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Hello everyone, and welcome to our geography lesson today.

I'm Miss Harrison and we're going to be continuing our learning on the geography of Brazil.

Now we've already looked at so many different places and so many different features of the country of Brazil.

Today, we're going to be focusing on the climate and weather of Brazil.

Now, you might have noticed that I am somewhere different today.

And the cityscape that you can see behind me is the city of Manaus, which is in the northwest of Brazil.

And it's one of the areas that we're going to be looking at and studying the climate of in today's lesson.

So let's get started.

Now, our learning question today is what is the weather like in Brazil? And during our lesson, we're going to recap those seven continents of the world.

We're going to locate Brazil on our world map and on our map of South America.

And we're going to look at the climate of Brazil.

Now it's a huge country.

There are different climate zones that we're going to explore today.

And we're going to think about how the weather in Brazil changes during the different seasons.

And then we will look at some examples of extreme weather within Brazil.

So for our lesson today, as usual, you will need your paper or notebook.

You will need a pen or pencil to write with.

And of course, you're going to need your great geography brain.

If you're missing one of those things, then you can pause the video now to go and grab it.

Awesome, we are ready to begin.

So first challenge of the lesson is can you remember all seven continents of the world? And just like we did in last lesson, I'm going to see if you can name all of them by their shape.

Now, if you want to give yourself an extra challenge, you could see if you can do it in less than a minute, that would be so impressive.

So I'm going to show you those continents.

Look at the different shapes of them.

I've switched the order to make it a bit more challenging.

And pause the video and write down the name of each of those continents.

Off you go.

Okay, have your pen at the ready, ready to mark your answers.

So continent a, we had Africa.

Then, continent B was Antarctica.

Then, we had continent c, Asia.

Oh, sorry, not Asia, North America.

Silly Miss Harrison.

Seems like I need to do a bit of revision.

Then continent d, we have Australia.

Continent e, we had Europe, and that's the continent where we live here in the UK.

Then continent f, we had Asia.

This time it really is Asia.

And continent g, we had South America, which is where Brazil is located and is our focus for today's lessons.

So I hope you remembered those even better than I did.

And if you didn't, pause the video now, and either tick the ones that you got correct, or fix the ones that you need to.

Okay, let's continue with our lessons.

So we're zooming in on the continent of South America, and we've been doing loads of work so far this unit on remembering those different countries that you can see here.

I'm going to test you on them again in our next lesson.

So we are focusing in today on the country of Brazil, which is the largest country of the continent of South America.

And today, we are going to look at the climate and the weather in Brazil.

Now, climate and weather are very similar, but they have slightly different meanings.

So let's have a look at those two keywords.

So climate is the average weather conditions in a particular location.

So that's what it's usually like or what weather we would expect to see in that particular area or location.

And then weather is the condition of the atmosphere at one particular time.

So the weather might be different on Monday than it is on Wednesday, but the climate is what we would expect to see in that particular place.

So climate is what we expect to see, and weather is what weather it is on different particular days or times.

Now, we are going to look at the climate of Brazil, so the type of weather that we expect in Brazil.

Now, Brazil, as we know, is a huge country.

And that means that there are lots of different climates within Brazil.

So if you have a look at the image on the screen, I'm going to make it bigger for you.

So this map with all of its different colours shows the different climate zones of Brazil.

Because it's such a huge country, the climate changes depending on where you are in Brazil.

So if you have a look at the darker blue sections, the darker blue areas, so in the northwest of Brazil, and one part in the northeast of Brazil, they have warm temperatures and lots of rain all year round.

Now, if you look at the red and orange areas, so towards the east of the country, on the right-hand side of the map, the red and orange areas are warm and dry all year.

So they're more kind of like desert areas.

Whereas, the darker blue where it's hot and wet are where the Amazon rainforest is.

So that's why the Amazon rainforest has such a humid climate because it's in that part of Brazil.

Now, then if we look at the green areas, they have different summer and winter seasons, and their climate is mild.

That means it's not too hot and it's not too cold.

It's warmer in the summer and it's colder in the winter.

Now, one of the reasons why the north of Brazil has a very hot and wet climate is because it's near the equator.

And the equator is an invisible line that goes around our planet.

And it's halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole.

And around the equator, the countries and the locations around the equator usually have a very hot and a very wet climate.

