunc, a classic mistake is thinking nunc means not.

Non is not, as in sort of non-negotiable or something.

Nunc is another English word with an N and O and it means now.

Nunc, now.

Remember these.

Habet versus inquit.

Answers in two and 'cause inquit is says, habet has.

Okay, it either goes to haves, have sorry, or has or habets.

Quid inquit? Now inquit we just did.

Do we know quid? Okay, we did know.

Let's have a look.

So quid is what, if we didn't know.

So what does she say? Or what is he saying? What she's saying? Something along those lines.

We didn't know quid means what, we might know it now.

No it was going to come up in a bit.

Non inquit means what? It's going to be, now is it now he says? It's going to be he or she does not say.

Nunc inquit, so this might happen in a story, nunc inquid, sed.

What would that be? Good so this is the now.

Nunc is now.

Now she says, but, sed, remember sed but three letters, three letters.

Okay what's the difference between cibum habeo, cibum specto, and circumspecto? Hmm.

Okay, answers in three, two and let's have a look.

There you go.

Semper is this still there? Semper consumo is which of these two? Quick five.

Three, two, and I always eat.

Quid, do we know quid? What was it? If we didn't know it before, do we know it now? Quid consumo means which of these two? In three, two.

Good, it's what.

Good, we've got that now.

What do I eat? What am I eating, you might say.

Sed semper consumo.

If you see that, maybe you might have a clause and a comma here.

You've got sed semper consumo, means what? Good, you're going to do this word, this word, this word.

But I also, but this word, this beats this word there.

But I always eat.

You might have comma, but I always eat.

Now, this is where I come in, in the middle here and I'm going to be pointing at some words all the way around here and we're going to start off with the, what was the preposition I just mimed by doing that? In three, point at, two, one.

It's going to be, pow, circum meaning around.

Now, I'm going to mime some more words at you and you're going to tell me the Latin word.

What's this word? In three, two.

It's going to be quid, as in meaning what.

What's that? What's that? In three, two, that's a roof, it's a roof.

It's three, it's not a mountain, it's a roof.

Three, two, it's going to be villa.

What does circum villam, if you see circum villam in a story, circum villa means what? In three, two, one.

It's going to be around the house.

What am I miming now? I'm going to do.

It's not my whistle.

♪ Go for a little walk over here ♪ It's going to be three, two, one.


What about this verb here? Now I'm not carrying it.

I've just sort of got it.

You know, I'm not writing with it.

It's just a thing that I, maybe I've, you know it's.

Going to be three, two, one.

Habeo, I have.

Habeo and then let's do this one again.

It's going to be quid, which is what.

Now what am I miming? It's going to be three, two, word's going to be nunc, now.

Okay and we're going to put three together.

We're going to have nunc.

Bear with me.

We're going to have nunc, nunc, habeo, villa.

Nunc, I knew I'd do that, nunc habeo villa in three, two, one.

It's going to be now I have a house.

Good, that one.

Be quid, what, to what.

And one more time let's do ♪ I'm just going to go over here ♪ And now I'm going to, it's going to be three, two, one.

It's going to be, no, no it's not.

It's going to be ambulo.

I'm just playing with you.

Okay fine.

So there circum villam means what? In a big strong voice, three, two, one.

Around the house.

And make a noise like a canis after three, two, one.

Woof, woof, bow wow.

It's going to be barking isn't, latratus in Latin.

So those words should be at our fingertips.

How many do we know? Press pause here.

You're going to write one to 14 down the margin and write down for me the translation in English of those 14 words there.

Pressing pause, go.

Okay, different colour pen at the ready, let see how we did.

How did you do? Mark those answer for me.

Off you go.

The same as in unit one, we're going to carry over the next few units, our stories will be from Aesopus et Phaedrus.

They will be taken from Aesop, the ancient Greek who invented fables, all right.

And also the actual Latin you'll be reading will be adapted from this person Phaedrus, who was also Greek but wrote fables, not in Greek, but wrote them during the time of the Romans in Latin.

