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So kind of our lesson today contains references to kind of immigration and immigration controls.

For some people, this might be a sensitive topic.

So that applies to you, you might want to leave the lesson, but make sure that you've got a trusted adult with you, who you can speak to, if you need some support.

Hi, kind of welcome to lesson number five and six.

Kind of the topic, why do people move around the world? Today we will be exploring the question of should immigration be controlled? So kind of today's lesson, you're going to need your notes.

Kind of in previous lessons, you're going to need paper, a pen, and probably also a different coloured pen to self assess your work.

Make sure you are in a quiet place so you can concentrate on the lesson.

If you need to move or get any of those things, please pause the video now to do so.

So we going to explore two key questions in today's lesson.

We going to look at what policies and strategies are in place to control immigration in the UK? And then we've going to cut some more general arguments for and against controlling immigration.

So far, kind of in this unit, we have looked at these key, kind of key words.

We've looked a migration, we've looked at Asylum Seekers, we've have looked at refugees and we've looked into at internally displaced persons.

Now Asylum Seekers, refugees and internally displaced persons are types of migrant, okay, they migrate.

But today we're going to look at different type of migrants.

We are going to look at immigrants and emigrants, okay.

And this means something slightly different than the kind of types of migration we have looked at previously, okay? So, kind of immigrant and emigrant coming from the ideas of immigration and emigration.

Immigration is moving into a country to live there permanently.

And kind of of emigration is where you move out of your home country to live somewhere else permanently.

So the thing what makes these two concepts different to the ideas kind of what's the previously it's that there's a permanent to it, okay? Kind of many refugees and Asylum Seekers may one day hope to move back to the country they have fled from.

But with kind of immigration and emigration, there's a permanence to where you move and you intend to stay there kind of for quite a long time.

So kind of immigration leads to you becoming an immigrant and emigration is an emigrant, okay? You may want to pause the video now for a couple minutes, just to note those definitions down as they will be useful for the rest of the lesson.

So we're going to kind of have a look at these questions today, of should immigration be controlled, okay? So knowing what you know about immigration.

So, there're moving to some kind of somewhere permanently, do you think that should be controlled? And what I would like you to do is at the top page underneath the definitions you've just written is draw me, a line kind of horizontally across the page and then mark on it, your opinion, okay.

So do you kind of strongly disagree? Are you in the middle.

Or do you strongly agree that kind of immigration should be controlled.

And you're going to need to label both ends too, okay.

Now there's no right or wrong kind of an answer to this It's just your opinion.

Okay, so let's have a look and see if you can remember then.

What's the difference is between an immigrant and emigrant? Aimee leaves France for Sao Paulo, okay.

So is Aimee an immigrant or other emigrant? So she's moving to Sao Paulo for a new job.

Hopefully you got the idea that she's an emigrant because she is leaving, okay.

Kind of Farid is forced to leave Syria due to persecution, okay.

So Farid is leaving Syria, on the fate of his life, have any hope to go and gain safety in another country.

Is an immigrant or other an emigrant.

Hopefully you got other, because he could be an Asylum Seeker, or if he has arranged to become a refugee to get refugee status before he left.

And he was a refugee, okay.

But he's not an immigrant or an emigrant.

So Charlie is a UK citizen who permanently relocates to India for a new job.

Is Charlie an immigrant or other an emigrant? Hopefully you said Charlie was an Immigrant, because they are leaving the normal place of residence permanently to go and work, okay.

So I always think of it as IM it sounds like EM when you're going into a country.

So just a little bit about kind of the UK context, okay.

Kind of the UK had a lot of, kind of migrants, come to the UK all the time.

And this is, you know, adding to our population.

And when we look at the net migrations, the net migration is the number of immigrants, the number of people coming in permanently taken away from the people leaving permanently.

That was around 270,000 in December, 2019.

So this means we have a positive kind of net migration because we've got more people immigrating than emigrating.

Okay.

So 677,000 kind of immigrated 407,000 emigrated in 2019.

And that is split between those kind of from the EU.

So we've got 234 million from a year and 136 million from non-EU countries.

