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Hello everyone.

A Spanish army is on the retreat through Mexico being chased by the Aztecs.

They were nearly destroyed when they were forced out of the capital city.

Unknown number only about 1300 with a few more local allies.

The Aztec army is 20,000 strong, 10 times bigger.

The Aztecs thought they were already defeated, their leader with a distinctive feather headdress, gave out orders to capture as many alive as possible all for the human sacrifices, but the Aztecs had never fought a European army.

They had never experienced a cavalry charge.

These strange animals, horses looked like transport, not weapons, but when the Spanish cavalry charged galloping full speed into the Aztec lines, panic spread.

Over and over they charge directly at the leader and his bright headdress who was quickly killed.

Thousands of Aztecs died early 73 Spanish, their small army survived, and it wouldn't be long until they went back to the Capital and destroyed the empire.

Hi everyone.

Welcome back.

My name is Mr. Wallace, and this is the second of our lessons on 1492 and the impact.

And when we say 1492, that's shorthand for something else, "Columbus landing in the 'New World.

'" Now that was our focus of last lesson.

We looked at the events of Columbus's voyage.

We got rid of some myths and beliefs that some people have, and we examined the initial contact between Columbus and history ships and the indigenous people of the different islands in the Caribbean.

Today, we're going to step forward a little bit, not too long.

We just going to look at the early 16th century, the early 1500 and the next step in this story.

And this is going to involve a series of people, explorers, conquers that in Spanish and in history have become known as the conquistadors, the conquerors and the stories that I just told you forms a key part of that.

And that's the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.

Now, if you know a little bit about the Aztec Empire, that's great, but if not, there are some lessons here on Oak National run by a brilliant teacher called Ms. Barton, who goes through the Aztec Empire and will give you a really good background information.

So, you can understand who these people are before we go into this lesson.

So, if you'd like to go and do them, I would strongly recommend it.

Don't worry if you don't know too much about them now, we'll go through what we need to do today.

Before we get started, do make sure that you've got everything you need as usual.

So, a pen, some paper and ideally hassle-free environment so you can get on with some work for a little while.

If you're ready to get started, we'll begin.

Hey everyone, I'm up here again.

So, on the screen, you can see a map that we looked at the end of last lesson, and this shows us the four voyages that Columbus took to what became known as the 'New World.

' Okay.

He thought that he was going to the Indies, going to Asia, and these islands were part of the Indies which is why they eventually get the name, the West Indies.

In fact, again I nearly said it.

He has landed.

I didn't say discovered, nearly did.

He has landed on a continent.

There is land on the islands that are just as part of it.

He has landed at a continent that Europeans had no knowledge of until this point, that knowledge is taken back to Spain and to Europe and others begin to explore the region too, but it would be a mistake to think that they had a level of knowledge of this new continent that would give them a map like this one.

They don't know where all these places are.

They've only explored a little section around the Caribbean Island and the tip, the North of South America.

So, what did it look like to them? Well, this is a map drawn in around 1500.

You can roughly make out shape, right? If you look, you can see that this Gulf here, the Gulf of Mexico, you can see, this is where the islands would be.

This moves north into the Southern part of North America.

You can see that here, you can see it shape out into the top of South America out towards Brazil can see that there.

But their level of knowledge of the region needs time to develop.

It doesn't just happen like that.

They need explorers.

They need to interact with the indigenous people.

They need to make contact with different empires.

And it is very, very short space of time over the next hundred years or so.

And that is short in the grand scheme of things.

That not only do the Spanish and other empires, but especially the Spanish do this, but they defeat and conquer these empires in a way that is completely unprecedented.

These are some of the most powerful empires in the continent and small Spanish armies.

Like the one you heard me talk about at the start, we're able to take them on.

So, how did that happen? How did we get to that situation where we have conquistadors, where we have conquers all across the Americas, all across the 'New World'? Well, first of all, we need to understand why they're there.

Why do they think they're able to.

? I just going to move my picture just a little bit.


So, Spain and Portugal are the two nations best place to take advantage of this.

They've got a coast on the Atlantic.

Spain were the ones who funded Columbus's first voyage.

Portugal are what we call a maritime nation.

They've got lots sailing expertise and they are explorers themselves.

And after the discovery of doctrine, again I said it, Oh.

This is what we talk about, these kind of habits.