And the fable we're looking at today is about a canis, which is not a wolf, a canis you'll now, 'cause you did woof, woof, you know.

We made a noise like just now.

It's a dog.

But also this new word, lupus, which is a wolf.

Now normally you'll remember that when we do translation, passage translation in this course, any word that you're not expected to know is underlined and given to you in the additional vocabulary.

Now I will be expecting you to know that lups means wolf right.

Lupus, lupus, wolf, lupus.

Okay now here's a canis, he has on a collar.

There's a wolf.

Wolf obviously runs free.

Doesn't live in a house, doesn't have a dominus all right.

What are they going to talk about? What are they going to say to each other when they meet? That is the premise of this fable.

Before we get to that though, we're going to just have a quick look at, making sure we just model, excuse me, practise sentences is the kind of thing you're going to be looking at in this passage.

Now this as I said, I'll get rid of me, is the passage you'll be doing in no time.

But the first thing we're going to look at and practise before I let you get on with it on your own are sentences like this one, where you've got an accusative there.

What letter do you see your accusative end and a verb that we need to really scrutinise who's doing the verb 'cause we don't want to make a mistake like the person who you're going to see made one in a just a bit.

Like this person here.

Cibum consumo mistranslated.

It's food is eaten.

I'm going to give you 10 second to tell me and think about what's wrong with the translation food is eaten for cibum consumo.

That's your clue.

10 second go.

Three, two, one and let's have a look.

So cibum, look, step one you look at your ingredients don't you? Appropriate 'cause we're talking about food.

We don't look at the m there, we don't look at the o, we just think what we're dealing with.

What are our root words.

And we've got food and we've got eating.

That's okay, so that one's fine.

But then we take a little trip to step two on our verb endings.

Oh, who's doing o and I'm very pleased if you remember, I've not even alluded to it yet, except maybe a couple a times that o is going to be I, isn't it, first person singular.

O S T, I, you, he, she or it? O is I.

And there's no I here is there? Consumo therefore is I eat.

All right that's consumo done.

And then we go over to the case of cibum.

Let's do singular accusatives end in m.

So we know that that's an accusative.

This is not just our verb, but what goes after here? Do we remember? It's going to be our verb.

We also note I'm doing the verb.

So the nominative, it's what called nominative in the verb.

This is V plus nom.

All right and then when we put it together we go NOM VERB ACC, we do that bit, that bit, that bit.

O consum cibum, I eat food, and then that's our translation.

Can we see what went wrong here and why this student this? This student went cibum, that means food, consumo means eats.

The food eats doesn't make sense, so I'm just going to flip things around to make it make sense.

The food is eaten.

Sounds great by me.

Okay, cibum consumo the food is eaten and it's wrong.

I eat the food.

Right, take a good look at cibum consumo, I eat the food, 'cause it's going in three, two, and.

That was me going.

And one.

Consumo means what? After three, two, and one.

Let's just go over O, S, T one more time.

O, S, T, going to be I, you, she.

That's all you get, consumo.

Consumis, who's saying that? In three, two, and, you eat.


Now consumis is you eat, habes means what? Three, two, one.

You have.

Spectat, who's doing that? Two, one.

So this one, spectat, the O, S, T.

He looks at or he watches.

Habeo, who's doing that? Three, two, one.

It's going to be O, I, I have.

Quid habes therefore means what? In three, two, one.

Let's have a look.

Quid habeo.

Quid habes, O, S, I, you.

What do you? Do we see, this one you might think what you have here is to put a do in in English, to make it make sense.

What do you have? Cibum habeo is the answer to that question, even with the question mark there, 'cause I'm asking what it means.

Three, two, and cibum habeo, I have food, I.

Villam spectas, who's doing that? In three, two, one.

It's going to be spectas, O, S, I, you singular, you singular watch the house.

Okay and get rid of me.

Cicum villam ambulas? In, now I'll give you a bit longer this one, 'cause it's a longer sentence.

Okay could look at ambulas with an s on the end.

