# Lesson video

In progress...

Hello.

Welcome to this lesson on subordinate conjunctions although, unless and if.

You are going to need a pen or a pencil, so anything you can find to write with, as well as something to write on.

So that might just be a piece of paper or a notebook, something like that.

If you can, it would be a good idea for you to find a space where there are no distractions.

Maybe switch off any apps that might pop up on your phone or your laptop and find somewhere where you're ready to concentrate and learn loads of stuff about subordinate conjunctions.

When you're ready, let's get started.

Here is a another opportunity for you to take some time and make sure you have everything you need.

So double check that you've got your pen your paper and you're ready to learn.

And then when you're ready, press play.

Lovely.

So now we can get started with today's lesson.

We will begin with a reminder of subordinate clauses.

So some of you may have done these before on a video with me.

If you have not, we are going to have a quick reminder about those and then a very quick activity as well before moving on to looking at today's topic, which is conjunctions.

So that's words like although, unless and if.

We will then move on to thinking about how we can punctuate conjunctions when we use them in sentences, have a writing activity before celebrating all of the wonderful work we will have completed throughout the lesson.

What is a subordinate clause? So my example that I've given you is, in the early morning.

That chunk of sentence by itself doesn't make any sense.

So bear that in mind when you're choosing your answer, there are three options for you to choose from, what is a subordinate clause and have a look at the example I've given you there, in the early morning to help you out.

Press pause here, choose the option that you think is correct and then press play when you're ready to go again.

Absolutely brilliant, well done.

So, you should have selected option b.

A subordinate clause is a part of a sentence which adds extra information and which does not make sense by itself.

So there are a couple of things we need to make sure we are 100% sure of there.

It is definitely a part of a sentence, so a subordinate clause is not a full sentence.

a part of a sentence, which adds extra information and which does not make sense by itself.

My example, in the early morning, that's giving you more information and it also doesn't make sense if I just said in the early morning, you would need more information.

So the correct answer would be b.

We're moving on today then to look at something called subordinate conjunctions.

You have probably already noticed that subordinate clauses are going to have something to do with subordinate conjunctions.

The definition is in the pink box that you can see on your screen now.

A subordinate conjunction is a word we use to join a full sentence to a subordinate clause.

Here are some examples for you, unless it is raining.

You can see that's a subordinate clause because it doesn't make sense by itself and it is adding extra information to a sentence.

The subordinate conjunction in that clause is unless.

So, you'll notice that the font is slightly different for the subordinate conjunction, it says unless it is raining.

Another example, if I am hungry.

If I am hungry is a subordinate clause because it does not make sense by itself.

However, the thing that we are looking at today is the word if, because if, like unless above it, is a subordinate conjunction.

Finally, we have although I was tired.

Again, you can see the different font pointing out the subordinate conjunction, although.

Here are the full sentences from those examples.

You can see in each example, the subordinate conjunction introduces the part of the sentence that doesn't make sense by itself.

Unless it is raining, I will wear shorts.

If I am hungry, I will order an extra portion of chips.

Although I was tired, I could not sleep.

So you can see that the underlined subordinate clause using the subordinate conjunction unless, if and although adds information to a full sentence, and these are the words that we are going to be writing today.

Here is another breakdown of exactly what I mean by those examples.

Unless it is raining, doesn't make sense by itself.

So we know the subordinate conjunction in that clause is unless and I've underlined it and placed it in pink on the screen, just so it's really, really clear what you need to be looking at.

So here there are four options on the screen.

Which sentences have the subordinate conjunction underlined? So you have two correct answers, and you are looking for the subordinate conjunction.

So the word, the one word that introduces that clause that doesn't make sense by itself.

Two options, pause the video here, select the two correct answers and then press play when you're ready.

Brilliant, excellent work.

Option two, and option three were both correct.

Did you get those right? I thought so, I knew you guys would.

So you should have option two, unless underlined, and in option three, you would have although underlined.