We say these things without realising, not with discovery after the landing of Columbus in America, in the Americas.

This knowledge was brought back to Europe and it was clear that there's a huge amount of land which could be explored, but it's also clear that there are people, already living there.

And if they were going to take that land, and if they were to come into wars and conflict with those groups of people, that needed some sort of justification, they needed to be able to say that they were doing the right thing.

'Cause having these conflicts on your conscience and on your soul, they are Christians, they would worry about this.

And there were two ways that they were able to kind of give themselves a justification for why taking land in the new world was okay, 'cause land meant resources, it meant wealth, it meant power.

They got land, they could become rich and more powerful Kings and Queens.

So, the first thing was Spain and Portugal, effectively divided the world in half simple as that, this blue line you can see here, don't worry about the orange one, the blue line you can see here.

Spain said, "Okay, "this half of the world is our half to conquer, "to colonise to explore.

"And this half is yours." Now, Portugal is more interested in the Indian ocean.

They've very notable Portuguese sailor called Vasco da Gamma.

He was able to discover a way to say it around Africa.

We've talked last lesson, how no one had yet done that.

He did that just five years after Columbus landed in the Caribbean.

So, Portugal is more interested over here.

So, this deal works for both of them.

Portugal, don't have to worry about the Spanish, the Spanish don't have to worry about the Portuguese.

All of this land then, the Spanish are the first to really go and explore and try and exploit to take advantage of it.

And they had what was called the discovery doctrine.

Now this doctrine and a doctorate is like a way of behaving.

This doctrine basically said it was okay to take land from people who were not Christians.

God had given the world to Christianity.

The Pope had given different pieces of land to various Kings and Queens.

Therefore, this land was his to give out the land belonged to Christ, belonged to God.

If the people on it were not Christians, then it's fair game.

Then they were able to take that land and convert those people to Christianity.

So, Portugal and Spain make that deal.

And Spain have in their mind, this land is ours to take advantage of.

And if the people are not Christians, it's ours to exploit.

Now, we know of many different empires that are based in the Americas.

That is for example, the Mayans and the Incas.

But the one we're going to focus on is the Aztecs.

And you can see an image here of the Aztec capital city Tenochtitlan, which nowadays is the site of Mexico city.

But we'll get to that more later today.

And some of the architecture that the Aztecs are most famous for these enormous temples, these pyramids on which they would conduct human sacrifices, the marketplaces, this site, which is incidentally built on a Lake.

This site is the heartland of the Aztec Empire.

Now, Aztec Empire is here, Central America, and you can see Tenochtitlan, alright, which I just mentioned was the Capital is in this little bit here.

It's from here that they rule their empire, but it's not the same type of empire that Europeans had.

It's more of an empire of at least Europeans had at this time, it's an empire of maybe force or intimidation.

Now in the lessons on the Aztec Empire, on Oak with Ms. Barton.

One of the things that they go through is the different ways that they control their empire.

And it's not just violence and intimidation and fear.

There's also shared religion, the shared beliefs and so on.

There's other ways that they control them, but force and fear are key ways that they did control it.

And this is sort of going to be their undoing in a little while.

We'll go through that as we go through the lesson.

So, here's their capital city and it's central America that they're based in.

Now, they've been there for hundreds of years, but very quickly after Columbus landed in the new world, that's 1492, the Spanish start to land in Mexico.

That's the early 1500s.

So, within 10, 15 years, the Spanish are exploring the mainland and coming into contact with the Aztecs.

Now to begin with, just move this, so you can see a little pause.

To begin with, I want to see what you think you know so far about the Aztecs.

And if you don't know anything, don't worry, okay.

This is just a simple, true or false exercise.

All I want you to do is look through this series of statements, write A to F on your paper and true or false, which ones do you think are true? Which ones do you think false? Now you may have some knowledge.

If you've gone through our lessons with Ms. Barton, that's brilliant.

If not, don't worry.

Just give it your best shot and we'll look through which ones are true and false afterwards.


So, pause the video here.

True or false for A to F okay, let's go.

Are we ready to move on? So, which ones are true? And which ones are false? Now, some of these things you'll notice I already mentioned.

So, the Aztecs lived in Central America.


You'll find Mexico city, the capital city of modern day, Mexico, where Tenochtitlan the Aztec capital once stood, true.

