# Lesson video

In progress...

Hello, My name is Ms. Johnson, and I'm going to be teaching you English today.

In today's lesson, we're going to be exploring complex sentences and subordinate clauses.

So when you're ready, let's get started.

Going to start today's lesson by defining what are complex sentences.

So what do we actually mean by a complex sentence? If you already know, that's fantastic.

You should still compete this lesson today because it's still going to be really helpful for you.

And you're going to learn some extra key points.

If you're not sure at all, then don't worry either because that's what the lesson will focus on today.

Then we're going to look at what are subordinate clauses and how we can use this to change complex sentence, especially when we move the position of it, then we're going to be reviewing.

So I'm going to be checking in to see what you can remember.

We're going to do some spot the mistakes to see if you can still check and keep it, remember everything I teach you throughout the lesson, and then we're going to have a go at writing our own complex sentences.

In the lessons today, you will need an exercise book or paper, a pencil, or a pen and your brain as well.

I really want you to be thinking throughout the lesson, I'm going to be giving you lots of new terminology and lots of new terms, and I want you to be thinking throughout and making sure you're listening carefully.

Okay.

You'll learn lots of new grammar rules as well.

And so I'll be checking in throughout the lesson to see what you can remember.

So let's get started.

What is a complex sentence? So a complex sentence is just a type of sentence, but it has to have a main clause and a subordinate clause.

Now, other sentences, just need main clauses.

This sentence also has a subordinate clause, that has extra information to the main clause, but there's a few rules.

The main clause can stand alone, okay.

That's it's simple sentence or a compound sentence, but the subordinate clause cannot go out to missions alone.

So if we look at the image below, we've got the Batman and Robin, the Batman is the main clause the main man, he can go out and he can save the world on his own.

The subordinate clause, Mr. Subordinate cannot go and do that, but he can help the main clause.

So the subordinate cause cannot speak something on its own.

It has to always be attached to the main cause.

So subordinate clause just does not make sense by itself.

So this is an example of a subordinate clause, when the girl looked out the window, that doesn't make sense because it haven't got the main clause to help it.

It's extra information is telling me something happens when she looks out the window, but I need that main clause there for this to make sense.

So, Lily smiled when she looked out the window.

So I've added on Lily smart, which is my main clause.

And that makes sure this complex sentence then makes sense.

But let's remind yourself, the subordinate Clause needs that clause to make sense, can you fill in the missing words, pause the video and fill it in and press play when you're ready to resume.

Well done, a subordinate clause needs a main clause to make sense.

It must have a misdemeanour to make absolute sense.

It does not make sense by itself.

Can you pause the video and have a go at filling in the gaps and press play when you're ready? Well done.

A subordinate clause does not make sense by itself.

It has to have the main clause there to help it.

So a subordinate clause does not make sense by itself.

Well done, you're doing really well so far.

This is the main kind of learning part of the lesson, the rest is kind of checking in to see what you know.

So subordinating conjunction, what is it say? A subordinating conjunction, a subordinating conjunction joins a main clause to a subordinate clause.

Conjunction is like the glue, it sticks the two parts together.

So it sticks the main clause to subordinate clause and it sticks them together.

And I've got some examples here of subordinating conjunctions.

I've got rent, say after me, when.

I've got as Say after me, as, and I've got because say after me, because, so when as because, and these are all my subordinating conjunctions, there are however, a lot more subordinating conjunctions, but we are just going to focus on these three today.

So these are not the only subordinating conjunctions, but these are the three that we are going to focus on today.

And these are the three, I want you to be using in your writing going forward.

Well, let's check to see if we can remember what I've been talking about today.

Are these main or subordinate clauses? Do they make sense by themselves or not? I'm going to read them to you now, as the girl looked out the window because the girl was excited and he was sad, can you pause the video and tell me whether these are main or subordinate clauses and then press play when you're ready to resume? Well done.

Let's check together.

'As the girl looked out the window', is a subordinate clause, It does not make sense on its own.

I need the main man there to help it.

I don't know what happens as she looks out the window, because the girl was excited, is also a subordinate clause.

I need the main clause there to make it make sense.

And he was sad is the main clause that does make sense on its own.

So it is a main clause.

It can go out on missions on its own.

Now we're going to, exploring a little bit more about subordinate clauses.

So in a sentence, we can move the position of a subordinate clause.

So when we're writing complex sentences, we can, have the main clause first followed by the subordinate clause or to make our writing more interesting, we can fit that and at the subordinate clause first followed by the main clause.

They are both as good as each other, but what's important is that we use a range.

So we don't always use, the same sentence structure in our writing.

Sometimes you might want to put the main course first, sometimes we might put the subordinate clause first and this just helps to keep our writing interesting for our reader.

This is what it looks like in practise.

This one, is the main clauses, subordinate clause first, can you work out for me? Pause the video and let me know what you think.

well done.

So the main clause is first.

The main clause is the girl smiled.

I then add the extra detail of when she received her present.

So the girl smiled when she received her present.

When she received her present is a subordinate clause, and when is my subordinating conjunction? What is it? My subordinating conjunction, well done.

Now, I have moved the decision of the subordinate clause.

So this is the same sentence, but I have simply moved the position of the subordinate clause.

When the girl received her present, she smiled.

Say after me, when the girl received her present, she smiled and we've got a comma here to separate the main and subordinate clause.

And I've got my subordinating conjunction first, that's the when and I'm using this comma to separate where the subordinate clause meets the main clause.

When the girl receives her present comma, she smiled.

I only have to do that, put the comma in when the subordinate clause is first.