They are subordinate conjunctions because they are introducing the part of the sentence that does not make sense by itself.

Option one and option four, they have random parts of the sentence underlined.

They have nothing to do with conjunctions.

Here is a rule that you are already a little familiar with.

This part of the sentence that we're talking about today works the same way as when it happened and where it happened.

Some lessons that you may have already watched with me help you to write about when something happened and where something happened.

The rule for this lesson is that if the part that starts with although, unless or if is at the start of the sentence, it is followed by a comma.

Let's have a look at what I mean by that in more detail.

I've got a reminder of the rule at the top for you because if your memory is anything like mine, you will need a little reminder of a sentence that long.

So just listen to that once more.

If the part that starts with although, unless or if is at the start of the sentence, it is followed by a comma.

Have a look at the example on the screen, and listen to me talk you through it.

My mum will be delighted if I go to university.

I have underlined the part of the sentence that starts with if.

I've underlined the part of the sentence that starts with if.

The next stage then is for me to move that part of the sentence to the beginning.

So my sentence becomes, if I go to university, my mum will be delighted.

The sentence has the exact same meaning, but now my sentence starts with if.

You will then notice in the final stage of this, that because my sentence now starts with if, I must include a comma after that part of the sentence.

If I go to university, comma, my mum will be delighted.

So from the very top, you need to be very aware of where your sentence begins.

Does it start with a subordinate conjunction, like although, unless or if? And if it does start with one of those, you need a comma after that part of the sentence.

Now it's your turn to have a go.

If you would like to rewind the video and just recap that rule, feel free to do so and take your time.

And when you're ready, come back to this point and have a go from there.

I have included an example on number one for you.

So you only have two, three, four and five to complete.

Your job is to add the comma in the correct place remembering the rule that the comma is needed after the part of the sentence that begins with unless, although or if.

Number one, although they usually go to Spain, Mr. and Mrs. Smith like France.

I have included the comma after the part of the sentence beginning with although.

Pause the video here, have a go by yourselves, take your time, work hard, and then press play when you're ready to see how you've done.

Good luck.

Really, really great work, well done.

I'm really proud of you for having a go at this activity because it can be quite tricky.

We'll have a look at the answers together.

As you can see on your screen, I have underlined the subordinate clause.

So I've underlined the part of the sentence that does not make sense by itself, the part of the sentence that begins with although, if or unless.

What I have then done is made the comma bold and pink, so it really stands out.

So there are two ways for you to spot what's going on in the sentence.

Number two, if I want pocket money, comma, I have to get a job.

You should be able to see that the part of the sentence underlined does not make sense by itself.

It needs the rest of the sentence to make sense.

Therefore, we add a comma after the part of the sentence that begins with if.

Similarly, number three, although he wasn't very good at it, comma, Toby liked tennis.

Again, you can see that the underlined part adds information and does not make sense by itself, it needs the help of the other side of the sentence.

The comma is then put just after the part of the sentence beginning with although.

Number four, unless something very strange happens, comma, the student will do well in his exams. Unless something very strange happens is the first part of the sentence beginning with unless, so we need the comma at the end of that part of the sentence.

And finally, number five, if the weather is warm this weekend, comma, I will need to buy more sun cream.

Again, the comma is coming after the part of the sentence that begins with our subordinate conjunction if, unless or although.

If you got all five of those correct, that is absolutely outstanding work, you should be really proud of yourselves.

If you didn't quite get all five, you should still be really pleased that you're having a go and learning something new.

So keep going and let's see what else we can learn for the rest of the lesson.

This activity is slightly different, but you are using the same information that you already know now.

I've put the rule at the top of the screen for you again, just as a reminder, if the part that starts with although, unless or if is at the start of the sentence, it is followed by a comma.

You've just completed five of those, you know how that works now.

For this activity, I'm asking you to move the part that starts with although, unless or if to the start of the sentence.