Religion was not important to the Aztecs, and they believed there was no God, definitely not true.

We'll talk about that in a minute.

Every Aztec male was trained as a warrior.


The Aztec people used to call themselves Mexica, which is where the name of the country Mexico actually comes from.


And Tenochtitlan was built on a mountain, false.

Religion was very important, but they were not Christian, which means in the eyes of the discovery doctrine.

And if the Spanish, they were right for conquest, they were there to be conquered.

They had many gods that's known as polytheism, poly meaning many, theis or theos meaning gods.

Polytheism, many gods.

They had temples, they had festivals and they had famously human sacrifices, which the Christians were very shocked and horrified by.

Tenochtitlan was not built on a mountain.

It was built on a Lake and that's going to be important when it comes to the Spanish attack on it later.

Now, here's an image at the time, this was drawn around 1524, of the city of Tenochtitlan.

And you can see here.

All of this blue area is the Lake and the city is built on an Island on the Lake and they reclaim land and there's settlements and farms and so on.

To some extent around this Lake, very, very high altitude as well.

It's very high up.

Now, it's the most dominant city in the Aztec world.

It's the capital city, but having a seat on a Lake, that's really, really high up does have some difficulties.

You can't grow that much food.

You don't have that many resources.

So, they relied on tribute.

Tribute means they basically forced other people, in other areas to give them stuff.

So, cotton, food, warriors, shields, different things that they needed, that they couldn't get in Tenochtitlan, they forced others.

Now, some willingly gave it because they had shared beliefs and shared gods.

And they saw themselves as kind of similar people, but some were forced to give it that they would be raided or attacked by the people from Tenochtitlan.

And they were forced to give over things as a tribute.

And if you didn't pay, they'd come and attack again.

So, this method of rule, is causing various other cities near Tenochtitlan to not like them very much.

So, they're part of the empire, but reluctantly, a lot of them don't really like the way that this has being ruled.

Okay? So, they don't enjoy the rule of Tenochtitlan.

Enter, Hernan Cortes.

This is a Spanish conquistador, a conqueror who was ruthless and ambitious.

And it's quite fitting that of the pictures I could find for him.

This one came up first, here he is in his metal armour attacking some of the indigenous people of central America.

Cortes was, or has become one of the most famous of these conquistadors, one of the most famous conquerors of Spain because he led a small army in a ruthless, violent and brutal destruction of the Aztec Empire.

As the story I told you at the start of this lesson, that's small army which full of 20,000 Aztec warriors that was Cortes' army.

And his cavalry charges shocks the Aztecs.

'Cause they'd never experienced that horses, they were not native to North and Central and South America.

Horses had never been there.

They'd never encountered horses in warfare, and that's going to be one of the things that is an advantage for the Spanish.

So, Cortes comes along with his army and he sees land, which would be ripe for Spain to take.

Land which can produce gold, can produce resources, can produce crops, could produce slaves, can produce people who can be converted to Christianity.

Land which can be colonised, can be taken in as part of Spain.

Problem is, there's an empire on it.

The Aztecs.

Now, one of the things I want to introduce you to, as we go through this, is a story of someone called Juan Garrido can see him here.

He is one of several black conquistadors and that may surprise you, because when we think of European colonisation, we tend to think of white European colonisation, but there were some individuals who were part of the conquistadors, who actually came from parts of Africa.

They were not slaves.

They were free.

They fought as part of these armies.

They fought with and for Cortes and other conquistador leaders.

So, you can see him in this picture here, here's Cortes, here's Juan Garrido.

He moved from Africa into Spain as a teenager, he served in a military sense, the conquistador armies.

And he was part of several events that took place in and around the Aztec world, which we're going to read about today.

And at the end of the lesson, we're going to come back to him and see what he got out of this.

There's also something else worth knowing before we look into how the Spanish were able to take down the Aztecs.

And that's why they had certain advantages.

Okay? So, first of all, they had better weaponry.

The Spanish had gunpowder, for example.

That means that we're able to bring cannons, which had not been used in the Americas before.

They had metal armour, you can see here, the armour plating that they have covering them.

The Aztecs used cotton armour to trap things like arrowheads.

And they had horses.

Now, because of these different advantages, they were able to turn their small numbers into really unbelievably powerful forces, which the Aztecs were not able to resist.

