Lesson video

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Hello, it's Ms. Morgan again.

Welcome to your spelling lesson.

Today we're going to be investigating more rules when we add the suffixes -er and -est.

For example, I can be talking about some fruit.

This nectarine is sweet.

The cherries are sweeter than the nectarine, but the sweetest fruit of all is the mango.

Let's get started.

On our agenda today, we're going to look at the key words.

Then we're going to investigate and generate some more rules for adding the suffixes er and -est.

And then finally, I'm going to set you 10 spelling words.

In this lesson, you're going to need three things, pencil, something to write with, a bit of paper, something to write on, and finally something to think with.

Pause the video now to make sure you're ready for the lesson.

Let's go.

Our keyword for today.

Suffix, root word, adjective.

You might say, "Ms. Morgan, we know all these." But it's really important to go back to check you understand what they mean.

Let's have a look at the meanings.

A suffix is a group of letters at the end of a word that changes its meaning.

Remember, the clue is in fix in suffix.

It fixes to the end of the word, and it fixes to a root word, which is the most basic version of a word.

No prefixes and no suffixes.

And finally, an adjective.

An adjective describes a noun.

So if you were talking about the nectarine, the adjective would be juicier, and the root word would be juicy.

Let's get started.

Now what happens to the root word when we add -er and -est? That's right, it changes.

It turns into an adjective.

Juicy becomes juicier or juiciest.

Here's a picture of two boys arm wrestling.

Listen to the sentences I'm going to use to describe them.

Can you spot which words are adjectives? Mo is strong.

Benny is stronger.

I'm the strongest.

I'll say it again.

Mo is strong.

Benny's stronger.

I'm the strongest.

That's right.

Stronger and strongest are the adjectives.

Strong is the root word.

Remember what type of adjectives stronger and strongest were.

Stronger was a comparative adjective it was one we used to compare and we were comparing Mo and Benny.

And then strongest was a superlative adjective, and that talks about often if you had a competition, you'd win it, so there we've got the strongest person is me.

Let's sneak back to the big picture.

Here are the suffixes that we looked at in the last lesson.

We looked at just adding the suffixes, and we also looked at words that ended in Y.

We would replace them with an I and add the suffixes.

Now today we're going to investigate and generate some more rules.

Let's see what we'll discover today.

Pattern number three.

Here's a map.

France is hot.

Spain is hotter than France.

Egypt is the hottest.

France is hot.

Spain is hotter than France.

Greece is the hottest.

I can hear some people saying, "Look, Ms. Morgan, there's a double consonant after a short vowel." Did you spot that? The root word is hot.

We add -er, it becomes hotter.

Notice the double T.

Then we add -est, and it becomes hottest.

Notice the double T.

Hot is the root word, -er and -est are the suffixes.

Remember, hotter is a comparative adjective.

We were comparing how hot the countries where.

And hottest was the superlative adjective.

Gosh, that's hard to say, isn't it? Superlative adjective.

And we talked about Egypt being the hottest country.

Now your turn.

Can you remember the rule that I whispered? Double the consonant if you have a short vowel.

To these root words, can you add -er and -est? You might want to write them down or just say them out loud.

The root word is thin and sad.

Add -er and -est.

Thin became thinner.

Did you spot? We double the N, because ih is the short vowel before.

And thin can become thinnest.

And again, we've doubled the N.

Well done.

Sad becomes sadder.

Oh, you remember to double the D.


Why did you double it? There's a short vowel before, ah.

And sad can become saddest.

And you remembered to double the D that time, double the consonant because we have a short vowel before.

We're going to find this next bit so easy.

The two root words are wet and flat.

And can you add the suffixes -er and-est to these words? I'd like you to have a go at writing them down or saying the spellings out loud.

Pause the video, add the suffixes.

Off you go.

How did you get on? Wet becomes wetter.

Flat becomes flatter.

Can you give me a wave if you remembered to double the consonant? You did, well done.

Why do we double the consonant? Because there's a short vowel.

The eh in wetter and the ah in flatter.

Well, then you're going to know what's going to happen next.

Wet becomes wettest.

Flat becomes flattest.

What is the rule? Can you pause and can you say it out loud? Try and put it in a full sentence.

The rule is we add -er or -est suffix to the root word, but if we've got a short vowel, you double that consonant.

So you've got to remember to listen and say the words out clearly.

Now the rule that we've remembered here for our suffixes is the short vowel rule.

We double the consonant.

Spelling pattern number four.

Ava's cake is tasty.

Clara's cake is tastier than Ava's.

My cake is the tastiest.

Ava's cake is tasty.

Clara's cake is tastier than Ava's.

