# Lesson video

In progress...

Hello there, how are you today? Are you ready for our lesson? My name is Ms. Couves, and I'm going to be teaching you science today.

I am so excited because science is my favourite subject.

Today, we are going to be learning about formulations.

Formulations are so important.

They help us to make all sorts of things, including paint, medicines and squash.

Let's get started.

Today, we're going to start by recapping on knowledge from previous lessons.

Then we are going to learn about what a formulation is, how we can make more of a formulation.

And finally, we're going to end by doing an investigation.

In this lesson, you're going to need, an exercise book or paper, a pencil and if you want to do our experiment, you'll also need some squash, a cup, some water, and a spoon.

If you don't have any of these things, pause the video and go and get them now.

Let's start by recapping our knowledge.

Pause the video and identify each state of matter from the diagrams. Press play when you're ready to continue.

Well, how were the particles arranged in a solid? Particles in a solid arranged in audit rows? And they're touching.

How are particles arranged in a liquid? Particles in a liquid are arranged randomly, but still touching.

How are particles arranged at a gas? Particles in a gas are moving fast and they're not touching.

Point to the diagram that shows a pure gas.

How do you know that this is a pure gas? A pure gas only contains one type of particle.

The diagram on the left shows a pure gas because it only contains one type of particle.

The diagram on the right is an impure gas because it contains more than one type of particle.

How do I know that there is more than one type of particle? There are two different colours used to represent two different types of particles.

Going to the diagram that shows a pure metal, how do you know that this is a pure metal? We know that this is a pure metal because it only contains one type of acid.

Point to the diagram that shows an alloy.

How do you know that this is an alloy? This is an alloy because it contains two types of particles.

What do you know about the strength of alloys compared to a pure metal? Alloys are much stronger than pure metals.

Can you remember an example of any alloys? Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.

When we add water and oil together, they don't mix.

What do we call two liquids that do not mix? Two liquids that do not mix called immiscible.

What happens when we added soap? They did not mix.

What is the scientific word for liquids that did not mix? Sorry, when we added soap, they did mix.

What is the scientific word for liquids that did mix? Miscible, miscible liquids are liquids that can mix together.

Now we're going to learn about formulations.

Formulations are mixes made up with a specific ratio of substances.

My turn, formulations are mixtures made up with a specific ratio of substances, your turn? Here are three examples of formulations.

What is a formulation? A formulation is a mixture made up with a specific ratio of substances.

Other three examples are squash, paint and medications.

For each of these examples, they need to contain exactly the right amount of each substance or they will not have the right properties.

The squash might be too sweet, the paint the wrong colour, and the medications might not work if the ratio of substances isn't the same.

One needs to be the same in a formulation.

A formulation needs to have the same ratio of substances.

Is this a formulation? When making a cake, you always use the same amount of butter, flour, and eggs.

What do you think? This is a formulation.

When you make a cake, you always use the same amount of sugar, butter, flour, and eggs.

If you use a different amount, the cake wouldn't taste the same.

Is this a formulation? When making washing up mixture, I always use the same amount of washing up liquid and water.

What do you think? This is a formulation because when I make washing up mixture, I always use the same amount of washing up liquid and water.

What needs to be the same in a formulation? A formulation needs to have the same ratio of substances.

Let's test our knowledge.

I'm going to read you all the questions and then tell you to pause the video to complete them.

Question one, what is a formulation? Question two, why is a cake a formulation? Question three, what would happen if you change the amounts of each substance in a formulation? Question four, does the amount of each substance need to be the same as each other? Pause the video, press play when you're ready to continue.

A formulation is a mixture made up of specific amounts of each substance.

A cake is a formulation because you use the same amounts of flour, eggs, sugar, and butter to make the same type of cake.

If you change the amounts of each substance in a formulation, it would change the properties of the formulation.

The amounts of each substance in a formulation do not have to be equal, but they must be the same every time.

Now we're going to think about scaling formulations.

That means making larger or smaller amounts.

Well, do we know about the amount of each substance in a formulation? We know that the amount of substance in a formulation needs to have the same ratio.

Lets imagine a cake.

Instead of making one cake, I want to make four cakes.

What do I need to do to each of my ingredients? I need to use four times as much as everything.

That's four times as much flour, four times as much sugar, four times as much butter and four times as many eggs.

That way I will have the same ratio of ingredients, but more cakes.

My recipe gives me the ingredients for one cake.

I want to make four cakes, what should I do? Option one, use the same amounts of each ingredient.

Option two, use four times as much of each ingredient.

Option three, use four times as much sugar and butter, but the same amount of flour and eggs.

Option four, use two times as much of each ingredient.

Which one do you think? To make four times as many cakes, I need to use four times as much of each ingredient.

So option two is the correct answer.

Let's imagine I only want to make half a pot of paint.

What do I need to do to all of the substances that make a pot to paint? When I wanted to make four times as many cakes, I had to times all of the ingredients by four, if I only want to make half the amount of paint, I need to half the amount of all the substances to keep the ratio the same, but only make half as much paint.

My instructions give me the substances for one pot of paint.

I want to make half a pot, what should I do? Option one, use the same amount of each substance, option two, use two times as much of each substance, option three, use half the amount of colour dye but the same amount of water.