So that's why the north of Brazil is more hot and wet.

Whereas, Southern Brazil is in the Southern Hemisphere, which means their seasons are opposite to here in the UK.

The UK is in the Northern Hemisphere.

So when we have our summer, in Brazil, it's the winter, especially in the south of Brazil where the seasons change.

So that's because we're on different hemispheres.

The UK is on the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth and Brazil is on the Southern Hemisphere.

So have a look again at that map of those different areas and the different climate zones.

So how does it change from the northern part to the southern parts? That's going to help you with your next task.

So your next task is to finish my sentences.

Why is the climate different in different parts of Brazil? So here, you've got some sentence starters, you're going to copy those down and then have a go at finishing the sentence.

So Brazil has a varied climate because? The North of Brazil is near the mm, which means the climate is mm and mm.

And further south the weather is mm.

So see if you can remember the answers to those sentences and finish those off.

Pause the video now and have a go.

Okay, awesome work.

So we should have had our answers as Brazil has a very varied climate, because it is such a big country.

The north of Brazil is near the equator.

Remember, that's the invisible line that goes around the Earth, which means the climate is hot and wet.

Further south, the climate is more mild.

That means it's not too hot and not too cold.

Now give yourself big tick if you managed to remember those facts.

Awesome work, team.

Now, let's have a think about how the weather, so day to day, the weather changes during different seasons.

Now, as I said, the seasons in Brazil are different to the seasons here in the UK.

Some parts of Brazil, the seasons don't change very much at all.

And some parts of Brazil have summer and winter times, but they are different to here in the UK.

They're the opposite because the UK is in the Northern Hemisphere and Brazil is in the Southern Hemisphere.

So because Brazil is such a huge country and the climates are different in different places, we're going to focus on three different locations in different parts of Brazil.

The first one is Brasilia, which is the capital city of Brazil, and it's located in central Brazil.

So if you have a look at the table on the screen, you can see the average temperature for different months of the year.

Now, I've just chosen three months of the year to show you how the temperature changes throughout the year.

So you can see in January, it's 21 degrees celsius, in April, it's also 21 degrees celsius on average, and then August it's around 20 degrees celsius.

So you can see that the temperature doesn't change that much throughout the year.

Then, if you look at the bottom line, you can see the average rainfall and that's in millimetres.

So how much rain falls on the ground in those months? So you can see in January, there is 247 millimetres.

Now, that's quite a lot of rain.

So in January, on average, it rains quite a lot in Brasilia.

In April, it's 123 millimetres.

So half of the rainfall that it is in January.

And then in August, there's only 13 millimetres of rainfall.

So August is the driest month or one of the drier parts of the year in Brasilia.

So you can see that the temperature stays the same more or less throughout the year but the average rainfall is a lot higher in January.

It's about half of that in April, and then it's a lot lower in August.

So that's an example of Brasilia, which is in the central part of Brazil.

Now, let's look at the next city, which is Manaus, which is the city where I am today.

And Manaus is located in the northwest of Brazil.

So it's in the region near the Amazon rainforest.

Remember that means it's near the equator, so it's going to be very hot and very wet.

Now, if you have a look at the temperature, you can see already that the temperatures throughout the year are hotter than they are in Brasilia.

So in January, you've got 26 degrees, April, 26 and August, 27.

That's very hot.

It very rarely gets that hot here in the UK.

So the average temperature is higher than it is in Brasilia.

And the rainfall we can see in January, we've got 264 millimetres, so a lot of rain.

April, 311.

Even more rain in April.

And then August, you've got 47 millimetres.

So a little bit lower, but still a lot more rain than you had in Brasilia.

So the northeastern region where Manaus is, is a lot hotter and it rains a lot more throughout the year than it does in the capital of Brasilia.

Now, the third location we're going to look at today is Curitiba.

And Curitiba is located in the southeast of Brazil.

So it's on the coast and it's further south than both Manaus and Brasilia.

Now you can see that the temperature is lower.

So it's colder down in the south of Curitiba.

So in January, your average temperature is 20 degrees, April, 17 degrees and August, 14 degrees.

So throughout the year, it is colder than it is in both Brasilia, the capital, and in Manaus.

And then the average rainfall, you can see in January, it's 165 millimetres, in April, it's 90 millimetres, and in August, it's 74 millimetres.