Move the part of the sentence that starts with although, unless or if to the start of the sentence.

You have four sentences to do that to.

A piece of advice, maybe underline the part that needs to move before you move it so you know exactly which chunk of sentence you are moving.

And top tip, do not forget your comma.

Use the rule at the top of the screen.

Pause the video here, try your best and then we will go through the answers all together.

Brilliant work.

Let's see how you've done.

So number one should look like this.

Unless you like very spicy food, comma, don't eat this.

So we have moved the part of the sentence that starts with unless right to the beginning, and we haven't forgotten our comma to come straight after it.

Number two, although we watered it every day, comma, the sunflower didn't grow.

Again, we've moved the part of the sentence starting with although to the very beginning, and that means we have to include a comma straight after that part of the sentence.

Number three, if it is important to you, comma, you should follow your passion.

And number four, unless you are on the guest list, comma, we can't allow you in.

Hopefully, you feel really comfortable now with starting your sentences with unless, although and if and knowing that when you do choose to start your sentence with one of those words, you need a comma straight after that chunk of sentence that doesn't make sense by itself.

Let's now move on to a another rule before moving on finally to our final writing task.

Another rule that would be good for you to know, you don't need a comma before the part that starts with although, unless or if, if it is at the end of the sentence.

Let's see what I mean by that.

Look at the example you can see on the screen.

Number one, I will have a great holiday unless it rains.

You can see that the part of the sentence beginning with unless is in the middle of my full sentence.

Therefore, there is no need for a comma because the part of the sentence beginning with unless is coming at the end, so we don't need a comma anywhere.

Similarly in number two, I am still thirsty although I have had a drink.

The part of the sentence beginning with although is in the middle.

It comes at the end of the full sentence so we don't need a comma.

And finally, number three, I will be upset if I don't do well in my exams, no comma is needed.

The part of the sentence that starts with if is at the end, so we do not need a comma.

You are now going to put everything you have learned throughout this lesson into practise by completing a writing task.

You will see some sentences on the screen and I would like you to change those sentences around.

So you will rewrite each sentence by moving the part that starts with although, unless or if.

For example, if the sentence on the screen were the dog would bark unless someone answered the door, I would like you to move the part of the sentence beginning with unless to the beginning.

Unless someone answered the door, the dog would bark.

Please remember the rules.

So if you are moving the part that starts with one of these words to the beginning, you will need your comma.

If you aren't moving the part that starts with these words to the end, you will not need your comma.

Here are five sentences for you to have a go at.

There is a reminder at the top of the screen about what you need to do.

Please use any notes that you have made throughout the lesson to help you and take your time.

Press pause to have a go, and then press play when you're ready to look through the answers.

Absolutely lovely.

Now is our opportunity to just have a look at the answers to that final activity and then you can assess how well you've done by completing the quiz at the end of the lesson.

Number one, you should have moved the part of the sentence beginning with unless to the end, in which case you do not need a comma.

So number one should be you will be late unless you hurry, no comma needed.

Number two, similarly, you are moving the part of the sentence beginning with although to the end, so there is no need for a comma again, the package still hasn't arrived although I ordered it a week ago.

No need for a comma there.

Number three, we moved the part of the sentence beginning with although to the beginning.

That meant we did need a comma.

Although I did quite enjoy it, comma, I didn't think the film was very good.

Number four, we moved the part of the sentence beginning with if to the end.

So do we need a comma or not? No, we don't, you're right, well done.

Please get me some orange juice if you are going to the shop.

No comma necessary, because the part of the sentence beginning with if comes at the end.

And last one, number five, unless you want to eat somewhere else, comma, I will book a table.

So we know that we do need that comma in there, because we moved the part of the sentence beginning with unless to the very beginning.

You've completed some really, really excellent work today and I'm really proud of how well you've done.

Please go on to complete the quiz now, just to assess and reflect on how much you've learned today.

And I look forward to seeing you in our next lesson together soon.