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Hello, my name is Irfan and welcome to this lesson on the law, data protection and copyright.

In this lesson, you will be able to explain who stakeholders are.

Next you will learn about and be able to explain what the term, the right to be forgotten, means.

Then you will be able to distinguish between the creative uses and what acts constitute copyright infringement.

And finally, you will learn about, what is meant by, open-source and proprietary software and explore some of the benefits of each.

So let's get started.

Let's recap on some of the things that we've learned in lesson one, on this unit, on the impact of technology.

We're going to start off with a quick gapfill task, on data protection.

Look at the worksheet.

Use the word, bank, to fill in the missing words.

If you have not yet watched lesson one, of this unit, then you may find it helpful to do so before starting this task.

Pause the video now, to complete part one of this task, then resume the video when you've finished.

Let's go through the answers.

The Data Protection Act, is an important piece of legislation that protects personal data in the UK.

Personal data is private and should only be accessible by users, who have the appropriate authority.

Digital files stored on computers, can be easy to access, copy and share.

Protection is needed to make sure that personal data, held by others is kept private and not altered or deleted.

The Data Protection Act, is there to ensure, that data is properly looked after.

How did you do? Okay, let's turn up the heat a little, and try part two of this task.

Again on the worksheet, use the word, bank, to fill in the missing words.

Pause the video now, to complete part two of this task.

When you've finished, resume the video to check your answers.


That wasn't as easy as part one, so let's see how you got on.

A person who has data stored about them, is known as a data subject.

As a data subject, a person is entitled to see what data is held about them by an organisation and have that data changed if incorrect.

Every organisation that holds data, must have a data controller.

They are responsible for ensuring that the organisation stays within the principles, stated by the Data Protection Act.

The Information Commissioner's Office, ICO, ensures that the rights of the public are protected in relation to information.

So, let's move on.

In lesson one, we looked at five different areas of impact.

On the worksheet, write the names of each of the five areas of impact.

If you aren't sure, use the icons to help you remember.

And if you're feeling particularly ambitious, why not challenge yourself to even writing the definition too.

Pause the video now, to complete the task.

When you've finished, resume the video to assess your recall.

How did you get on? Fantastically, I imagine, right? The five different areas of impacts were, privacy, which are the ways in which we are observed or monitored by others.

Legal, which are pieces of legislature that have grown around the use of technology.

Ethical, which are considerations about what is right and what is wrong.

Cultural, which refers to the ways that technology has influenced us society and environmental, which is the effect technology has on the world around us.

In this section, we are going to be looking at what stakeholders are.

Most questions related to the impact of technology are framed in a very specific way.

By examining, one, the technology, two, the stakeholders, and three, the area of impact.

In lesson one, you learned to identify the area of impact, but in this lesson, you will be focusing on the impact of stakeholders.

Remember that to be proficient in answering, impact of technology questions, you need to identify and apply all three elements successfully.

A stake, is a share in something.

Stakeholders are therefore, groups or individuals who will be affected by, or who can change the way the technology is used.

Therefore, you could say, that we are all stakeholders in different ways.

Notice the list of stakeholders on the right.

Although this is not an exhaustive list, of all the possible stakeholders, consider which of those, you, or those you know, belong to.

It's time for another short task.

On the worksheet, read each headline and carefully identify, who the stakeholders are.

Remember that in many instances, there will often be more than one stakeholder, who may be affected or who can change the way that technology is used.

So for each headline, try to identify two or three.

Pause the video and complete task three, then resume the video when you're finished.

Good job.

Let's go through the headlines and stakeholders for task three.

Headline one was, easyJet hack.

I've been left in complete limbo.

This was all about the easyJet passengers, whose car details were stolen, in a highly sophisticated cyber attack.

They said, that they'd been left frustrated and in limbo, by the airline response.

In this instance, the stakeholders were the EasyJet Company and all of the holiday makers, whose details were stolen.

Headline two, was, where your computer goes to die.

Shocking pictures of the toxic electronic graveyards in Africa.

In this example, the stakeholders were, those who live in poverty, who may be scavenging for copper or electronics that can be resold or those who live or sleep near to these places, who are exposed to often toxic chemicals and materials.

Headline three, was, Tesla may have been on autopilot in California crash, which killed two.

This refers to the crash that took place, in which a Tesla car, which may have been in self-driving mode at the time, crashed into another vehicle at an intersection killing, the other driver and passenger.