And then we've got particular hotspots around the world for kind of people coming into the UK and leaving the UK to go to South Poland, Romania, and Ireland, India and Pakistan, are popular sources of immigration and Spain, France, Germany, New Zealand and Australia, are popular sources of emigration, okay.

And this is a graph produced by kind of the government to kind of highlight it.

So you can see kind of with EU nationals where the most popular countries are.

So we've got Poland, Romania, Ireland, and Germany Italy, In front taking the top five, that gets us on next.

On that we've got the kind of immigration, one where kind of UK citizens are going sort of elsewhere.

So you've got Spain, Ireland, France, Germany, and another one's a top five that's Spain as being number one.

So the constant flow of kind of people coming and leaving.

So what if there were no immigration controls and people could move wherever they wanted, okay.

What were the consequences of this? And I'm just going to ask you to just consider this question.

You don't want write anything down if you don't want to just take some minutes, just take some time to reflect on kind of what if there was no immigration controls and people could move wherever they wanted.

So you might just pause the video and just have a think about those consequences.

So I've been having to think too, I wrote down some ideas.

So there might be some kind of economic benefits as kind of economies will grow, then there's increased consumerism.

Maybe a country might get to experience some new cultural insights because people are coming in and bringing their cultural kind of corporate additionals with them.

There's going to be kind of ways to get to know each of them and kind of maybe more community events, more kind of getting together to kind of, you know to get, you know, to get to know your new neighbours.

It might mean that kind of some countries have a large amount kind of immigrants.

It might also mean that if kind of a country for ever reason has a large number of immigrants, it means that country is going to lose a big proportion of their population.

I'm going to explore that idea in the next lesson.

There might be some difficulties accessing and sharing of country's resources.

So as more and more people kind of, you know, live in a country, resources have to be, you know, shared up between them.

That might make it difficult If there's a large number of kind of immigrants.

You know, there could be some conflict.

So that could be kind of hostility between non-migrant and migrant communities, okay.

And I'm sure there are lots of other ideas as well.

However, kind of immigration is controlled, okay.

And most countries across the world have some form of immigration control, okay.

But it's kind of how it works then this is controlled, which is often debated.

So I think after this in the previous lesson, the topic of immigration is a very political issue.

It's one which has always been debated across the world, not just in the UK.

So kind of immigration is a complex area of government policy, okay.

And kind of in the UK, there are a number of upcoming changes to our immigration policy due to Brexit, okay.

And if you're not sure what Brexit is, Brexit is the UK's leaving of European union, which is going to be kind of formalised and kind of, it should be opened by December 31st.

So kind of currently all those who are within the EU or something called the kind of European Economic Area.

So Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway and Switzerland have the right to move to any part of EU they want to live, work, study and look for a job or retire, okay.

So this includes UK nationals as well.

So kind of people can move any area, can come to the UK and we can also go to wherever we wish too.

However, if you are outside this area, then you have to apply what's called a Visa, okay.

And a Visa is official permission to remain, study, work or retire within the UK, okay.

Now kind of Visa regulations are complicated.

So we're not going to go into much more detail, but we're going to be aware that there're different types of visas, for different types of immigration, okay.

And each type is associated with different Tier.

Okay, so you get Tiered.

Now kind of some Tiers have require your application be sponsored by an employer.

So that means that you have to have a job before you move to the UK.

It might that you've recognised that, exceptional talent, okay.

So that could be a sports person and you're coming to play for a particular team, or it might be that you have lots of money and you'd like to invest it some way in the UK.

But there are also lots of volunteers as well.

And however, if you going to apply for Visa, you to have to pay a fee for that amount appropriate to be processed.

And again, that would depend on what Visa is that you're asking for.

Along with Visa fees, you might also have to pay charges to access the NHS kind of when you arrive and kind of comes over here and kind of countries around the world also have very similar setups, okay.

So it's not just the UK, kind of other countries also have these kind of immigration controls and Visa vacations as well, you might have family in different parts of the world, so you might have a firsthand experience of this.

There is also the idea of international students.

So, students who want to go and study in a different country or come to the UK.

Kind of many of these must pass an English language test to make sure that they've got certain standard English so they can cope with this ability kind of, again, they have to apply for a Visa.