So if we compare that to the other places, it's still a lot less rain than there is a Manaus but there is more rain than there is in Brasilia.

So those are some different locations in Brazil and some different types of weather that we see in different parts of the country.

Now, would you like to live in one of these places? Maybe you're a person that likes really, really hot weather.

Maybe you're a person that prefers cold weather.

Maybe you're a person that doesn't like rain at all.

And maybe you're a person really likes to play outside in the rain.

Which of these places would you like to live in? So let's have a quick look at them again.

We've got Brasilia, which is in the centre of the country.

It's quite warm throughout the year, but not too hot.

And there's a lot of rain in January, but less in other parts of the year.

Then, we have Manaus, which is in the Amazon rainforest region.

It's a lot hotter throughout the year and there is a lot of rain.

And then we have Curitiba in the south where the temperature is a bit lower, but there is slightly less rainfall than there is in Manaus and a bit more than there is in Brasilia.

So have a think, which of these locations would you rather live in and why? What kind of weather do you like? Now, I really like warm weather, but I don't really like the rain.

I don't really like going out in the rain, especially if I want to go for a walk or a run.

I find it very annoying.

So I don't think I'd like to live in Manaus because it rains a bit too much, but I do like the warm weather and Brasilia is warmer than Curitiba, so I think I would rather live in the Brasilia region.

Have a think.

What kind of weather do you like and which place would you like to live in? If you want to rewind the video to have another look at the different weathers in the different places, then you can.

Pause the video now and write it down.

Awesome work, everybody.

I'd love to hear where you would like to live in Brazil.

Now, the final thing we're going to look at today is examples of extreme weather in Brazil.

And what I mean by extreme weather is weather that doesn't happen very often and it's quite dramatic weather that can affect people's lives quite a lot.

Now, one example of extreme weather that we can see in Brazil, especially in recent years, is this.

So in recent years as the climate gets hotter, so because of something called climate change and global warming that you might heard of before, that causes the whole of planet Earth to get hotter.

So the seas are getting hotter and the Earth is getting hotter as well.

Now in recent years, as the climate of the world gets hotter, that means that rainfall in Brazil has increased because the climate is a lot hotter within Brazil, which means the water evaporates and turns into clouds.

And the more clouds there are, the more likely it's going to rain.

So the hotter it gets, the more rainfall Brazil receives.

And this can be a big problem, particularly for cities in the south of Brazil, who aren't used to having so much rainfall.

For example, Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paolo, as it can cause the cities and towns to flood.

Now, you can see on the images there, that places that flood can be very, very dangerous and can affect people's lives quite a lot because floods can cause homes to be destroyed and they can even cause people to lose their lives.

So it's a very, very serious issue.

In Brazil, that's getting worse at the moment because of climate change throughout the planet.

So your final task today, I've got one more sentence starter for you, and I want you to fill in my gaps.

So how does climate change cause extreme weather in Brazil? So think about what we just learned.

As the climate gets mm, there is more mm in Brazil, and this can cause mm.

If you want to rewind the video to have another lesson to that and have another look, then you can.

But have a go at filling in that sentence now.

Okay, well done, everybody.

You should have your sentence written down now and we should have written as the climate gets hotter.

So remember that the whole world is getting hotter.

As the climate gets hotter, there is more rain in Brazil and this can cause flooding, which is really dangerous because it means it can destroy people's homes and some people could lose their lives as well.

So that's one of the issues that's facing Brazil and the climate of Brazil at the moment.

Now, we have learned so much today.

Well done for all of your hard work.

That's the end of our lesson for today.

And I hope you have enjoyed learning about the weather and climate of Brazil.

The only thing to do now is when you finish the video, you can fill in your quiz to see how much you've remembered from our geography lesson today.

Now, if you have really enjoyed the lesson and you're super proud of the work you've done, you might want to share that with the Oak National team.

So you could ask a parent or carer to take a photo of your work and upload it to social media, tagging @OakNational with the hashtag #LearnwithOak.

That way, some of your teachers might be able to see the great work that you are doing at home.

So well done.

I hope you enjoyed that lesson.

And next week we are going to be, oh, sorry, next lesson, we are going to be looking more at the climate of Brazil and see how it might be different to the climate here in the UK.

So well done to your hard work today.

I'll see you next time.