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Hello, my name is Mrs. Behan.

For this lesson, I'm going to be your teacher.

In this lesson, we are going to develop our understanding of clocks.

What do you know about the clock? I know that a clock helps us to keep time, but what is time? Well, time is the indefinite progress of our existence.

The past, the present and the future all packaged up as a whole is time.

Are you ever late? Are you ever early? All that is linked to time as well.

Let's see what's coming up in the lesson.

First, we're going to look at time in our daily life.

Then we're going to unravel the scales on the clock.

After that, there will be a practise activity, and finally, there will be an independent task for you to have a go at.

I know you'll be keen to find out how you got time, so I will make sure I go through the answers with you.

For this lesson, there's just a couple of things you will need.

A pencil or a pen, and some paper.

If you don't have those things to hand, pause the video here whilst you go and get them.

And remember, try to work somewhere quiet where you aren't going to be disturbed.

Do you recognise this character? The white rabbit is from the store at Alice in Wonderland written by Lewis Carroll.

It starts with Alice seeing the white rabbit race past her shouting, "I'm late! I'm late!" watching his pocket watch.

She thought it was very strange that a rabbit would be late for anything.

A famous artist called Salvador Dali also painted some pictures where clocks looked like they were melting.

He made sculptures based on this too.

I was lucky enough to go to China and saw the sculpture.

Here it is.

Time has always fascinated people.

You can see how it's been included in art and stories.

When we tell traditional tales, we often start with a long, long time ago.

I get excited about how things change over time.

It is a very exciting topic for us to look at together.

So this is Mr. Slade and his class.

Mr. Slade is the class teacher and he's taken his children on a trip to London.

So have a look because time features quite strongly in this picture, but can you find out where? Just have a little look around.

What does Mr. Slade need to know about time? What did the children need to know about time? When you're ready, let's have a go through it together.


So I came up with a couple of things.

I thought that the teacher and the children both need to know about the length of a journey.

So how much time they will be spending on a bus or in a car, it might help them plan when they go to the loo, so whether they go before the journey or after the journey.

So they need to know how long that journey length is.

Also, if they're getting from one place to another, if they've got something booked in, they need to know whether they're going to get there on time.

I also thought about meeting times.

So if the children went off with other teachers into different groups, they would need to have a meeting time.

So say that they're meeting for lunch.

They would need to know at 12 o'clock, we are all meeting for lunch so then they can come back together.

Arrival times, like I said earlier, if they're going for a tour around Buckingham palace, for example, they would need to be on time because those appointments have to be scheduled.

You need to know what time to arrive.

So they need to have a good understanding of time to make it.

And departure times.

So just as it's important to know what time you are arriving, it's also important to know what time you are departing.

That means leaving or going.

So it's going to be key that the people involved on this trip can read time on a clock because they're going to have to read the time to make sure they can make all of those appointments and make sure they can leave one place ready for the next place so that everything flows seamlessly.


I'm going to go and have a little look around my house for anything that is related to time.

What do you think you can find in your house it's related to time? Maybe with the help of a grownup, you could go for a little look, make a list of anything that you find related to time, or even take a picture.

I'm going to go now, I'm going to take some photographs and then I'll come back to you.

Okay I'm back.

And I found lots of things around my house that are related to time.

I'm sure you could find lots of things too.

Okay one thing that I need you to know is that I'm probably filming this at a different time that you are watching it.

So some of the times you see will be different to the times you see on your clock and things at home at the moment.

Let me show you what I found.

My phone screen.

So on the phone screen, I can see that the time shown is in hours and minutes, and there's also a date in there.

So that tells me what day, what date, and it doesn't actually tell me the year on there, but maybe I could set it up so that it does.

I also found a diary.

So one of my best friends got me this diary and it's a one line a day.

It actually has the dates for five years in this diary.

I found the timer on the oven.

So that shows the display.

It's actually wrong at the moment.

It's not set to the correct time as the other clocks, but there is the time on the oven.

There's also a timer on the oven as well.

So I know how long I need to cook something for.

I can set it and then it will go when the food is cooked.

I also found a birthday card.

So a birthday card relates to time.

And that's because one day every year on the same date, we have a birthday.

So friends and family will often give us a birthday card to celebrate, but that's important to do and it's to do with time because we measure how long we have been alive or someone were born right up until now and then on our birthday we get a birthday card.

And I also found a wall clock.

That's not on the wall at the moment.

I'm just about to move house, so the wall clock is actually sat there, ready to go.

So there's the wall clock and you can see it's got two hands on it and that basically helps me tell me what time is during the day.

I also have a watch.

So I wear a watch that tells me what time is throughout the day to make sure that I'm on time for things and that I'm not late.