You're going to find out how, as you go through the reading.

Now, before we get into that, let me just remove myself, before we get into that, let's just quickly check we know what we're talking about.

So, the discovery doctrine, I talked about this a little while ago, the discovery doctrine said, "It was acceptable to claim land in what case?" Is it if the inhabitants attach you first? Is it, if you got the Pope's permission first? Or is it if the inhabitants were not Christian? So, which of those is the discovery doctrine? I'm going to give you five seconds.

Four, three, two, one point to the one on the screen that it is, absolutely right.

It is if the inhabitants weren't Christian.

The idea was that God gave the world to Christianity.

If they're not Christian, it's within the Christians right to take it.

What was Tenochtitlan built on? A Lake, a mountain or a river? Five, four, three, two, one point at the screen.

Absolutely right.

It's built on a Lake.

And the Aztecs relied on tribute to survive.

What does that mean? They forced others to give them resources like food.

They were voted into power and needed support.

Or the gods had chosen them to be in power.

Which of those means tribute that they were given tribute? Five, four, three, two, one point at the screen.

Absolutely right.

They intimidated, bullied, used fear and violence to force others to give them resources, some joined willingly, but many did not.

Now, this green line is the route that Cortes took.

Landing down here, moving his way through different Aztec city States, various groups that were not happy with Tenochtitlan, who were not happy with being forced to give over resources and were quite willing to join with an army that was going to destroy them for them.

Especially as you get to this area here and you get to Tlaxcala.

As you get through Tlaxcala, you find a particularly important group that helped Cortes when he eventually gets to the Lake and takes on the city of Tenochtitlan.

So, these are the questions.

What we'd like you to do here is to pause, to move forward in the lesson, read through the description of what Cortes and the Spanish did to the Aztecs.

And when you've finished to come back and we'll go through the answers.

Now, remember from last lesson, there's the acceptable answer.

And the good answer.

We don't just want one word.

I'm sure your teacher tells you that all the time.

I certainly tell my students that, we want to have full sentences and if possible, detail.

So, try and make sure your answers are, they have that detail they're written correctly.

No one or two word answers.


At this point, let's pause onto the questions and come back in a few minutes.

Let's go.

Alright, well done, everyone.

Let's go through those answers.

Don't worry if yours aren't the same word for word, we'll go through all of them.

And if there's any bits that would help, then just add them as well.


Question one.

What was the most powerful city in the Aztec world? Tenochtitlan.

We've talked about this a lot today.

The most powerful city in the Aztec world was Tenochtitlan.

The city built on a Lake.

How did this city get resources? The acceptable answer is through tribute from other cities.

A good answer.

Tenochtitlan got resources such as food, shields and cotton through tribute from other cities.

This meant that they were forced or intimidated into regularly sending resources because Tenochtitlan was such a powerful city.

They may have been raided or attacked if they did not.

So, this one simply gives me a detailed description of what tribute means, rather than just saying they've gotten through tribute.

Here's how that worked.

How did Cortes divide the Aztec Empire? He persuaded some of the other cities to join with him against Tenochtitlan.

Now that's a good start, but let's try to add some detail.

Cortes was able to divide the Aztec Empire by defeating other cities or persuading them to join his side.

This was made easier because many of the cities hated Tenochtitlan because they were constantly forced to send tribute, but did not feel strong enough to go against them.

Cortes had realised that the Aztec Empire was not that United.

Why were the Aztecs weakened before the Spanish had attacked? Now I'll put one acceptable answer here, but in fact, I think there's several answers.

So, unacceptable answer could be because thousands have died from smallpox.

Smallpox being a very deadly disease.

A good answer though, would probably give me multiple reasons.

So, the Aztecs were weakened for several reasons.

Firstly, there was an outbreak of smallpox, which killed a huge number of people, including warriors and Nobles.

Secondly, they had lost the support of different cities who had joined with Cortes and the Spanish.

Finally, Emperor Montezuma had been killed.

So, the Aztecs were weakened in different ways that army was weaker.

Thousands have died.

Their Emperor had been killed and their allies had actually joined the Spanish.

So, that weakened in several ways.

Five, why was Cortes victorious over the Aztecs in 1521? Because he learned how to protect his soldiers and get into the city.

And this is where the Lake becomes important.

Cortes was victorious over the Aztecs because he took control of the Lake that Tenochtitlan was built on.

