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Hello, and welcome back.

I'm Mr. Telfer, your DT teacher or today you can call me chef.

In today's lesson, we're going to be looking how we can develop a recipe.

Now, it is a theory lesson but there is an element of practical as well.

If you choose to do the cooking, you must have adult supervision at all times.

For the theory, you're going to need your pen and paper again.

And for the practical, you're going to need to have all the equipment and ingredients, which you'll find on the next slide.

And you must wear an apron also.

So the main areas we're going to be exploring today, how we adapt a recipe, so that's the first thing.

We're going to be looking at the importance of a specification, how we produce a ordered sequence, and lastly, how we work out or produce a costing spreadsheet.

So the keywords that we'll be using today, adapt, which you've already heard me say, which means to modify or make something more suitable for the new purpose.

A recipe, that's the set of instructions that we follow in order for us to make a dish.

The design specification, this is the series of points that a product has to meet.

So my product must do this, it must do that.

And innovative, so that's how develop a new or creative idea.

Manufacturing, and that means how we make something.

But when we hear the word manufacturing we tend to think about a large production scale.

Something we'll be looking at later.

Resources, so these are the materials or the equipment or ingredients that we're going to need for us to effectively complete our task.

And costing, that's the money.

And that's how we calculate the total cost of our ingredients to make our dish.

So this is our recipe card.

We're making burgers today.

Who likes burgers? I'm a vegetarian, so I don't even eat beef.

But, there we go.

So there's your ingredients and there's your equipment.

If you are choosing to do the practical, make sure we have all these things ready before we start.

So press pause now.

And then when you come back, we'll continue.

Okay, so before we go any further we need to make sure got the following things done.

We've removed all our jewellery.

Rings, watches, that's gone.

We need to make sure that our hair is tied back.

Our hands are cleaned.

We have our aprons on and we've already wiped down all surfaces and everything is clean around us.

Make sure we do these things first before we make any progress, before we even start cooking.

If you've got a net, put one on.

All right.

And I'll see you in a minute.

See you shortly.

So in today's practical we're going to be making burgers.

The first thing you're going to need to do, on a brown chopping board, is to dice your onions.

Now we use a brown chopping board for our vegetables.

Yeah so you've got different coloured chopping boards for different things.

What we're just going to do is slice it one way really thin.

Once you've done that you're going to turn it the other way and you're going to dice it as well.

Now, there are a few different techniques that we can use for dicing.

This is my one.

What we'll have is fine diced pieces of onion.

Okay, see that? That's what we're going for.

Here's some I done earlier.

Ta da! So next I'm just going to get my beef.

So this is my beef from the butcher, my minced beef.

500 grammes, British farmers as well.

So that goes in my bowl like that, fresh.

I'm just going to add these onions.

So I'm going to put my onions in.

Like so.

Now what I forgot to say, I apologise, is that I've already done my washing up.

I've washed my hands already to make sure that they're clean.

My hair was already put back.

So now at this point, if he wanted to add a bit of pepper.

Totally up to you.

Love that pepper.

Now, if you want to add salt, you can put in a tiny bit right now.

Not too much.

'Cause, you know, healthy eating.

We don't want to add too much salt into our food.

Now we're going to add one egg white.

No, that's a lie, we're going to add the egg yolk.

You're just going to crack your egg.

Then we're going to get the white out.

And we're just going to add the yolk just to bind it.

So, in it goes.


Put that in the bin.

Then we're just going to make sure our hands are clean.

Wash of the hands, just rinse off the onion.

Not that it matters 'cause it's goin' back in there anyway.

And what you want to do is just start binding this all together.

You don't want to do too much to it though, okay.

Once you start playing around with it too much it starts getting a bit yucky.

So, just trying to bind the pieces nice.

Make sure it's getting nice, even covering.

My onions are probably a bit big.

You'll probably make them a bit smaller.

So you get that nice, you have to get your hands all in there.


And then we're going to make four burgers.

So I want to split this, really, into four even looking parts.

I'm not going to weigh them.

You want to get them into four balls just like the method says and it looks a bit like a tennis ball, maybe.

So roll these up in our hands.

There we go.

See that? Nice size.

One there.

Okay, like I said, you want to do it really quick and loose.

You don't really want to keep them in some kind of t level.


This one's going to be an oniony one.

Woo! Maybe I put a bit too much onion, whoopsie.

So, my thing is, I'm a vegetarian.

I don't really eat meat.

So I won't be eatin' these burgers unfortunately.

Have to give them out to somebody else.

Now I've got my four.

They look like big meatballs.

Put that in the sink.

And that'll get out of the way.

Now what we're going to do is use the palm of our hand.

We're going to use the palm of our hand and we're just going to try and flatten these.

Just gently.

