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Welcome, everybody.

It's Mr. Dyke here with another English lesson based on "The Tempest." before we begin, make sure you've got a pen at the ready and a second pen of a different colour so that you can mark and improve your work.

Also clear away any distractions that you might have around you.

Once you've done that, make sure you've got your notes from last time and from previous lessons, 'cause they'll be coming in really useful.

When you're ready with all of those things, just write down today's title, which is on the screen, "The Theme of Betrayal." Okay, let's do a really quick recap of our reading from last lesson, which based around Prospero and Ferdinand and Miranda, okay? So we read that key scene in which Ferdinand and Miranda meet.

Also involves Prospero.

Just write down everything you can remember about what happened in that scene and about those characters.

Pause now and just spend two minutes using the images as clues to do that.

Off you go.

Okay, let's look at a few key points I want you to have remembered.

You might have remembered more and you might have worded it differently, and that's fine, but just make sure that you have everything down which is on the screen now.

And I will read those to you.

So first of all, Ferdinand and Miranda fall in love at first sight.

That's really important for us to remember.

They immediately had that connection and that they refer to each other in that way.

They immediately describe one another as goddess and a wonder.

So they were absolutely besotted with each other at first sight, very much in a Shakespearian comedy-like way.

Ferdinand thinks that Miranda's a goddess.

Offers her to come back to Naples with him as a princess.

So he essentially says eventually you can be the queen of Naples if in fact his father isn't around and he becomes the King.

So Ferdinand immediately offers Miranda that status.

And although he's happy about their union, Prospero, who's obviously watching all of this, uses his magic to interrupt Ferdinand, and this way their love can be tested.

So Prospero thinks that he's got more important things to deal with, and he wants to also test their love first.

So that's what he does.

He makes sure that Ferdinand is kind of used in a kind of prisoner-like way first, and it will test whether they truly love one another.

Okay, now, today we're going to whiz through two important scenes.

The first scene we're actually going to read a summary of is act three, scene one.

And then we'll be reading act three, scene two using some of the actual text, okay? So as always, make a little summary as you go along.

So every time I give you some new information, create a little bullet point summary of what's going on and what we learned from that particular scene, okay? If you need to, you can always pause on the screen and just write down anything that you need.

And then I will explain any important words and different concepts to you.

So let's read about act three, scene one.

So this involves Ferdinand and Miranda still, where Ferdinand is being captured by Prospero and is now kind of taking over Caliban's duties 'cause Caliban has not come back.

So Caliban's jobs are now what Ferdinand is doing.

Let's see what happens here.

So Ferdinand takes over Caliban's duties and carries would for Prospero.

Unlike Caliban, however, Ferdinand has no desire to curse.

Instead he enjoys his labours because they serve the woman he loves, Miranda.

So it's clear that Ferdinand is quite happy doing these jobs and following the instructions of Prospero 'cause he knows that this is probably something which will lead him to Miranda.

As Ferdinand works and thinks of Miranda, she enters, and after her, unseen by either lover, Prospero enters.

So he's going to kind of watch and listen.

Miranda tells Ferdinand to take a break from his work or to let her work for him, thinking that her father is away.

Ferdinand refuses to let her work for him.

So Ferdinand is very much proving himself here as an honourable man and an honourable person who will marry his daughter.

Ferdinand goes on to flatter his beloved.

Miranda is, of course, modest, pointing out that she has no idea of any woman's face but her own.

She goes on to praise Ferdinand's face, but then stops herself, remembering her father's instructions that she should not speak to Ferdinand.

Ferdinand assures Miranda that he is a prince and probably a king now, though he prays his father is not dead.

Miranda seems unconcerned with Ferdinand's title and asks only if he loves her.

Ferdinand replies enthusiastically that he does, and his response emboldens Miranda to propose marriage.

So it's all very positive in this scene.

Their relationship is flourishing and developing and they're both doing the right things.

Ferdinand accepts and the two part.

Prospero comes forth, subdued in his happiness, for he had known that this would happen.

So Prospero is obviously accepting of everything that's going on.

He then hastens to his book of magic in order to prepare for the remaining business.

So Prospero is more bothered about other things that are going on around.

He's got lots of other things to deal with at this moment in time.

So he can't really think about Miranda and Ferdinand too much, but he is obviously happy about it.

