# Lesson video

In progress...

Hello, my name is Mrs Smart.

Welcome to today's english lesson.

In this lesson we're going to be practising using formal conjunctions, to link our ideas together.

This will give our non-chronological reports that really formal scientific tone that we're after.

In this lesson, you will need an exercise book or some lined paper, a pen or a pencil to write with, and a ruler.

Anything you've got to draw straight lines will be absolutely fine.

So don't worry if you haven't got a ruler.

You haven't got some of those items with you right now, pause the recording and go and get them.

The agenda for today's lesson is as follows.

We're going to have an introduction to formal conjunctions to understand what they are, we're then going to identify the three different types of formal conjunctions, you're going to have a chance to practise using formal conjunctions to link two sentences together.

What is a conjunction? You might have heard of this word in your english lessons before? You might have heard of this word in your grammar lessons before.

There's a bit of a clue there because there's an image of a chain.

What might that have to do with conjunctions? Pause the recording and write down anything that you can remember about conjunctions.

A conjunction links two words, phrases or clauses together.

You might have heard of coordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions, join two main clauses together, and there's only three coordinating conjunctions, but, or, and.

You might have heard of subordinating conjunctions.

They join a main and a subordinate clause together.

And there's lots of different types of subordinating conjunction.

There are three examples on the screen.

So, because, when, but there are lots of others as well.

What is a formal conjunction? Formal conjunctions are used at the beginning of a sentence, followed by a comma.

So for example, furthermore, comma, and then you continue the rest of your sentence.

This creates cohesion or flow.

And it helps the reader to read your writing because it seems less like a list, and more not like a piece of writing that flows well together.

It also provides that formal tone, that we want to create in our non-chronological report because we want to make it sure that it sounds quite scientific because we are writing about an animal, tigers.

There are three main types of formal conjunction.

I'm going to go through each type with you now.

And there is also an image below each list to help you remember it.

Once I've gone through all of them, you'll have a chance to pause the recording and jot them down on your paper.

Because you're going to need to refer to these different types of conjunction throughout today's lesson.

The first type are, and conjunctions.

I'm going to say each one and I want you to repeat it back to me.

And you can see at the bottom of that list, there is a plus or an addition sign.

And there you would use an and conjunction to link those two sentences together.

We then have but conjunctions.

Again, I'm going to say each one and you're going to repeat back.

However, nevertheless, despite this, although.

You might notice although is a little bit different, although is used at the beginning of a clause, so you won't use your comma directly after although, the comma will come after the clause.

And then you can see the image I've got for the but conjunctions is one thumbs up and one thumbs down.

That's to show a contrast.

So a but conjunction might have, a positive point followed by a negative point, and the but conjunction would link those points together.

It might be a negative point, followed by a positive point.

And the but conjunction still shows a contrast between those two points.

They can also show something that's opposite.

We've then got causal conjunctions.

Again, I'm going to read them for you, and I want you to repeat them back for me.

As a result, consequently, therefore, in order to.

And you might notice that in order to looks a little bit different, that's because unlike the other conjunctions we've looked at in order to goes in the middle of a sentence, and it doesn't have any commas around it.

So all the others go at the beginning followed by a comma and in order to go in the middle of a sentence.

So we've joined two clauses together.

And you can see the symbol I've got to remember causal conjunctions is an arrow.

That's because causal conjunctions show one thing, causing something else to happen.

So for example, if someone put a banana skin on the floor, that would cause me to fall over.

So it's one thing causing, another thing to happen.

Now I want you to pause the recording, write down these three headings, and conjunctions, but conjunctions, causal conjunctions, and copy out all of the conjunctions below, remembering your commas in the right place, and remembering your capital letters, depending on whether the conjunction goes at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle of a sentence.

You'll then refer to these throughout the lesson today.

So it's really important that you have them copied in front of you.

Pause the recording now.

We're going to start today's lesson by identifying different types of formal conjunction.

So I have got two sentences linked with a conjunction.

And I want you to think about whether you think it's an and conjunction, a but conjunction, or a causal conjunction.

I'll read the two sentences for you, and then you'll have a chance to pause the recording and have a think.

Tigers are large mammals, and can grow to approximately four metres long.

In addition, typically, they weigh between 75 and 300 kilogrammes.

Pause the recording.

Have a think about which type of conjunction you think it might be.

Right, hopefully you have made your decision about which one it is I'm going to count down from three and I want you to point to the type of conjunction you think it is.

Either and conjunction, but conjunction or causal conjunction.

Three, two, one, and point.

The first sentence is telling me how long tigers are, and the second sentence is telling me how much tigers weigh.

So those two points are very similar.

Okay, we're going to do the same thing again.

We're going to read these two sentences, and you're going to decide which type of conjunction you think I've used.

Tigers can live up to 20 years of age in zoos.

However, they only survive for a maximum of 15 years in the wild.

Do you think that's an and conjunction? A but conjunction? Or a causal conjunction? Pause the recording and have a think.

Okay, I'm going to count down from three and you need to point to the conjunction that you think it is.

Three, two, one, and point.