This helped him protect his soldiers as they fought across the path that took him to the city.

He was also helped by the Aztecs being weaker from the smallpox outbreak and because they were running out of food and supplies as they had been cut off by the Spanish.

So, however as ever, there are multiple reasons, a very important one is that he had to get his soldiers over those paths.

He needed control of the water.

So, the Aztecs couldn't roll up and kill them.

So, that a key key strategic move a really, really important well thought out plan.

He was also helped though by a bit of luck, which was a smallpox outbreak.

And also because he'd cut off their food supplies.

Our challenge question, a slightly tricky question is what was the importance of Mexico City? And an acceptable answer here is, it represented Spain's total victory over the Aztecs, but let's add some detail.

Mexico city represented Spain's total victory over the Aztecs, because it was built on the site of Tenochtitlan.

The old city was destroyed and Mexico city was built on top of it and this showed that the Aztecs had lost their power.

The city was the capital of New Spain.

And from here, they continued to spread and take more land.

So, it wasn't just enough to defeat Tenochtitlan? They then destroyed the city and built their own city on top of it.

If anyone in the Aztec world hoped that they might be able to recover.

This was a sign that they had been crushed.

They have been defeated.

They're going to take their most powerful city and build on top of it.

And from here, the Spanish spread even further.

So, here is a very famous painting showing Cortes here, storming up one of those famous Teocalli.

The temples in Tenochtitlan, fighting with the Aztec warriors.

And you can see a difference just in the way that they are clothed.

The Aztecs, not having metal armour.

The Aztecs, not having gunpowder.

Even though they outnumbered the Spanish hugely for various reasons they were weaker some by luck, some because of good strategy by Cortes, some just having different resources available to them.

In total though, the Spanish with such a small army were able to take down an empire and it wasn't the only one.

Now here is a different view.

This is a painting which hangs in Washington, D.


in America.

And this shows the conquest of Tenochtitlan, by an artist called Jay Kislak.

And this helps understand why control of the Lake was important.

If you look here, you can see one of Cortes' boats filled with his soldiers.

And here you can see on rafts and canoes, various Aztec warriors, trying to say a lot to the path to kill the Spanish soldiers and horses, but the boats are protecting them.

The only way into the city is over these paths.

And if they aren't protected, they'd be killed on the way.

So, Cortes' plans and the building of these boats was absolutely key in the Spanish taking the city.

At the end of all of this, you have a 'New World' which looks a little bit like this.

Everything in blue became part of the Spanish empire, New Spain.

You've got the Aztecs, which were in this little circle here.

Eventually Spanish control reached all the way up into North America, but eventually that was taken away from them.

Hundreds of years later, you've got through Central America and you've got this coast, the West coast of South America.

Portugal, if you remember that line, which divided the world, went down here, Portugal, took control of Brazil.

Now, it wasn't just the Aztecs that were destroyed by these conquistadors.

Another very famous example would be Francisco Pizarro and the conquest of the Inca Empire and the Andes.

You also had the conquest of the Mayans in the Yucatan region.

So, across the Americas, the original empire, the empires that stood when Columbus first landed very quickly were falling.

And by the late 1500s the Spanish and Portuguese had spread across the 'New World'.

And they would soon be joined in the 1600s by the Netherlands, the French and the British.

So, what happened to Juan Garrido? We talked about this guy earlier on, he was the African conquistador who moved to Spain and fought alongside Cortes.

By looking at the story of Juan Garrido.

We can understand a few of the consequences here, why this was so significant.

So, after the destruction of Tenochtitlan and the creation of Mexico city, Juan Garrido was given land outside Mexico city.

He built a chapel there.

He became the very first settler to farm wheat in the 'New World'.

Wheat crop wasn't found there.

They had different types of food and crops.

He brought wheat over from Europe and planted it in the 'New World'.

He showed that these crops and plants were transferable.

And that was going to be a really important point in our next lesson.

And he owned indigenous slaves.

So, many of the the Aztecs, the Mexica who lived there, they were enslaved by the Spanish and forced to work.

So, we can see some of the really quite tragic, terrible consequences for the Aztecs here.

Losing their capital city, their empire being destroyed.

Many of them enslaved.

And as we saw in the actual story itself, many of them dying from smallpox.