Pausing here, then, and answering this question.

Why do you think it's important that this happy resolution occurs at this point in the play? Think about all the other things going on.

So consider the genre of comedy and consider the audience.

Why do you think Shakespeare builds in this happy storyline at this point? Pause the video, just spend two or three minutes answering that question, and resume once you're finished.

So here's a bit of an answer which I would like you to make sure that you've written down any elements of that you maybe missed.

I'm sure that you did a good job and that you've actually included quite a lot of the stuff in here.

So my answer is as a comedy, of which the audience would be well aware.

So we've got to remember that.

The audience, Shakespeare's audience would know that they're watching a Shakespearean comedy.

So they do have in mind the typical conventions.

The same goes for tragedy and histories.

So they're aware of what they're watching here.

The play would typically end in a marriage.

To have this storyline remain positive at this point in the play is important to remind the audience of the lighthearted themes involved.

The audience will look forward to how the resolution will come about as there are many plots yet to resolve.

This scene also juxtaposes, so remember that idea of placing two contrasting ideas together, with the following one, which involves further threats to Prospero's power.

So actually the scene that we're about to read turns to a darker place again.

So we've got these different threats on Prospero's power which will come about, and this scene at least juxtaposes that and offers some light relief and positive hope for the audience.

So let's focus on act three, scene two.

So I'm going to read a quick summary first, and then we're going to look at the text itself.

Stephano has now assumed the title of Lord of the Island and he promises to hang Trinculo if Trinculo should mock his servant master.

Ariel, invisible, enters just as Caliban is telling the men that he is "subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer, that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island," which is something we read previously, isn't it? We heard Caliban saying that.

Ariel begins to stir up trouble, calling out, "Thou liest." Caliban cannot see Ariel and thinks that Trinculo said this.

He threatens Trinculo, and Stephano tells Trinculo not to interrupt Caliban anymore.

Trinculo protests that he said nothing.

Drunkenly, they continue talking, and Caliban tells them of his desire to get revenge against Prospero.

Ariel continues to interrupt now and then with the words, "Thou liest." Ariel's ventriloquizing ultimately results in Stephano hitting Trinculo.

So again, a scene of comedy and a scene of confusion, but it's driven from a darker place where Caliban is wanting to plot, but we can see Ariel in the background and we can see Ariel there in a way which means that Ariel is intervening and making sure that this doesn't come to fruition, that this evil plan doesn't actually work.

We trust that Ariel will prevent it.

The key, Caliban tells his friends, is to take Prospero's magic box.

Once they've done this, they can kill Prospero and take his daughter.

Stephano will become king of the island and Miranda will be his queen.

Trinculo tells Stephano that he thinks this plan is a good idea, and Stephano apologises for the previous quarrelling.

Caliban assures them that Prospero will be asleep within the half hour.

So Caliban has come up with this plan.

So this is a plan for betrayal and a plan to kind of take over Prospero's powers and damage him.

And as before we've evaluated Caliban, haven't we? And we said that he's a mixture of a victim and a villain.

Well, his villainous side is very much coming out now.

He's certainly more of a villain than a victim.

Now, it's important to remember that Ariel is overseeing all of this.

So Ariel will know the threat and Ariel will probably take care of it.

So Prospero won't truly be in danger and the audience probably wouldn't truly believe that he's in danger, but it builds a bit of tension nonetheless, doesn't it? Let's read a little bit about that scene in the progress that we just read about.

So let's look at some of the language and what some of the characters say.

So we're going to start with Caliban kneeling.

Remember he is kind of treating Stephano like a king, so he's constantly kind of being subservient to him.

"As I told thee before, I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island." Ariel: "Thou liest." So remember, Ariel's invisible, but he's kind of saying these words to cause chaos and confusion.

Caliban to Trinculo: "Thou liest, thou jesting monkey, thou! I would my valiant master would destroy thee.

I do not lie." Stephano: "Trinculo, if you trouble him any more in 's tale, by this hand, I will supplant some of your teeth." So he threatens to hit him.

Trinculo: "Why, I said nothing." Stephano: "Mum, then, and no more.

Proceed." Caliban: "I say, by sorcery he got this isle.

From me he got it.

