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Hello and welcome to lesson 18 of animal farm, Squealer's rhetoric.

So we had a look at rhetoric and we've also had a look at Squealer and how he manipulates the animals.

But in today's lesson, what we're really going to focus on, is one of Squealer's speeches.

And we'll have a look at the language he uses and analyse that language together.

How does the words and the techniques that he use, persuade and manipulate the animals to listen and believe to what he says.

So when you're ready, please make sure you have somewhere quiet, somewhere you can concentrate, as well as something to write on something to write with.

If you've got highlighters or coloured pens they might be really useful in today's lesson.

But if you haven't just a pen or pencil is plenty.

So when you're ready, let's get started.

So here is that second opportunity for you to make sure that you're settled and ready to learn.

If you need more time, pause the video, but if you're ready to go, then we'll start the lesson straight away.

We'll begin the lesson with our recap, before moving on to the extract that we'll read together and then some true or false questions just to make sure you fully understand what we've read.

And then you'll think about the question, How does Squealer use rhetoric? Before completing the lesson and doing your exit quiz.

So the recap for today, what is rhetoric? Now we studied this quite a few lessons ago so you might want to frantically look through your notes to find the answer, but hopefully and I think you should have it up here.

So have a go, is it option one? Rhetoric is giving speeches.

Is it option two? Rhetoric is the art of speaking or writing persuasively? Is it option three? Rhetoric is saying things to persuade people, or is it option four? Using propaganda? Take your time, pause the video and then press play when you're ready.

And the correct answer was option two.

So how many of you got that right? I think there's probably most of you.

So big thumbs up, pat on the back, big smile, whatever you want to do to celebrate.

Rhetoric is the art of speaking or writing persuasively.

So we do usually find rhetoric in speeches and it is usually used to persuade people and it can be used for propaganda.

But the most effective definition is definitely option two because what that does is includes all of the other options within one sentence.

So it's the art of speaking or writing persuasively.

So let's just do a quick recap of what's going on on the farm.

The animals have been working really hard on the windmill.

So if you remember after Squeal, after Snowball, sorry leaves the farm, Napoleon does a 360, and he says, "actually I agree with the windmill and I think it's a great idea." So Napoleon gets them working on the windmill.

They've been promised that when the windmill has been built they will get way more food and much less work.

So of course it's something that means a lot to the animals.

They've really invested in it.

They want to get this finished.

And then one night there is a huge storm and the windmill is completely destroyed.

Squealer is sent to talk to the animals about the windmill being destroyed.

And in his speech and the way he talks to the animals, he uses rhetoric.

And we're going to find the key techniques that Squealer uses when he speaks to them.

"Comrades" cried Squealer, making little nervous skips, "a most terrible thing has been discovered.

Snowball has sold himself to Frederick of Pinchfield Farm, who is even now plotting to attack us and take our farm away from us.

It has all been proved by documents, which he left behind him and which we have only just discovered.

To my mind, this explains a great deal comrades.

Did we not see for ourselves, how he attempted fortunately without success, to get us defeated and destroyed at the battle of the cow shed?" So here Squealer is using rhetoric, to turn the animals against Snowball.

In fact, Napoleon and Squealer even go so far, as to blame the destruction of the windmill on Snowball.

They say that snowball, snuck onto the farm in the middle of the night and destroyed the windmill.

And so Squealer is giving the animals even more reasons for why they need to hate Snowball.

So what I would like you to do, is think about that question.

How is Squealer using rhetoric? And on this extract, I want you to find any part of the extract, that shows us Squealer persuading the animals, or using language in a way that will have a strong effect on the animals.

So pause the video here, have a go at annotating your extract or making some notes based on what you can see on the screen of anywhere that Squealer has used particular language, either words or techniques to make the animals feel some really strong emotions.

Pause the video and then press play when you're ready.

So here are a couple of things that I spotted when I answered the question.

"It has all been proved by documents, which he left behind him and which we have only just discovered." Here, Squealer is using proof and I say proof like that, because we don't know that these documents exist and we can probably guess they don't.