My cake is the tastiest.

Can you please point to the root word on the screen? That's right.

Tasty is the root word.

What's happened to the adjectives, tastier and tastiest, when we added the -er and -est? Something happened to the Y.

Let's have a look.

Tasty is the root word.

We add -er to make tastier.

Have you spotted the Y has become an I? We add -est to make tastiest.

You spotted the Y becomes an I.

Tasty is the root word.

The suffixes are -er and -est.

Tastier is a comparative adjective and tastiest is the superlative adjective, the tastiest cake.

Here are two more root words, they end in Y.

Pretty, busy.

Can you please say out loud what pretty is going to become when you add -er and -est? Can you do the same for busy? Add -er and -est.

What would the words be? How would they sound? Say them out loud.

Do it now.

Pretty becomes prettier.

You spotted, did you remember to replace the Y with an I and add the suffix? And pretty becomes prettiest, and again, you swap the Y for an I.

Busy becomes busier, or busiest.

You remembered to swap the Y for an I.

Well done.

Let's have a go on your own now.

Here's two more root words.

Angry, icy.

I want you to add -er and -est.

This time, I'd like you to write them down.

Pause the video.

Write down the new adjectives that you have made by adding -er and -est.

Don't forget to replace the Y with an I.

Off you go.

How did you get on? Angry becomes angrier.

Icy becomes icier.

The ground is icier over here.

I'm angrier than you.

What about if you added -est? Angriest, iciest.

He is the angriest person here.

This is the iciest I've ever seen it.

Did you remember to replace the Y with an I? You did, well done.

So what's the rule? Yes, we replace the Y with an I, and we add the -er or -est suffix to the root word, and we form an adjective.

Well done.

Remember, this rule, we replace the Y with an I and we add -er or -est.

So what spelling rules have we learned today? We replace the Y with an I and add -er or -est, or we just add -er or -est, but if we spotted there is a short vowel, ah, eh, ih, or uh, then we need to double the consonant.

We can add these two rules to the other rules we learned last lesson.

When we just added our suffix or if we have a word with an E, we remove the E and add the suffix.

Let's see if you can remember how to apply these rules.

Let's see if we can apply some of those rules.

Here's the root word fit.

Can you add the suffixes -er and -est to fit? Here are the rules to help you.

Pause the video, have a go at writing or saying the spelling out loud.


Ah, you spotted ih, the short vowel, so you knew that you needed to double the consonant.

Fit becomes fitter, with a double T.

Fit becomes fittest with a double T.

Well done.

The next root word is angry.

Have you spotted what angry ends in? Can you add the suffixes -er and -est to angry? Write them down or say the spellings out loud.

Pause the video.

Did you spot the Y? So remember, you replace the Y with an I, and we add the suffixes.

So angry becomes angrier, with an I.

Or angriest with an I.

Well done.

Next we have the root word neat.

Can you add the suffixes -er and -est to neat? Write it down or say the spelling out loud.

Pause the video now.

Do you think we can just add -er and -est? Let's have a look.

That's right, we just add the suffix.

Neat becomes neater.

Neat becomes neatest.

We just add the suffix.

So when we look at our mindmap, we have investigated and we found all four rules are the same as before when we add suffixes -er and -est.

Well done.

Now I'm going to set you 10 spelling words.

Get a new piece of paper.

I want you to write the numbers one to 10 with each number on a new line.

Pause the video, do this now.

I'm going to do your spellings one-by-one.

I'll say them twice, and then I'll put them in a sentence for you.

Make sure you copy them down carefully.

As you can see, I've color-coded them as we have done before.

So the first four words we'll spot that I have got a short vowel, so we are doubling the consonant.

And the rest of the words, they are root words that end in a Y, so we need to replace the Y with an I.

The first spelling word is thinner.


My slice of bread is thinner than yours.

Pause if you need to copy them down.

Take your time and be careful.

Number two, thinnest.


I've got the thinnest slice of bread.

Be careful, double N.

Spelling number three.



This snack bar is bigger than the rest.

Number four.



This is the biggest snack bar in the shops at this moment.

Double G there, be careful.

Number five.



It's healthier than a package of crisps.

Remember, Y for an I.

Number six.



This snack bar is the healthiest on the market.

Number seven.



These grapes are tastier than ice cream.

Number eight.



These cherries are the tastiest thing you'll ever eat.

Number nine.



The earlier we get these, the better.

Number 10.



The earliest date they'll hit the shops is December.

These are your 10 spellings.

Pause, check that you've written them down carefully.

Well done, you've finished your lesson.

Make sure you practise your spellings little and often.

I'll see you next time, bye.