And at the end of this, you might have to kind of apply again to upgrade your Visa, or you might have to leave the country, okay.

Depends on your particular circumstances.

And this again is pretty much the same all around the world.

Okay, so maybe one day in the future, you'd like to go probably somewhere abroad and you will also have to make sure that kind of you comply with another country's kind of immigration laws too.

So you've been listening to me for quite a while now.

So let's see if we can get some of this information on your paper.

So kind of reflect on what I have just been telling you and complete the sentences below.

So the UK controls immigration by.

And the UK does this because.

Okay so you can pick kind of one way and you explain one reason.

You don't have to do them all.

Just one example would be good.

So pause this video now to complete your task please.

Okay, so I picked this reason.

So, the UK controls immigration by only permitting those from outside the EU to remain in the UK for an extended period of time when they have applied for and been granted a Visa, okay.

So a Visa, is a way that UK controls immigration and it does this for all sorts of reasons, okay.

It might do it for practical reason.

So it knows how many people live and work and are in the UK.

And this means kind of the government can make sure that there's enough resources for kind of everybody.

Might also do this, so it knows that, you know, it might on the target particular groups to help the UK economy thrive and get better.

So, maybe it needs some kind of knowledge, maybe it needed particular scale, so it can target those people in particular.

So, after Brexit, the UK kind of immigration policy is going to change, okay.

Now there'll be a lot about this in the news as we come up to December.

So make sure we're watching them, that kind of see what's happening around us.

So what would I need to do is kind of, with the lesson and go to the worksheet and on the worksheet, you will find a clip, okay.

And I want you to watch a clip.

I'm not quite sure, and I want you to finish a sentence.

In January 2021, the UK immigration system will change because.

And just finish that sentence, okay.

Just you might want to write that down before you go and watch the video.

So hopefully you've got this idea about Points-Based Immigration System for everybody.

So, the UK government is moving to a Points-Based kind of immigration system for all immigrants.

It will no longer discriminate between EU and non-EU residents.

This means all immigrants will be required to score a set number of points before the application is granted.

Points are awarded for specific skills, professions, qualifications, and attributes, okay.

And a key criteria this will be how much of somebody earns less salary.

And you know, there's different figures for, one is 20,480 pounds and one is 25,600 pounds, okay.

And there's a difference and now, because if you're out in the EU or the EEA area, then you can get access without having these points.

So what do you think, is having a Points-Based System good? What do you think the advantages or disadvantages are of the system? Again, pause the video now and just have a think about how many items you can come up with find again same idea, about Point-Based Immigration System.

So hopefully you've got something similar kind of well done.

For giving a go easy big question, kind of a lot of people are grappling with this idea at the moment.

And so advantages might be that it makes the system accessible and easy to navigate.

If you meet the criteria for points, your application will probably be accepted Kind of it sets out a very clear criteria, which you know is quite good.

Can some people argue the current system kind of discriminates cause you know, it kind of lets kind of people come in the EU and the EEA when, you know, kind of other people don't, can't kind of get in easily, but this one will treat everybody equally.

There's some people, you know, they might want the number of kinds of immigrants to be reduced and this Visa system might help the country do that.

However, kind of on the flip side, it might mean that those who don't meet the points, what kind of having no points can't come to the UK and kind of, some people are very worried about some particular industries that they're going to be short of workers, okay.

So different Point-Based Systems will be, will have different criteria and people who especially want to move kind of different to countries might have struggled understanding it.

Kind of after leaving the EU, UK citizens may have their right to freedom of movement kind of limited.

This could potentially impact emigration as well as immigration, yeah.

So it's not only going to have how kind of own effective analysis so, we if we left the EU, that's also might limit our movement to kind of EU countries as well.

And again, it kind of makes those who don't have the points kind of, it makes it difficult for those to come and work in the UK.

And this is due to that level of skill and or wages.

So a key question for kind of says should immigration be controlled? So what I'd like to do is we're going to look at some arguments for and against controlling immigration.