I don't like to be late.

And also, an alarm clock.

So this is in my bedroom and this helps me wake up on time in the morning.

So I wonder what things you found.

Did you find more or less things than I did? There's loads and loads of things related to time around our houses.

So we're going to have another look at my wall clock.

That's not actually on the wall, but it should be.

There are lots of numbers and lines around the edge of this clock.

Just look around the outside edges.

What is similar between the clock and these objects? A measuring jug, a thermometer, and some weighing scales.

Can you think of any ways in which they are similar? Well, all of these objects are used to measure.

They don't all measure the same thing, but the do use to measure.

So the clock measures time, the measuring jug measures capacity, a thermometer measures temperature and weighing scales measure mass.

So they're not all used to measure the same thing, but they are all used as measuring tools.

Can you find any other similarities? Well, I've noticed that all of these objects have scales.

So a scale is something that we read to find out how much there is or what it's indicating.

So we can see on the clock, we have two hands that indicate the time like we do on the weighing scales.

There is an indicator.

On the measuring jug and the thermometer, we see how high something goes.

We could see how far something reaches and we have to read the scale and work out what it is.

Let's take a closer look at the clock and the weighing scales.

So how are they similar? Well, this one has hands.

And this one has an indicator, but the hands are indicators as well.

So an indicator basically tells us what something is.

We don't have to do anything with it.

It's just that the hands on the clock will move around according to the time and we just have to read it.

Same on a weighing scale.

We put something in the top, and then the hand in, sorry, the indicator tells us what the mass is of whatever we've put in the top.

We notice that both are round.


So on this clock, it has a round face and this dial is round as well.

Can you find any other similarities? Did you notice that both have a circular scale that increases? So in this weighing scale, it goes from 500 grammes to one kilogramme to one and a half kilogramme.

So it's getting greater as it moves round.

The clock starts with a one, two, three, it moves all the way around and then it gets to 12.

So they both have a circular scale that increases.

Well, there are different numbers of indicators.

So I know I looked at this earlier, but we have how many indicators on a clock? That's right.

There are two indicators on a clock.

There are two hands on the clock.

One to indicate the hours and one to indicate the number of minutes.

But on the weighing scale over here, there is only one indicator.

There's only one scale for us to read.

Have a look at these two clock faces.

Think of something that is the same.

Both are round.

That's nice and easy.

Can you think of anything else that's the same or perhaps different? Well, both have a circular scale that increases as you move round clockwise.

So if you watch my laser pointer, you'll see which way clockwise is.

The clock always moves this way round.

You will not find a clock that goes this way around.

So clockwise, always to the right and round.

Clockwise to the right and round.

What's different about these clocks? Well, one scale is red and shows numbers one to 12.

And that's what I'm hovering over here.

So we can see one, two, three, all the way round to 12.

And the red scale has got a smaller indicator.

So the hand on this clock is smaller than the hand on the blue clock.

It's very important to notice.

The blue scale shows numbers five to 60 with divisions between each number.

So that means these little lines here, these little markers, those are the divisions.

There aren't divisions on this scale over here.

And the blue indicator's longer.

It goes right to the edge of the clock face over here.

So it's longer than the red scale.

So these scales came from the clock.

What changed? Have a little think.

These scales were on the clock, but what's changed.

Well, this is where we say we have unravelled the clock.

So the clock had the round scale, now we've peeled it away and we've made it into a straight line.

So it looks like a straight number line now, These scales came from the clock.

Now it's important to note here as well, that when we look at minutes, this is the blue scale.

When we look at hours, it's the red scale.

Most clocks in your daily life will not have red and blue scales on them.

But it's important for us to use red and blue scales now, whilst we're learning about the clock.

Have you noticed that the intervals line up on both scales? So the 12 matches with zero zero, one matches with five, two matches with 10, three matches with 15.

Do you notice any patterns? Do you notice that this goes up in fives? The blue scale goes up in increments of five, whilst the red scale goes up in ones? Did you notice that if we multiply the red number by five, it makes the blue number? Is that true on another number? Let's take number six, six multiplied by five is 30.

Eight multiplied by five is 40.

So it does work.

So the blue scale counts in fives and it stops at 60.

So that one must be measuring the minutes.

The red scale counts in ones.

It stops at 12.

So that one must be measuring the hours.

Let's see if we can use our own revelled scales to estimate the time on a clock.

Which scale was this one? That's right.

This one measures the hours.

So here is a clock with the hour indicator or the hour hand.

What time do you think it could be? I estimate the time is around quarter past 11, because the hour hand has moved just past 11.

I can see that the hour hand has left 11 and it's on its way round to 12, but it's not near it yet.