Now, in your method tells you we want it to be about 30 mils, about three centimetres thick.

There we go.


You're just going to press down lightly using your palms. Viola.

Like I said, that one definitely got too much onion in it.

Someone will have some stinky breath.

And then when we got this one, nice! Right, and there we go.

We've made our four burger patties.

Simple ingredients.

Now what I'm going to do is wash my hands.

Hold that thought.

I'm going to wash my hands real quick.

Now, what we're going to need to do is cover these with clear film.

You get the idea, I'm going to go try again.

Clear film over that.

You've probably got a better box at home with the sharp part that cuts.

I'm quite miserable.

So what we're going to do now is put this in the fridge 20 to 30 minutes just to make sure that they get a bit firmer together.

And then we're going to cook.

So while these are in the fridge, clean up your area.

So remember we need to clean it down properly.

Make sure everything's good.

And then we're going to cook.

So I'll see you in a minute.

Welcome back.

So I've got my burgers out the fridge now.

As you can see I've cleaned my area.

Well, you probably can't see but I've washed up all my things, I've cleaned my area.

I've washed my hands.

I've waited and I've came back.

And here are my burgers.

Not looking too bad if I say so myself.

Now, what I've done, I've got my frying pan on already.

There's no oil in there, we're just going to use the heat.

With this meat, it will produce its own oil.

So hopefully this is hot enough.

You hear a nice sizzle.

We're just going to pop them in the frying pan like so.

Can you hear that nice sizzle? Yeah.

So it's getting nice, seared.

And also, I like to clean as I go.

Now we want to leave these to fry two to four minutes on each side, depending on how thick your burger is, depending on our how well done you want it as well, will make the difference.

I can't probably get a close in right now, but you can see the oil's coming, mm.

Smells quite nice as well, to be fair.

So I'll just let that cook.

And I'll come back to it in a minute.

Actually, what you can see here as well, and we'll do that, you can see the oil from the meat that it's cooking itself in.

That's why we don't need to add any oil in this recipe.

Keeps it nice and healthy.

Okay, so now what we're going to do, I like to use a spatula that's big enough to get underneath.

Mind your fingers.

Oh yes, ooh yes.

Woo, look at tho-- Look at those, yeah! Mates.

Okay, so, you see I've turned them over.

You see that they've got a nice, crispy texture on the outside, nice and golden.

That is what you want.

That is what we are looking for.

Okay, so again, we're going to let it cook on this side before we get ready to serve.

Okay, so, we're back.

We've done our burgers, probably four minutes on one side, five on the other, give or take.

I've now got my burger buns ready and all I'm going to do is move my burgers from the frying pan and viola.

One burger there.

Viola, one burger there.

Beautiful! Put the bun on top.

Oh, excellent.

And there you have your own homemade burgers.

Woo hoo! Mm, mm, mm.

All right, well done so far.

Now, before you do anything else, I need to make sure that you're cleaning your kitchen area.

So that's wiping down your areas, cleaning your cutlery and crockery and your pots and pans and make sure everything's spick and span before we carry on Chef's orders, let's go.

Welcome back out of the kitchen.

If you've made a burger already I hope you've enjoyed it.

If you haven't, stay locked in because later on we might change it up a bit.

So we're going to look at how we now adapt or modify or use our own recipes.

So, first question to you is why would we adapt our recipes? Press pause, write down some ideas and I'll see you back in one moment.

Welcome back.

So some of the reasons why we would adapt a recipe.

Dietary requirements.

So, as we spoke about before, it might be my religious reasons.

It might be my ethical factors.

It might be an allergy.

So we'll change the recipe for that.

Nutritional value.

So I might want to get more fibre into my diet or more protein into my diet.

So I change my recipe.

Seasonal ingredients availability.

So, again, ethical choice and an economic choice.

The cost of the ingredients, definitely economical, depending on what I can afford, depends on what ingredients I will buy.

So I might need to change things up a bit.

And to appeal to the target audience.

Obviously you want to make food that the consumer wants.

So there's no point in me trying to create a recipe that nobody wants to eat.


Now, recipe development.

This might be like hocus pocus.

So we're going to change the recipe.

We're going to change ingredients.

We're going to try and cook things in different ways.

And we really, really, really going to experiment with different things and try and create something fantastic at the end.

Now, pause it again and have a little think.

If we are trying to develop our recipe, what kind of things do you think that could change? Right, so, you're right.

It could definitely have an effect on the structure of the b-- I'll say burger.

The structure of the product, the sensory qualities.

So by changing things it might taste sweeter.

It might taste more savoury.

It might have a different texture.

It could crumble.

We might just say, oh, we don't like that at all.

Now all these things would happen when we start trying to develop an experiment with food.

Now when we modify a recipe, all we're doing is literally changing the ingredients.