If thy greatness will revenge it on him, for I know thou darest, but this thing dare not-" So Caliban is talking about how Prospero's used his magic to steal the island away from Caliban.

So there's that selfish element again, that desire for power that we can see in Caliban's words.

Stephano: "That's most certain." "Thou shalt be lord of it and I'll serve thee." Stephano: "How now shall this be compassed? Canst thou bring me to th' party?" Caliban: "Yea, my lord.

I'll yield him thee asleep, where thou mayst knock a nail into his head." So Caliban's come up with a sinister plan to be able to kill Prospero and take his magic.

Ariel: "Thou liest.

Thou canst not." "What a pied ninny's this! Thou scurvy patch! I do beseech thy greatness, give him blows and take his bottle from him.

When that's gone, he shall drink naught but brine, for I'll not show him where the quick freshes are.

Why, as I told thee, 'tis a custom with him in the afternoon to sleep.

There thou mayst brain him, having first seized his books, or with a log batter his skull, or paunch him with a stake, or cut his weasand with thy knife.

Remember first to possess his books, for without them he's but a sot, as I am, nor hath not one spirit to command.

They all do hate him." So Caliban now really showing his sinister side, isn't he? Coming up with ways of killing Prospero.

So at this point in the audience will finally kind of certainly realised and certainly think of Caliban as someone who is more villainous than a victim.

So that's certainly what they'll be thinking at this point.

And he's come up with a pretty terrible plan there.

"As rootedly as I.

Burn but his books.

He has brave utensils, for so he calls them, which when he has a house, he'll deck withal.

And that most deeply to consider is the beauty of his daughter.

He himself calls her a nonpareil.

I never saw a woman, but only Sycorax my dam and she.

But she as far surpasseth Sycorax as greatest does least." So Caliban is almost saying we can take Miranda as almost someone who you can marry as the queen of the island.

So kind of offering her up to Stephano and saying, well, you'll be able to marry someone, as well, if we get rid of Prospero.

So again, a bit of an evil plan.

So, pausing here, five comprehension questions just to make sure that we're really happy with what's happened up to this point in the play.

So pausing the video here.

What is Caliban's plan? What does Caliban say the strongest part of Prospero is? What impact does Ariel have in this scene? Why does Shakespeare make sure that Ariel is present to hear their plans? How does Caliban, Trinculo, and Stephano come across in this scene? So how do they come across? Pausing here, spending at least five minutes completing these five key questions.

Off you go.

Okay, switching to your other coloured pen, okay? And we're just going to mark our responses.

Add anything in that you might've missed.

'Cause we've read quite a lot in this lesson, it's really key we're happy and up to scratch with what has happened in the play.

So Caliban's plan is to steal Prospero's magic from him, stripping him of power, in order to take the island, reducing Prospero to an animal.

Stephano will then be king of the island, with Miranda his queen.

That's the plan from Caliban.

What does Caliban say the strongest part of Prospero is? He states that without his magic, Prospero does not have power.

So Caliban is saying the difference between him and Prospero is simply his books, Prospero's books.

What impact does Ariel have? Ariel acts as a comedic foil.

That means someone who kind of brings in a bit of a contrast to the scene.

'Cause we've got Caliban creating darkness and kind of coming up with evil plans.

So Ariel, by interrupting and causing confusion, is creating a fun contrast for the audience where they can see a bit of comedy and a bit of lightheartedness through it.

Confusing Caliban and Stephano to make them think that Trinculo is being rude.

This causes conflict and confusion amongst the more foolish characters, so it will remind everybody that these guys are fools and that they're being tricked.

So we'll never really take Caliban's plan too seriously 'cause they don't think these guys'll be able to that pull off.

Ariel is present so that the audience know that these characters are not a true threat.

So we sense that their plan will not get very far, reinforcing the comedic nature of the play.

And finally, how do these guys come across? Well in this scene, Caliban is confirmed as a bitter character who wants power from Prospero and is prepared to behave violently and immorally to get it, which means that we decide ultimately that Caliban probably is a bit of a villain.

Trinculo and Stephano are portrayed as greedy because they want the power of the island, too, but also foolish, hungry for the power and riches of the island.

And we probably don't, and the audience probably doesn't truly believe that they will get it.

Okay, as always, thank you very much for your focus in this lesson and well done on all that reading that we've done.

I look forward to next time.