Excellent, well done.

It is of course, a but conjunction because it is showing that contrast between my two points.

My first point is telling me that tigers can live up to 20 years of age in zoos, however, they only survive for a maximum of 15 years.

So those two things are almost like opposites or contrasting sentences.

Okay, let's have one more go see if you can work out which one this one might be.

These felines are covered in thick fur with distinctive vertical stripes.

As a result, they are camouflaged in long grass and jungle areas.

Is it a and conjunction? A but conjunction? Or a causal conjunction? Pause the recording and make your decision now.

Ready for the countdown? Three, two, one, and point.

Well done.

Of course, the last one is a causal conjunction.

So one sentence is showing the cause of the second sentence.

So, tigers are covered in that thick fur with distinctive vertical stripes.

As a result, they are camouflaged so those vertical stripes help the tiger to camouflage or blend in, to their surroundings.

So as a result is showing cause and effect.

Well done if you've got that right.

You now have a chance to practise using some formal conjunctions.

I have written two sentences below and you're going to choose which formal conjunction you think should be used to link the two sentences together.

I'll read them to you, then you'll have a chance to pause the recording, write the sentences out and fill the gap with the conjunction of your choice.

An integral components of this species diets are large bodied mammals.

When this type of prey is not available, they occasionally feast on smaller creatures.

So will you choose an and conjunction? Have I added more information to the same point? Will you use a but conjunction? Have I shown a contrast or an opposite? Or will you use a causal conjunction? Does one sentence show cause and the other one show effect? Pause the recording now, write down the sentences, and then fill in the gap with a conjunction from your list in front of you.

You should have chosen a but conjunction, because these two sentences show a contrast.

The first sentence is stating that tigers eat large bodied mammals.

The second sentence is saying that actually, they sometimes feast on smaller creatures as well so it shows an opposite or contrast.

I've chosen despite this, but you might have chosen a different but conjunction from your list.

Let's have another go.

Again, I'm going to read you the two sentences, think about which conjunction you think would be most appropriate to link them together.

Their sharp claws are used for grasping animals and ripping flesh.

They enable them to climb trees.

Will it be an and conjunction? A but conjunction? Or a causal conjunction? Pause the recording, and write out your two sentences with your conjunction now.

It should be an and conjunction, because the first sentence tells me that they're sharp claws are used for grasping animals and ripping flesh.

The second sentence gives me another thing that they're their claws can be used for, they can also be used for climbing trees.

So it's an and conjunction to show that I'm adding information to the same point.

I've used furthermore, but you might have used a different one from your list.

Okay, third chance to practise now, we've got two sentences below.

Can you choose the correct conjunction to link them together? This species have large pores and long claws.

They can grip uneven terrain and surfaces.

So terrain means surfaces like the land or the ground that these tigers walk on.

So will you use an and conjunction? A but conjunction? Or a causal conjunction? To link those two sentences together.

Pause the recording and write down your two sentences and your chosen conjunction now.

It should be a causal conjunction because the first sentence is telling me that the tigers have large paws and long claws.

The second sentence is showing me the effect of that.

The reason they have those large paws and long claws is to help them to grip onto that uneven terrain and those uneven surfaces.

So hopefully you have chosen a causal conjunction, I have used therefore, but you might have used a different one.

I would like you to write three pairs of sentences.

So that's six sentences in total, using each type of formal conjunction to link them together.

So you're going to write a pair of sentences and link them together with an and conjunction.

So an and conjunction will start your second sentence.

Remember when you're using an and conjunction, your second sentence sentence adds extra information to your first sentence, but it's about the same subject, it supports the same point.

Then I want you to write two sentences and join them together with a but conjunction.

Remember, it's going to go at the beginning of your second sentence followed by a comma, and it needs to show an opposite or a contrast of the two sentences will be about opposite points.

And lastly, I want you to write two sentences and link them together with a causal conjunction.

And that will either go at the beginning of the sentence, or if you're going to use, in order to, it will go in the middle and join the two main clauses together to make one sentence.

Remember causal conjunction show cause and effect.

So the first sentence will be the cause, and the second sentence will be the effect.

We're writing non-chronological reports about tigers, so if you could write your sentences about tigers, that would be really helpful because then you could use your pairs of sentences in your report later on in this unit.

I'm going to show you one last example before we finish today's lesson.

Tigers are large mammals, and can grow to approximately four metres long.

In addition, typically they weigh between 75 and 300 kilogrammes.

Now, you'll notice that I've underlined and I've coloured mine in pink, the and conjunction.

I asked you at the beginning of the lesson to make sure you had a ruler or something to draw a straight edge with.

That was so that you can underline your and, but, and causal formal conjunctions so that you can identify them really clearly.

And anyone looking at your work can also see them really clearly.

In today's lesson, we've had an introduction to what formal conjunctions are, we then identified different types of formal conjunction.

We practised using four conjunctions to link two sentences together.

And lastly, you need to complete your independent task writing three pairs of sentences.

Congratulations, you have completed your lesson today.

If you would like to, please share your work with a parent or carer, goodbye.