So we're taking one ingredient, taking it out and we're putting something else in.

Now, why do you think this could be important? Press pause, have a little think, and we'll check back in a moment.

Welcome back.

So yes.

Why do you think it's important that we could modify a recipe? Well, let's think of the obvious.

I might have dietary requirements that need changing for to help benefit us as the consumer.

Okay, now, moving on.

What I want you to do is imagine that a burger restaurant wants you to create a new menu.

Now think of all the things that we could explore and what we could do to adapt our burger and our fries you know, typically we have burger and chips.

What could we do to adapt that dish? Now here's an example of what you could do.

Think about the burger.

I automatically start thinking of beef.

But now I could go a vegetarian burger or a non-vegetarian burger.

If I'm going vegetarian I'm going to need to think about what kind of meat substitutes that could be using, or maybe beans, or maybe even an halloumi or a mushroom.

And then for the non-vegetarian I'm obviously going to be going down the meat routes.

So for our meat substitute, I might be thinkin' seitan, I might be thinking quorn, soya.

Or for my meats I might be thinking beef or chicken or venison or lamb or turkey.

So much things that I could be thinking about.

But also, the trick one, I could also be thinking about fish.

You know, I could be making that into a salmon burger, a cod burger.

Mm, I like salmon.

So these are just how my brain works.

So these are the kind of things I want you to start exploring.

So task one.

What I'd like you to do, just like I showed you previously, I'd like it to complete a mind map of your ideas and how we could develop the typical burger and sides.

Think about all the different areas that you could have changed.

Press pause, write them down and we'll come back and check answers in a moment.

Welcome back.

So now we're going to just have a look at some of the things that you could've changed.

You could've changed the type of meat used or substituted the meat all together.

You could have looked at that variation of the sides.

So rather than just fries we could have had sweet potato fries or courgettes or salad.

You know, you can explore.

We could have had a lactose free or non-dairy cheese, if you chose to use cheeses or cheese sources.

The bun, you know we could've changed the bread.

We could've made it whole meal, we could have made it Sesame seed, we could have made it, oh, what's that one that I like? Brioche, mm, brioche bun, mm.

We could have changed the fillings.

So we could have added a salad in there, some extra cheese or the meats.

And we said we could change the cheese.

So you could have an Edam, a Swiss, a cheddar.

Mozzarella, that drippy, gooey cheese.

The plastic cheese, all sorts of stuff.

And you could've changed the sauces as well.

So we could've added mayo, ketchup, we could've mixed it all together.

Barbecue, sweet chilli.

Sweet chilli sauce, mm.

Sweet chilli sauce.

Okay, so those are the kinds of things we could do to adopt ours, adopt? Adapt our recipe.

Now, earlier we spoke about a specification and we said that it's an important set of points that our product must follow in order for it to be successful.

Okay, so things that your specifications should include would be a target market.

So we know who we're marketing this product for.

Whether it's sweet or savoury, hot or cold.

This sounds obvious but it's not.

What type of product it is.

The portion size.

Is it for one, is it for two, is it for a family? You know, I could eat a family-sized pizza.

The dietary requirements.

So are there any allergy, foods that causes allergies? Or allergic reactions in the food? The type of cuisine it is.

So is it a Greek dish, is it a Caribbean dish, is it an Italian dish? The price range.

So my ingredients and everything else and what I'm selling it for.

What's my price range? Am I trying to aim low end, middle or top end? And ingredient details and the nutritional considerations as well.

So how much fat content, how much salt, sugars, et cetera, et cetera.

Does that make sense to everybody? If you've got those down, well done.

If you haven't, make a note of them now, and then we'll continue.

Okay, moving on.

We're going to look, now, how we can adapt and modify a better recipe.

I've given you three people to think about.

A vegetarian, a non-red meat eating person and someone who wants to increase their nutritional value.

So more and more people are turning vegetarians now.

So what can we use for our burger instead of meats? Yep, that's right.

We could use halloumi, portobello mushrooms. We could use a seitan or bean burgers as well.

Bean burgers are very, very available.

Now, a non-red meat eating person can still eat meat.

They've just made a choice, whether it's for their health or their religion that they're not going to eat certain types of meats.

So what could we do now? That's right, there we go.

So we just offer them an alternative.

Well, we could offer them chicken, we could offer them turkey, you could offer them fish.

Still great.

Now to increase the nutritional value.

A lot of people think a lean burger, lean meat, is a healthy burger, and it is.

But what else can we do to improve the nutritional value? That's right.

So thinking about our meat.

We chopped up the onions.

We can put other vegetables in there if we wanted to.

So you could put in carrots, broccoli, spinach, tomato, a bunch of other things that can increase the nutritional value and increase the fibre.

Make sense? So now we're going to try and put this all together.