In this example, the stakeholders are Tesla themselves, including the engineers and software developers of the self-driving algorithms, as well as the other road users and pedestrians too Headline four, was, lockdown exploits society's digital divide in which Jubilee Primary School in Lambeth was providing donated and crowd-funded devices to pupils.

As the head teacher tries to combat what he described as, internet poverty.

The difference between those with and without access to technology, stable or high speed internet, and in some cases, access to unbiased information is known as the digital divide.

The stakeholders in this example, were students without, or with limited access, the school and families affected by this issue.

Finally, headline five, was, Google in $5 billion lawsuit, for tracking in private mode.

This example was about how Google, has been sued in the U.

S, over claims that it illegally invaded the privacy of users by tracking people, even when they were in browsing, in private mode.

The stakeholders in this example, are both Google and the general public.

Particularly those using the Google browser on their computers or devices.

In this part of the lesson, you will learn a little bit about GDPR and the right to be forgotten.

In lesson one, we looked at, how the UK's, 1998 Data Protection Act, was updated in 2018.

The update was motivated by the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation or GDPR by the European Union.

They had recognised, that technology, has transformed our lives in ways that nobody could have imagined.

So, we'll review of the rules when needed.

Therefore, the Data Protection Act, needed to be updated, to include the principles of the GDPR.

One very important addition, was the right to be forgotten.

The right to be forgotten, means that you can request that an organisation, erases all of their personal data.

This right only applies in certain circumstances.

For example, the personal data is no longer necessary for the purpose, which an organisation originally collected or processed it.

If the organisation still requires your data, or if it needs to be kept in the interest of public safety, for example, by the police, then this request could be denied.

Let's check your understanding.

What is the right to be forgotten? Choose an option, one, two, three, or four, now.

The correct answer is, option two.

Requesting an organisation removes your personal data.

Did you get it right? Let's move on.

In this part of the lesson, you will learn about what copyright is and about Creative Commons licencing.

The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, exists to protect people's creations, also known as their intellectual property.

When a person creates something, they own it, as it can be said that, that is an artefact of their intellect.

This can include pictures, songs, texts, and even algorithms. Only once a source code has been created.

It is legal to copy, publish, distribute, or sell copyrighted material, when you yourself are the copyright holder or when you have the copyright holders permission, or when the copyright holder has chosen to give up their copyright.

This also includes, when the material is out of copyright.

Which places it in, what is known as, the public domain.

Creative Commons licences, allow the copyright owner to specify the conditions under which others can use their work and how it is credited.

It is a public copyright licence, that allows the distribution of copyrighted work.

Icons are used to represent the conditions of the licence, which include: Attribution, meaning credit must be given to the author or copyright holder.

Non-commercial, meaning that money cannot be made from the material.

Share Alike, meaning that material can only be shared based on the terms of the original work and, Non- Derivative, meaning that material must stay exactly the same, which also prevents remixes of the original.

Let's look at some examples.

Which licence would be most suited to an image, where the illustrator's name must be credited and where the image could not be modified? The correct answer is, Attribution, Non-Derivative.

Which licence would be most suited to a song, where the author would want credit for their work, wanted others to share their work, but did not want others to profit from it? The correct answer is, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share Alike.

Lastly, which licence would be most suited to an eBook, where the author wanted credit for their work, but did not want others to make money from nor should they adapt or change it in any way? The answer is, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Non- Derivative.

Open-source software, is often free and can be modified as its source code is accessible.

It is a common misconception that open-source software, is always free.

It just isn't true.

In some cases it can be purchasable.

Open-source software, allows users and online communities, the opportunity to update and provide support to others.

And by being open-source, the copyright holder has given permission for their work to be used by others.

Proprietary software on the other hand, is often paid for and its source code is not accessible to users which prevents them from modifying or sharing it.

Like before, it is a misconception that all proprietary software is paid for.

There are some, which are free.

Developers of proprietary software, provide their own support and develop fixes to issues themselves.

Note that most proprietary software developers, do not allow their software to be modified or shared and doing so, is illegal.

To summarise, proprietary software cannot be copied, altered without the permission of the copyright owner.

Open-source software can be modified.

Proprietary software is distributed, only as a completed programme.

The source code is not available.

And finally open-source software, is distributed with its source code.

Thanks for watching.

Don't forget that you can complete the online quiz, after this lesson.

If you'd like to, please ask your parent or carer to share your work on, Instagram, Facebook, or Twitter, tagging @OakNational and #LearnwithOak.