Three, two, one.

It's going to be O, S.

What does, so now it's time for you to do one on your own.

What does, think about that practise canem, spectas mean? Off we go.

Give yourself two minutes pressing pause to translate, following the steps, canem spectas.

Two, one and pause.

Okay, different coloured pen at the ready.

Let's have a look.

So I've put these bits in here so that you can check if you get anything wrong.

But really well done if you've got you singular, s, you singular watch the dog.

Great, okay.

The key thing to avoid here is that an accusative.

This dog isn't doing any watching.

All right, so you need to keep your eye out for that.

If you got that wrong, it's not the end of the world.

In fact that's great, all right, because that means you've got an opportunity to reflect on that and make sure you that you get it right.

There's a whole bunch a sentences like this coming up in the passage.

Make sure you get them right.

How was that? Was it because you didn't see the m on the end? That means it's not doing.

M on the end first word macid, means it won't be first word of your English translation.

That's the key thing for Latin forever, all right, right? The next thing that students find tricky, what we're going to look at is this one sentence here, lupus canem spectat, because we just need to make sure, and I know we're experts in O, S, T now but need to make sure we avoid errors like this.

Lupus canem spectat mistranslated as he watches the wolf dog.

What is wrong with that translation? Let's go five, just five seconds actually on this one.


Two, one.

And so look and we see the reason why the student has made this, we've got Lupus is a wolf.

Got canem is a dog and spectat is watches.

So step one, do we see how step one on its own is not enough, yeah? So every word in there has been accounted for but we then need to look at our noun endings, nominative or accusative.

We got lupus.

It's not been changed, that's our nominative.

But what letter do singular accusatives end in? M, all right, so that's our ACC.

And then spectat means watches, that's our verb, all right.

And then our order of translation is going to be sentences I each go, subject, verb, object, sentences in action, go, subject, object verb.

All right and this I E nominative verb accusative, that word, that word, that word.

What students have done here though is they've looked at spectat.

They've gone ah haha he's trying to catch me up, trying to catch me up.

You don't translate the first word do you? You never translate the first word.

You go to the end in Latin don't you and you do it that bit, that bit, that bit.

All right and so spectat is he watches.

So it's going to be watches the wolf dog or he watches the dog wolf.

We've seen things like this in the past.

It's going to be, don't forget, just because we've done this verb work, you still know how to do a nominative accusative verb sentence, all right.

It's going to be this word, this word, this word.

The wolf, tell me the answer.

Yeah I'm listening.

Thank you.

The wolf watches, look at that handwriting, the dog with a full stop and answer.

Okay step three done.

Take one last look, 'cause it's going to go away in three, two and what does canis lupum spectat mean? Okay, let's have a look.

Nominative accusative verb.

Nominative translated in the order subject, verb, objects, so it's the dog watches the wolf.

Now the next and last thing that students find tricky is just this little bit est nihil, est nihil.

And here we have est cibus, 'cause I'm not, you'll know what nihil means in a sec, mistranslated as he is food.

All I'll do is just talk you through this one.

Now in some, in one, or you play on the context of the story he is food is actually fine.

Maybe if you're talking about someone who was going to be eaten.

I get it's pretty grim.

All right but in this context, you're going to use the third meaning of est.

It's going to be he is, she is, or the third one is, tell me if you know, going to be? It thank you, so it is.

So you'll est first word in this, better put a T on that, you will see est is first word in this translation.

Est then a noun, and that's going to be it is something, so just bear that in mind.


What is this translation all about? Well let's have a look at this first paragraph.

So the now, the wolf dog sees.

As wolf dog sees, that's wolf dog sees.

I'm going to bring me in, hold on.

It's a nominative, accusative verb.

The wolf, yep sees the dog.

Now I add some adjectives in.

You've got the hungry wolf salutat, greets the dog.

And then , what's the dog? He is full, he's full a food.

Well he's eaten well.

The full dog salutat, greets the, now nominative or accusative, lupum is? Good, can we do nominative, accusative.