You are going to access the worksheet again, kind of, through the lesson and on the worksheet, you'll find some arguments and you're going to look at the arguments and, you going to make some notes on which are for, and which are against controlling immigration.

Now, I mean, it's up to you.

You can either write them on the folder or you can kind of summarise them, I don't mind.

And you can ask but at your own thinking arguments tips.

I'm sure, by now over the course of this topic, you will have kind of some opinions on this.

So please do make sure you're up those two.

Now, we've got to take that little kind of up at further and challenge yourself.

You can add some evaluation into your arguments.

So kind of if you evaluate something, you make a judgement about it, okay.

And you look at the strengths and you look at the weaknesses, okay.

And when you can do that, you can use the type of evidence to kind of challenge it or say, I'll say why it's good.

You can comment on if it's generalised or if it's specific, you can look on the impact or you can look at kind of, if you can see the evidence around us in the world, okay.

And also kind of in your writing, you can use a variety of language to show the reader that you are evaluating.

So there are some kind of ideas here in the green box.

So for something that's kind of a strong argument, you could say the strength of this argument, this convinces me, this is significant because, or if you're going to challenge it and say, well, actually this doesn't make no sense, you can use things that weak or flawed, or you can argue what you fail to take into account.

And here's just a kind of example.

So, an argument kind of somebody might make is that there are already lots of migrants in the country.

In fact, too many we should eliminate future numbers, okay.

That's an argument.

And you could argue that this could be used by some people as an argument, which support controlling, the number of immigrants as it is claiming that there were too many, and this then leads to the conclusion that kind of size of the migrant population could potentially have a negative impact on the country.

However, you could say that this is quite a weak, and unconvincing argument because you know, it kind of lacks evidence, okay.

The applicants are too many.

What does too many mean? Kind of, it's very subjective.

And then you can support that with some kind of evidence you know.

And so actually further more research by the office for national statistics suggest that only 170,000 non-British citizens moved to the UK for at least a year to work in 2019.

So if you'd like to take your writing a little bit further, or you can kind of evaluate some all of your arguments and you can also use the prompts kind of on their kind of worksheet to develop them a little bit further pronounce it well.

So, and I suggest kind of setting out on a table, but it's completely up to you, however you want to do it.

So pause this video now to complete that task.

So kind of well done for having a go at that task.

I'm going to give you some possible answers now.

So the question, should immigration be controlled now? Now there are lots of arguments for this and kind of, hopefully it you've included your own thinking as well.

And for the ones that I gave you, people might use these arguments for.

So it applies pressure.

And the idea of kind of communities not mixing is often used by people to say, well, yes, it should have been on the opposite.

You might get the idea, they'll know it, you know, but diversity and difference to society and you know, kind of immigrants can help with it kind of innovation and make things kind of better.

So can we say an argument you would have seen, so some may feel adds additional pressure onto an already pressurised system.

For example, if an area has a high migrant population, it may have to increase its capacity to provide and make services accessible for some migrants, okay.

And then I asked you, maybe you could develop this by suggesting what might be needed to be done to make accessible.

So we think maybe about language, maybe it needs to be able to have more people involved and things like that.

And then this idea of some migrants and non-migrants may not mix and this could impact the community and it might cause a division and separation and kind of maybe tension and might not mix because they might not kind of know how to, they might have to be able to with the language.

Non-migrant communities might kind of might not be too sure what to say or kind of how to help.

So, things needs to be put in place in communities to help people come together and get to know each other.

So now we're coming to the end of our lesson.

We're going to return back to our first task.

So kind of go back to your line you drew up at the beginning and just kind of think and see, has your response now changed to the question or has your reasoning now change is, do you have an additional reason? Do you have different reasons as to why you have your opinion? So if your response has changed or even if it's not just mark a line in a different colour.

So, that just brings us to the end of the lesson.

Hopefully you can now give kind of some ideas of policies and strategies you use to control immigration kind of in the UK.

And you can ask to explain some arguments for and against controlling immigration.

So kind of that brings today's lesson to an end and hopefully you've learned something new.

And please don't forget to complete the quiz kind of after the lesson.

Kind of have a good day and hopefully I will see you for a final lesson series kind of next time.

Thank you.