In a very, very short space of time the Spanish and their conquistadors were able to take control over huge areas of the world.

So, what were the consequences? And this is the last thing we're going to do today.

What were the consequences of La Conquista, the conquests.

The conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas and the Mayans and everybody else.

What were the consequences of these? So, I'm going to give you two already and it's worth here pausing this video and writing down the question and writing down these two.

Lots of people died from disease.

That's one consequence, smallpox, thousands died.

And again, this is something that's going to be very important in our next lesson.

Another consequence is the increase in wealth and power of the Spanish from the new lands.

The Spanish took over so much new land.

They became richer.

They became more powerful.

Can you think of any more consequences? So, I've given you two.

See if you can come up with two more.

What were the consequences of the conquests, La Conquista? Pause the video here and try and write down two more consequences that you can add.

Let's go.

All right, that's really good.

We're very close to the end.

We're putting a lot of work on your brain today.

Lots of kind of really great thinking is happening.

Let's think you've learned everything that Cortes did against the Aztecs, but what did that lead to? Yes, it led to smallpox and the people dying from disease.

Yes, it led to more power for the Spanish, but what else? Well, it also led to the destruction of the Aztec Empire and the destruction of Tenochtitlan.

It led to the destruction of other empires.

It led to the spread of Christianity.

It led to the slavery of many indigenous people, and it led to massacres of people who went against the Spanish.

All of these things happened as a result of Spain landing their soldiers on the mainland of Central and South America and conquering those empires.

If you haven't got any of those, just write them down.

And all of these things are going to be a key part of our main question.

Why do historians keep calling 1492, a turning point? Well, what turning points can we see in the stories of the conquistadors? We've talked about turning points in the last lesson.

Turning points where history is going in one direction and all of a sudden a major change happens, not just a subtle change, a major change happens and it's forever changed.

I've given you a turning point here.

Old empires destroyed Inca, Aztec, Mayan.

Can you think of any other turning points? This is, promise, the very last question you'll do today.

Let's try and really put some stress on that brain.

Thinking about everything we've just talked about.

What are the turning points can we see in the story of the conquistadors? Pause the video here, write down the question, write down the one I've given you and try and come up with at least one more.

If you get more brilliant, but at least one.

Okay, let's go.

All right, well done.

Well done.

Let's finish off.

What are the turning points are there? We've got the destruction of old empires.

Well, the creation of new empires, Spain and Portugal, they had increased power and wealth.

That's going to change their history.

All of a sudden they expand their land.

They take control of huge areas of land that gives them power and wealth.

So, that's a key turning point.

You could also add in here, the movement of crops and animals.

We've already seen horses for the first time in the Americas.

Wheat with Juan Garrido, for first time in the Americas.

These things which are usually kept in certain parts of the world are beginning to mix around.

Something we will revisit next lesson.

And you've also got what we call settler colonies.

The movement of people to the 'New World.

' 'New World' should have an extra speech Mark there.

The movement of people to the 'New World.

' It wasn't just that the Spanish claimed this land, but Spanish people and Portuguese people then moved to this land and took control of it.

And they settled in it.

They became the ones who were running the governments there and so on.

So, you've got various turning points because nowadays in the 'New World,' if you think about what you've studied about it, or what you know in other lessons, or just from general knowledge, you may be familiar with the fact that countries like Mexico and Chile and so on.

They speak Spanish and they speak Spanish because of these settler colonies.

In Brazil, they speak Portuguese because of these settler colonies.

And without these colonies going over and taking control of this land, you don't have that.

Now let's finish up.

Let's bring myself back.

Again this is really, really fantastic work because you're going through and especially in today's lesson, quite a lot of information, there's some tricky words and Tenochtitlan and Tlaxcala and all of these things, but you've understood.

I hope you've understood exactly how the Spanish and Portuguese were able to take control of the 'New World,' why they were able to defeat empires that outnumbered them 10 to one.

What advantages did they have? Where were they lucky? And thinking bigger here, thinking to our main question.

What did this tell us about turning points? How has this affected us in the long run? Not just at the time, but for the last 500 years, this voyage in 1492 has changed our history.

We've already sent some examples of how it's done that.

Destroying some empires, creating others in our last couple of lessons.

We'll continue to explore that.

How else did 1492 change the world.


Thank you very much for your hard work today.

I'll see you on our next lesson.