Nominative, it's going to be accusative.

Greets the hungry wolf.

The lupus inquit, the wolf says.

Cur, this is the wolf.

Now we've got this S and O stuff.

S, O, S and O.

O and who's doing S on the end is going to be, I, S is you, good.

So cur, cur is what? Well it's not what the cur is.

Why, why do I have why do S, why do you have an optimum and excellence really good tergurm, so fur coat.

Why do, why is you all first why do you have really an excellent or excellent fur.

I am sordidus, I'm.

Anything underlines you'll remember I told you is given to you under here.

I am dirty.

Why do, who's doing it? Why are you eating? I do , I don't have cibum, food.

Cur, again tell me.

Why do you know we go to our verb,.

Why do you sleep in villa, in the house? I sleep, extra, outside.

Okay, and the well.

It's all of these things.

So quad, not to be confused with quid, quad is because, because I have the master.

Quid, what, literally shouts the wolf.

What the wolf shouts or shouts the wolf.

So now the dog is going to explain to canis what having a master is all about.

And we're going to read that.

Or you're going to translate that on your own.

Okay, so pressing pause here, having a look.

O on the end, O there.

So habes, S, habeo, right.

So really keep your eye ambulo, keep your eye on those verb endings.

You're going to be fine.

Pressing pause here, translate that middle paragraph.

Off you go.

And if you feel like doing the last paragraph, which contains some pretty tricky stuff in there, this sentence here is very difficult, if you want to do that last challenge on your own, as a challenge then feel free to press pause here and do so now.

Okay, different colour pen at the ready.

How was it? I told you it'd be fine.

So at night, I might just read it all in Latin very quickly.

So at night, I watch the house, the dog says.

I always eat food.

I'm happy But the wolf looks at the dog.

Did we get this subject, object nominative, accusative verb, this word, this word, this word.

The wolf looks at the dog.

The wolf says, quid, now really well done if you got this, what, habes, what do you have, circum, around your neck.

What do you have around your neck? I have a collar, replies the dog.

It is, oh good, not he is, it is nothing.

Now I'm tied up but at night the master frees me.

I walk around the house.

So what situation have we got here? Well let's have a little look.

And the wolf also answers, says.

So cur, why, why do you, S you walk.

Why do you.

Why don't you walk, why don't you walk around the house now? Why don't you walk now actually, the wolf says.

Well the , the master forbids me.

The master says I'm not allowed to.

The dog replies, hmm, well, well now.


So now, this is the ultimate in accusative first word sentences.

Because we start with the last words in the sentence which is.

So laudas, you louder, you praise, yeah you can have, you praise your food and house and the master, right.

But you tell you what I praise, laudo, I praise freedom all right.

And he exit and he goes out happy.

Let's just wrap up what's happened.

A wolf meets a dog and initially how does that wolf feel? Does he feel really satisfied or does he feel jealous? The wolf feels jealous.

He says, you got all that food.

You know you get to eat all the time.

Look at the quality of your fur.

Okay, what's up.

And the dog says well I'm having such a great time okay because I get to, you know all I do is do the job and then I get to eat all the time, and I'm having a great life.

All right, now was that dog telling the truth? Thumbs up, thumbs down.

Was that dog telling the truth? Thumbs down, why? Because what else does that dog have? He has to wear a and also his freedom is restricted.

All right, so the moral is, okay I'm not going to give the moral away, because on the exit quiz, down here, yeah, there's a question on what you think the moral of the fable might mean.

But just use my little intro there, my little conversation about that fable in order to answer that question and we'll see if you get it right.

Other than that, all that's left is for us to say vale to one another for me to say valete to all of you people out there and also to you individually, vale.

And for you to say vale to me.

O, S, T, vale.

O, S, T, vale.

Very well done.

Now the next fable is on the sequel, all right.

And I'll see you then.

It's about more than one dog and more than one wolf.

So I will see you at that fable.

Very well done today in this lesson.

Vale for the third time, bye bye.