But Squealer is using the naivety of the animals, to make them believe that there is proof.

It's in writing, there are documents.

To make the animals believe him.

And then the second thing I spotted, was the rhetorical question.

"Did we not see for ourselves how he attempted to get us defeated and destroyed at the battle of the cow shed?" He's making the animals memories.

He's making the animals question, their memories.

He's making their memories different.

He's saying to them, "Didn't you see that happen?" Even though it didn't.

By asking them the question, they automatically start to think about it.

They start to form this memory, which doesn't actually exist.

So the rhetorical question is a really powerful technique that he's used.

If you need to add this information to your own notes, please pause the video and do so.

If you already spotted both of those things, then let's carry on with the lesson together.

So here's your true or false question.

Squealer is telling the animals that Snowball has been working with farmers all along.

We haven't spoken about this, but it is in the extract.

So I would recommend that you pause the video here and just double check the extract or rewind if you need to read the extract to again, to decide whether this is true or false.

Squealer is telling the animals that's Snowball has been working with farmers all along.

True or False? The answer to that is True, Squealer has told the animals that Snowball has been working with farmers all along.

Now, let's read the next part together.

And you've still got that question to think about, Where are the techniques or the language choices that Squealer is making that make powerful effect on the animals? "I do not believe that." he said, and this is Boxer talking.

"I do not believe that." he said, "Snowball fought bravely at the battle of the cow shed.

I saw him myself.

Did we not give him animal hero first class immediately afterwards?" "That was our mistake comrade.

For we now know it is all written down in the secret documents that we found, that in reality he was trying to lure us to our doom." "But he was wounded," said Boxer.

"We all saw him running with blood." "That was part of the arrangement," cried Squealer.

"Jones's shot only grazed him.

I could show you this in his own writing if you are able to read it." So this extract is very clever.

We have Boxer questioning Squealer and saying, "But no, I saw him.

He was a hero.

We saw him bleeding.

He was wounded." And then Squealer says, No, no, we arranged all of that, that was part of the plan and I'd show you this in writing, if you could read." So it's really clever.

He's saying if you could read, you would understand, again manipulating them because of their naivety.

So pause the video here and annotate choose quotations and annotate the quotations to tell me how Squealer is using language to persuade the animals.

How is he using rhetoric? Pause the video and then press play when you're ready.

And here are a couple of the things that I've noted.

So you'll see that I've highlighted 'We' Squealer repeats the word We, he says, " For we now know." It's a collective pronoun.

All of the animals are being United.

So the animals are coming together.

"We now know," Squealers not saying, I now know.

He's not saying you now know, he's saying "We." And then you'll note that Boxer repeats it, "We all saw him running with blood." So the animals feel like they are all in this together.

Squealer says We and Boxer repeats it.

It's a collective pronoun.

And then the last sentence, "I could show you this in his own writing, if you were able to read it.

Again this is Squealer taking advantage of that lack of literacy and naivety.

The fact that they cannot read or write very well.

And the fact that they're naive.

He's taken advantage of that to manipulate them.

So add these notes to your own work if you need to and if not, we'll carry on.

Boxer believes Squealer immediately.

Is this true? Or is it false? Shout your answer at the screen or write it down nice and quick.

Boxer believes Squealer immediately, True or False? Okay, that is definitely false.

Boxer, Literally says the words, "I do not believe that." Boxer says immediately that he does not believe Squealer.

He does not believe that Snowball is not a hero.

Okay, So Squealer is now elaborating or he's making his argument even more powerful by giving them more false memories.

"Do you not remember how just at the moment, when Jones and his men had got inside the yard, Snowball suddenly turned and fled, and many animals followed him? And do you not remember too, that it was just at that moment when panic was spreading and all seemed lost that Comrade Napoleons sprang forward with the cry of 'Death to Humanity!' and sank his teeth in Jones's leg? Surely you remember that comrades?" So like I said we have Squealer, giving them yet another false memory.