I don't have to, when the main clause is first.

And it marks where, the main clause and the subordinate clause meet, okay.

So that's where it marks.

Now we're going to have a go reviewing and you spot my mistakes.

How much can you remember? So there are either punctuation or sentence structure mistakes.

Can you spot them? So as comma the girl looked out the window, She's sure, she saw the moon shining in the sky, pause the video and press play when you're ready to resume.

Well done, I'm sure you spotted the mistake.

The mistake was, as the girl looked out the window comma, in the first one, the comma was in the wrong place.

In my first sentence, the comma was marking the subordinating conjunction.

Whereas the comment must actually mark, where the subordinate clause meets the main cause.

As, the girl looked out the window, That was subordinate clause, she saw them moon shining, is my main clause.

So that comma, is marking the subordinate clause and the main clause.

Ready for another one? When she ran home, what is wrong with this complex sentence? Pause the video and have a go at changing it for me.

Well done.

So when she ran home, that is my subordinate clause, so what am I missing? I haven't got a, main clause.

So this cannot operate on missions alone, it must have a main clause.

This is a really common error.

Often children just write a subordinate clause and it doesn't make sense.

You must have that main clause, attached to it.

When she run home, she's scowled with determination.

And that's really important, that she's scowled with determination is my main clause.

It makes complete sense by itself.

Well done.

I think on the next one, as she ran downstairs, she opened her present.

Now I'm going to give you a hint on this one.

I want you to think about the meaning of the two ideas.

So sometimes, we get so distracted by trying to write complex sentences.

We forget that they have to make sense.

Why doesn't this sentence make sense? Pause the video and press play when you're ready to resume.

Well done.

Shall we check? It doesn't make sense because she can't open a present as you she down the stairs.

It's very difficult.

I kind of like that can't really happen.

Those two actions in a sentence, it should be happening at the same time.

So that can't happen.

You can't open a present and run down the stairs at the same time.

You can, but it doesn't really make much sense.

So instead, I've tried this one.

As she ran downstairs, she beamed with excitement.

That's an action that could be happening, as she's going down the stairs.

Now, as I said before, this is also a really common mistake.

Lots of children do this.

They are so focused on using complex sentences, which is fantastic, they forget about the meaning of their work and it doesn't make sense.

So you must make sure, that both your main clause and your subordinate clause make sense together.

They are joined, so they need to work together.

Okay, well done.

We're now going to have a go at writing our own complex sentences.

So I hope you're sat up straight now.

Get your posture correct, feet flat on the floor and ready to do some writing.

I have got two main clauses here for you, and I want you to turn one of them into a subordinate clause to write a complex sentence.

You're going to be using in the first attempt, X, subordinating conjunctions, that is, when.

So I have my main clause, two main clauses, I'm going to turn one into a subordinate clause.

I'm going to add in, a subordinating conjunction.

In this example, I would like the main clause first, followed by whatever subordinate clause you use.

So pause the video, and I want you to write out your sentence in full with correct punctuation and press play when you're ready to resume.

Well done, let's see.

The girl cheered when she saw her present.

Well done.

So I've got my main clause here, the girl cheered.

I've changed, She saw her present into subordinate clause by saying when she saw her present using the subordinating conjunction to join it to the main clause.

I don't need a comma because the main clause is first.

Well done.

If you have something similar to me, that's absolutely fine.

Just make sure your punctuation is correct.

Let's try a different one.

This time we're going to change.

We've got two main closes again, She lowered her head, She was disappointed.

She was disappointed.

I want the subordinate clause first, and I want you to use a subordinating conjunction because, so that means your sentence is going to start with, because.

You need to change one of these main clauses into a subordinate clause.

Are we to write your sentence using correct punctuation, neat handwriting, and have a go at writing a complex sentence.

pause the video and press play when you're ready to resume.

Well done.

Let's check.

So, it would make sense that she lowers her head because she is disappointed.

So because she was disappointed, comma, she lowered her head, full stop.

She lowered her head here, is my main clause.

And because she was disappointed, is my subordinate clause.

So the most subordinate clause is first, because she was disappointed, she lowered her head.

And I've got the comma here to mark the subordinate clause, meeting the main clause.

Give yourself a tick, if you managed to do that and that you've got your comma in place as well.

Well done.

Last one, We're going to try and use as, as a subordinating conjunction.

Again, I'd like the subordinate clause first, this time.

I've given you two main clauses to get you started.

She looked to the sky, she's saw the moon.

And I want you to turn these into a complex sentence, which means one of them has become subordinate clause.

You're starting with a subordinate clause, so the first word in your sentence is going to be, as, can you write your sentence now, press pause and press play when you're ready to resume.

Well done.

Let's see how you got on.

As she looked at the sky comma, She saw the moon.

I know both those actions are linked because that would happen at the same time.

As she looked at the sky comma, important that I've put my comma, after sky and after the subordinating conjunction, that is as, because I need to ask the subordinate clause and the subordinate clause is, as she looked at the sky, comma, she saw the moon, full stop.

As she saw the moon is my main clause.

Wow, congratulations.

You have completed your lessons there.

We have learned so many things about complex sentences.

I hope you're now, feeling confident to use them in your writing, and remember to move the position of the subordinate clause to stop our writing, being repetitive.

They're not the only sentence type you should be using in your writing.

Don't forget simple sentences and compound sentences because you sometimes have different effects on the reader, but complex sentences are really good to be using to add detail to your writing and to be expand on your ideas.

So I hope you're feeling confident with that, using them in your work going forwards.

I hope you enjoy the rest of your lessons today, and take care.