Using your mind map, what I want you to do is just sketch a picture of your newly modified burger that we've adapted for one of those three areas.

So remember we had either the vegetarian, the non-red meat eater or someone who wants to improve the nutritional value of the food.

After you've done the sketch, I need you to list your ingredients.

I need you to identify who your target audience is.

So is it a vegetarian is a non-red meat eater, et cetera, et cetera.

And I need you to create the specification.

Now what's important is that your specification has measurable and justifiable points.

So rather than just saying my burger must be not, must not be red meat, it must not be red meat because.

My burger should be this.

It should be this because, okay? So you need to justify your points.

Press pause, let's complete this task.

And when you're finished come back to me and we'll continue.

Welcome back.

Again, as per usual, we're making great progress.

We're nearly there so stick with it.

So we're going to briefly now look at how we've produced an order sequence and schedule for manufacturing.

Now, what is an order sequence, you might be asking? So it's basically a step-by-step process from when we first get our ingredients to when we get to our final product or the output, so to say.

They include all the steps along the way that we will probably take.

So when we have to weigh things, mix things, cook things in some cases we're going to put packaging on things and send it out for sale.

Make sense? Good.

Now there's this area called critical points.

These are things that we cannot avoid and we have to do them correctly otherwise it could put our whole product at risk and it could put our health at risk.

So critical points.


Now, if we start looking about the burger.

Looking, thinking about the burger again.

The ingredients, my onion, I had it room temperature.

It was in the ambiance, ambiance.

And my meat from the butcher's had to have been chilled.

So it was critical that that was chilled.

So it's in the pink box.

So now what I want you to do, is thinking about the steps that it took for me to make my patty or the steps you took to make your patty.

Can you put these words in the correct order of the process that it takes? Press pause and you'll come back to it in a moment and we'll check the correct answers.


So let's go for it.

The first thing, I didn't weigh this, my butcher done it, but he weighed my meat.

The next thing we done, we chopped up the onion.

We mixed everything together.

We shaped the patties in our hands.

Then we chilled them, critical.

Then we have to cook them correctly, as well, which is also critical, so we don't get food poisoning.

Then we put our burgers together.

So put the patty in the bun.

Added the cheese, if you wanted to.

And then you had your finished product.

So if you had those in the right order, well done.

If you didn't, just make your corrections.

Be honest to yourself.

So that was the warm up and here's the real task.

You're going to produce an ordered sequence and the schedule for a batch of burgers that we will need to manufacture to go to a restaurant, so to say.

So your batch is going to be about 200 burgers, maybe.

I've got those points on the board to help you.

So use those and see if you can put your ordered sequence in the correct order.

Give it a go.

I'll see you in a moment.

Welcome back.

Now, some people might have a slightly different order.

They might have some different answers.

That's totally fine.

As long as you understand the concept, we're winning.

Now, we're going to look at the last element of today's lesson which is how we produce a costing spreadsheet.

Now, when it comes to our meals, let's keep it in the back of our mind again.

The cost of our recipes worked out in two ways.

We think about the whole portion, the whole dish even, and we think about per person or per portion.

Pause the video and write down some quick ideas on what things you think would impact the price of our dish.

And when we come back, we'll shout them out and I'll show you the next task.

Okay, so let me hear some of your answers.

Yep, the choice of ingredients.

Local produce.

The quality, the seasonal.

The portion size, yep.

Where you buy your products from.

All these things will impact your price of your ingredients, definitely.

If I have my finest fish imported from God knows where, it's going to be more expensive than if I go and catch a trout down the river.

Not that I would do that.

So for your last task, what I want you to do is produce a spreadsheet for the costing of the burger that you previously designed.

So think about every ingredient and we're going to start breaking it down into these areas.

So, for example, the meat that I used, it cost me two pound for 500 grammes.

And for that 500 grammes, I managed to make four burgers, roughly 125 grammes a piece.

So if I split that in four ways, it means that each burger patty cost me 50 pence.

There now, I used one egg, but I can't just buy one egg.

So I had to spend 79 pence on the six.

But I only needed to use one for the four burgers.

So my 79 divided by.

Six, there we go.

79 divide by six.

I managed to get about 13 pence for that egg.

So, so on and so forth.

Think about the ingredients that you're going to use, think about the weight of them, and complete your own spreadsheet.

I'll see you when you get back.

Well done everyone, you've made it again to the end of a fantastic lesson.

If you've already made your burger, well done.

If you haven't and you want to make it later, please make sure you do it under adult supervision.

If you then choose to share any of your work, your burgers that you've made, and you want to share them online, please ask your parents or a responsible adult to do that for you.

Make sure that we're tagging @OakNational and we're hashtagging Learning with Oak, L-W-O.

All right, have a fantastic day and I will see you in your next lesson.