So I think that the minute hand would be somewhere around here, quarter past 11.

So I'd like you to pause the video here whilst you have a go at estimating the time on the clock.

Remember it is only an estimate because I'm only giving you the red hour hands.

So you have to try and work out where the minutes would be pointed to, or the minute hand would be pointing to, to work out at the time.

When you're ready, come back and we will have a look at the answers together.

Okay, so you've had a go at working them out.

This is what I came up with.

I said for this first one, I think that the minute hand will be pointing to around half past, because the hour hand is halfway between 10 and 11.

In the second example, I think it is nearly seven o'clock because the hour hand is nearly at seven.

So it could be five to seven or two minutes to seven, perhaps.

And in the last example, I think it is around four o'clock because the hour hand is pointing at four.

So I think that the minute hand were pointing straight up to the top of the clock, showing us four o'clock.

You're doing such a fantastic job.

So let's keep up the hard work.

What do we know about the words past and to in relation to a clock? Well, to get this far and to come to this lesson, you will already have an understanding of the words past and to.

So if we look at a clock and we split it down the middle, we know that on the right hand side of the clock, we can say that the minutes have gone past the hour.

And on this side, we carry on going, the minutes will be to the hour.

So you'll notice we're starting to look at minutes now.

The minute scale.

If we put a horizontal line through our clock, then we can split our clock into quarters.

So using that understanding, can you quickly read the clocks that are on your screen? So did you work it out? This clock shows us one o'clock.

The hour hand points to one, the minutes point to o'clock.

What time does this one show us? Half past seven.

The minute hand is at half past and we've just left seven.

The hour hand is between seven and eight.

This one shows us quarter to seven.

So our minute hand is on the left hand side of the clock.

So it is going to the next hour and our hour hand has left six and it's just creeping up to number seven.

So it's quarter to seven.

And this one is quarter past 10.

So our minute hand has made it quarter of the way around the clock.

So it's 15 minutes past or quarter past.

And the hour is 10 because it's just leaving the 10 o'clock mark or the number 10 on the clock.

So here is our own ravelled minutes scale.

We're going to have a look at estimating the time.

So here is a clock.

And what time does it show us? Well, we can see that it's 10 past, but do we know the time yet? Not yet.

If I show you this though, you know that the time is 10 past six.

We didn't know that without the hour hand.

Let's have a look at another one.


Are the minutes past or to? The minutes are to.

We say these minutes are to the next hour because they are at left hand side of the clock.

So tell me the time.

Well, we know it's 20 to, 20 minutes to the next hour, but we don't know what the hour is.

Here you go.

What's the time? It's 20 to one, well done.

Look at this one.

This one makes it really clear for us to see that without the hour hand, we don't actually know what time it is.

We need both scales on the clock to tell us the time.

Say the words on the screen with me.

We need two scales on the clock to tell the time.

And once more? We need two scales on the clock to tell the time.

And those scales are the one that shows us the minutes and the scale for the hours.

Now that you know to read time, we need to see two scales on a clock, you are ready for your independent task.

This is an example.

So in your task, you're going to look at each clock face on the sheet or on the screen.

Workout and write down what the minute hand is showing by reading the minute scale.

Remember it's just that blue number line wrapped up around the clock.

Then work out and write down what the hour hand is showing using the numbers.

Use these two pieces of information to write the correct time in words and check that your answer makes sense.

So here's an example.

I see this clock, and the first thing I need to do is to write down what the minute hand is showing.

So the minute hand indicates 20 minutes past.

I then need to look at what the hour hand is showing me.

The hour hand indicates between two o'clock and three o'clock.

Therefore, I know the time is 20 past two.

Now that you know what to do, here are your three clock faces.

Pause the video here to complete your task.

Once you finish, come back to a minute and we will go through the answers together.

Oh, I'm sure you've done a fantastic job with your independent task.

Let's go through the answers.

So our first clock shows the minute hand indicates 25 minutes to.

The hour hand indicates between 10 o'clock and 11 o'clock.

Therefore, I know the time is 25 to 11.

On our second clock, the minute hand indicates quarter past or 15 minutes past, but we tend to say quarter past.

The hour hand indicates between four o'clock and five o'clock.

Therefore, I know the time is quarter past four.

And for our last example, the minute hand indicates five minutes past.

The hour hand indicates between nine o'clock and 10 o'clock.

Therefore, I know the time is five minutes past nine.

If you'd like to, please ask your parents or carer to share your work on Instagram, Facebook, or Twitter, tagging @OakNational, @LauraBehan21 and #LearnwithOak.

Thanks for exploring time with me this lesson.

You've now got all the knowledge you need to have a go at the quiz.

I hope to see you again soon.

Bye bye.