So pause the video here, take your time to highlight or underline any parts of this extract which you think show Squealer using rhetoric.

Show Squealer, persuading the animals and using language really effectively.

Press pause and then press play, when you're ready for some feedback.

There's a few things for us to talk about here.

And our really key one is the repetition of 'Do you not remember.

' Squealer repeats that, "Do you not remember?" He's emphasising the false memories.

He's making them feel like they should remember.

If someone said to you, "Oh do you not remember that happening?" You start to question your own memory.

You don't question whether it's actually happened, you just think, Oh no, what's happened? why can't I remember that? So the phrasing of that question, do you not remember? It just emphasises the false memories.

It makes the animals think that they forgotten something.

And then the next thing I wanted to talk about, was when Squealer tells the animals, that Comrade Napoleon sprang forward with a cry of 'Death to Humanity' and sank his teeth in Jones's leg.

This is dramatic irony.

We know what happened at the battle of the cow shed.

And we know if we flick back in the book, We can read it that Boxer and Snowball were the heroes.

Napoleon did not take part and yet Squealer is telling the animals, that Comrade Napoleon sank his teeth into Jones's leg.

So again, we have Orweii using dramatic irony as readers, We know this isn't true, but the characters, the animals do not know that's untrue.

So, True or False? Orweii uses dramatic irony in this extract.

Shout your answer at the screen.

Nice and loud.

Nice and quick.


It is true.

Squealer claims that Napoleon played a heroic role in the battle of the cow shed.

But as readers, we know this isn't true and we can see that the animals are being manipulated.

Now, We've done a lot of annotation together today.

We've read a lot of extracts together and now it's your turn to write down some sentences.

So if you think about the original question, How does Squealer use rhetoric? That's our original question.

And all three of the bullet points on the screen answer that question.

So I've given you some words to include in your answer.

So all of the words on the screen need to be included.

So for sentence one, you will include Squealer, collective pronouns and unite.

For question two, sorry for sentence two, you will use the words, Squealer, fact, prove and propaganda.

And for the final sentence, you will use Squealer, repetition and emphasise.

If you would like to challenge yourself and stretch yourself, it would be a really good idea, to include quotations in your sentences.

You may even find that your sentences become much longer and turn into little paragraphs.

And if they do, that's absolutely fine don't worry.

Please use all of the notes and the annotations that we've done today.

If you didn't make as many notes as you wanted to and you're now struggling with this activity, I recommend rewinding the video and making the necessary notes that you need to.

So pause the video here, try your best at writing three sentences or three very short paragraphs, using the information I've given you and then press play when you're ready to go again.

Good luck.

Okay, here are some of my answers.

So these are possible answers.

Your answers might be longer, they might be shorter, but as long as they have the same idea as what I'm saying, they're still correct.

So for the first one, I have Squealer uses collective pronouns when talking to the animals to make them feel United against Snowball.

So that's when we spoke about the word, We.

And that Squealer uses We, the collective pronoun, when talking to them.

So that they all feel like they're United, that they're all together with Squealer, with Napoleon and that automatically means that they are all together against Snowball.

Number two, Squealer uses propaganda by sharing facts, which prove what he is saying to be true.

And this sentence is referring to when Squealer talks about those documents that he finds that we know are probably untrue.

So Squealer uses propaganda by sharing facts which prove what he is saying to be true.

And then finally Squealer uses repetition, to emphasise the false memories.

I think you would have probably added more information here.

So you might've added something like; Squealer uses repetition to emphasise the false memories and to make the animals feel like they forgotten something.

So that's really important.

He uses the phrase; 'Do you not remember?' Okay? Making you feel making the animals feel like, Oh, no I don't remember, I must've forgotten that.

So it's a really clever technique he's using there.

That's our lesson complete for today.

I'm sure you've written some incredible sentences and there will definitely be some of you out there that have written many paragraphs with quotations included.

And that is some amazing work.

Next lesson, We will move on with the next part of animal farm and find out what happens, when Napoleon gets even more power.

See you soon and thank you very much for taking part in another lesson on animal farm.