Option four, use half as much of each substance.

What do you think? Option four, I need to use half as much of each substance, because I need to keep the ratio of substances the same, that make half as much.

Let's investigate formulations.

If you want to have a go, you need to pause the video now and go and get an adult to help you.

For this experiment, you need a glass of water, some squash, an empty cup and a spoon.

Press play when you're ready to continue.

If you don't have the materials for this experiment, you can just follow along with me.

In order to do our experiment, you need to copy this table into our notes so that we can record our results.

Pause the video now to draw the table into your notes.

Press play when you're ready to continue with our experiment.

In our experiment, we're going to use a dessert spoon to measure out the amounts of squash and water into the cups.

We're then going to put the cups next to each other and compare the colour of the mixtures.

Then we're going to taste small amounts of the mixture to see how they taste.

So I'm going to do my experiment.

I've got my four cups in front of me and I've got some water and some squash.

I'll start by pouring the squash into a cup, so it's easier for me to use.

The table for cup number one.

How many spoonfuls of squash do I need? I need one spoonful full of squash.

This cup number one, I need to add one spoonful of squash.

How many spoonfuls of squash do I need for cup number two? I need two spoonfuls of squash.

One, two, can you see how I'm measuring the squash really carefully each time to make sure I only put one spoonful in or two spoonfuls.

Now let's look at the cup number three.

How many spoonfuls of squash do I need for cup number three? I need three spoonfuls of squash for cup number three.

One, two, three.

Therefore, one spoonful in cup one, two spoonfuls in cup two, and three spoonfuls in cup three.

How many spoonfuls do I need in cup number four? I need five spoonfuls in cup number four.

One, two, I may need to fill the spoon the same amount each time.

Three, four, Five.

So I've added all of my squash now to each of my cups.

So now I'm going to add the spoonfuls of water to each cup.

So go back to this cup number one, how many spoonfuls of water do I need to add to cup number one? I need to add five spoonfuls of water to cup number one.

So let's have a go.

Remember to fill the spoon in the same amount in each time.

One, two, three, four, five.

Now I've added all of the ingredients in my formulation, I'm going to swirl it around to make sure it mixes well.

Can you remember the name for two liquids that mix? Two liquids that mix are called miscible liquids.

Let's try cup number two.

How many spoonfuls of water do I need for cup number two? I need 10 spoonfuls of water for cup number two, ready? One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten.

What do I need to do after I added the water? I need to swirl it around to make sure that the liquids get evenly mixed up.

Great, cup number three.

How many spoonfuls of water does cup number three need? 15 spoonfuls, right, ready? One, two, three, four, five six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen What do I need to do? I need to swirl it.

Okay, cup number four.

How many spoonfuls of water does cup number four need? One spoonful of water.

One.

What do I need to do? I need to swirl it.

Okay, let's compare our formulations.

So we have got cups number one, two and three.

What do you notice about the colour of cups one, two and three? Sorry one and two? The colour looks the same, doesn't it? They have to be exactly the same colour.

Let's compare cup number two and cup number three.

What do you think about the colour of cup number two and cup number three? Again, they look like they're the same colour.

Cup number two and cup number three and cup number one, all look to be the same colour.

Let's compare cup number two and cup number four.

What do you notice about cup number four, compared to cup number two? Cup number four is much darker than cup number two.

Let's record that in our table.

Cup number one, two and three were the same colour and cup number four was darker.

Pause the video to record your results, and press play when you're ready to continue.

Now we're going to taste our cups.

Then cup two, then cup three, then cup four.

I want you to decide whether the cups tastes the same or different.

Cup number one, cup number two, cup number one and cup number two taste the same.

Lets try cup number three.

What do you predict based on the colour? Do you think that cup number one and number three are going to taste the same or different? Cup number three tastes the same as cup number one and cup number two.

Is that what you predicted? It's what I predicted.

I thought that because the colour was the same, they would also taste the same.

Let's try cup number four.

Are we expecting this one to taste the same? Aaw cup number four is really, really, really sweet.

It tastes like there's so much squash in there.

So cup number one, cup number two and cup number three, all tasted the same.

But cup number four, was way too sweet.

Let's have a look at our table.

Cup number one cup, number two and cup number three, all have a ratio of one spoonful of squash to five spoonfuls of water.

For cup two, we times all of the ingredients by two, and for cup three, we times all of the ingredients by three.

So they have the same formulation, but there's just more of it.

The cup number four, we used a completely different ratio.

We use more squash and less water.

And so it didn't taste the same and it didn't have the same colour.

What needs to be the same in our formulation? We need to have the same ratio of substances in our formulation.

Let's recap our knowledge using some conclusion questions.

What did you notice about the colour of one, two and three compared to number four? What did you notice about the taste of one, two and three compared to number four? Why do you think this is the case? If you use squash that is double concentrate, what will you have to do differently when you use it? Pause the video to answer the questions.

Press play when you're ready to continue.

The colour of cups one, two, and three was lighter than cup four.

Question two, the taste of cups, one, two and three was weaker than cup four.

Question three, cups, one, two, and three, have the same ratio or formulation, whereas cup four had more squash and less water.

Question four, if you use double concentrate squash, you would need to use half the amount of squash to get the same flavour.