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So in today's lesson, we will be discussing the concept of asylum.

For some people, this might be a sensitive topic.

So you may wish not to take part in the lesson.

If that's the case, you may want to exit the lesson now.

But if you do want to take part, but you think you might become upset, please make sure you have a trusted adult nearby who can support you if needed.

Hi, welcome to lesson four of this topic of why do people move around the world.

Today we're going to look at what support is available for migrants both in the UK and around the world.

So for this lesson, you may need some paper, a pen, and maybe a different coloured pen as well to self check your answers.

And you are probably going to need your notes from the previous lesson as well.

Make sure you are in a place which is quiet and where you can concentrate on the lesson.

If you need to move or get any of those things, please pause the video now so you can go and do that.

So today we are going to cover four key questions.

We are going to look at what the UK asylum process is.

So how do people seek safety and claim safety in the UK? We're going to look at what support is available for migrants in the UK.

We're going to look at what support is available for migrants globally, and we're also going to explore what social actions people can take to support migrants in their local or national or international communities.

We're going to start the lesson off by doing a little bit of a revision.

Now we covered these terms in lesson one.

Well, they're going to come up again today, so it's quite useful just to see if you can remember them.

And what I would like you to do is match the terms on the left with the definitions on the right.

And it's up to you if you want to write out the full term and the full definition or just match the number and the letter.

So you might want to pause this video now to do that task.

So hopefully you got number one, being migration, matching to the movement of a person from where they usually live.

Hopefully you got asylum seeker matching to D, and that is somebody who is forced to move across international borders because they're victims of war and/or persecution, but they've not been given any legal recognition by a government.

Hopefully you got refugee and A.

And a refugee is very similar to asylum seeker, but they have been given legal recognition by a government.

So they've been given refugee status.

The final one, internally displaced, and this is someone who is forced to move within a country because they are victims of war and/or persecution.

So they stay within the country they are moving from.

So, next activity.

So today's lesson is all about the support migrants might need.

So before we go and look at it any further, it might be a good idea to have a think about what support do you think they might need.

So as you can see, we've got the different types of migrants we've worked with so far.

So asylum seeker, refugee, and internally displaced.

But then we've also got common needs.

So your task is to think about what, think about each type of migrant, and what do you think each would need to feel supported in their new location? So when they've moved, what support do you think they might need to help them settle in.

And you can think about this in a number of ways.

You can think about it in terms of their physical, their social, and emotional needs.

So common needs is what all migrants are going to need.

Asylum seekers, or what specifically asylum seekers might need.

Refugees, or what specifically refugees might need, and internally displaced, or what specifically internally displaced persons are going to need.

So think back to our definitions we've just considered, and that will hopefully help you complete the task.

So you want to pause this video now to undertake that task.

Just make a few notes on some paper.

So hopefully you got some of these ideas.

If you didn't get them all, don't worry.

If you got something different, that's fine too.

But if you look at the common need, then all migrants are probably going to need things like food and water, clothing, shelter, security, access to sanitation, so being able to clean themselves, and go to the toilet.

They might need help with communication.

They might need support with the language, or finance, or health care.

This is obviously all depending on what type of migrant they are and where they are in the world, and what their specific situation is.

It's really difficult to say, all migrants need this.

So it's most probably going to be a lot of different types of migrants.

They might have suffered some trauma, so they might need some mental health support, with some counselling maybe.

They're probably going to need some support in knowing their new surroundings.

So onto asylum seekers, so if you're coming to a country to claim asylum, to claim safety, then you're probably going to need some information on how that process works.

If you're a refugee, again, you're probably going to need some information on how to apply for refugee status, what you have to do.

And then because refugees, if they get their status approved, then they can find employment.

So, you know, they might want to get a job.

So they're going to need some support on that.

And again, internally displaced people, persons, if you've moved to a different area of the country then they might speak a different language or a different dialect to you.

You might need some knowledge on that, and you also might need, again, some help to find employment because remember you're in the same country, so you still have your right to work.

So we're now going to explore the question, how do people claim asylum in the UK? And you might have studied the topic of migration in history, and you might know that the UK has a very long history of people migrating and the UK supporting migrants as well.

And the UK has signed up and agreed to a number of international agreements to support those seeking asylum.

So it has a legal obligation to do so.

So what I'm going to ask you to do, there is a clip which outlines the asylum process.

And what I would like you to do is watch the clip and answer the following questions.

So you might want to write these questions down.

What is meant by the term asylum? Now, hopefully you should already know that one.

There are a lot of the different reasons that allow somebody to claim asylum.

And what do asylum seekers attend to have their asylum claim heard in the UK? And who oversees this process? Now all those can be answered by watching the video.

Well, if you'd like to gain some further information you can also watch the video and answer these two questions, so these are optional.

So there's no need to do these if you don't want to.

What evidence do people need to provide to claim asylum in the UK? And what is meant by the term well-founded fear? And that's a really important term within the process of claiming asylum, because that is what it's founded on.

When you're claiming asylum, you're saying that you have fled your country.

It is not safe for you to go back and you're asking the government of the country you are in to provide you with protection, the right to stay in that country.

Your asylum claim will be considered under the Refugee Convention, usually translated into the immigration laws of the country you are in.

To be granted asylum, meaning to be recognised as a refugee, it is necessary to show that you have a well-founded fear of persecution.

Persecution is a serious targeted mistreatment of you as an individual because of who you are or what you do, or what you believe, or what people think you are, think you do, or think you believe.

You don't have to show that this will definitely happen to you but that there is a real risk it will happen.

This is what a well-founded fear means.

You also need to prove that there is a risk that something will happen to you in the future.

Not just that bad things have happened to you in the past.

For your asylum claim to come under the Refugee Convention, you need to show that the persecution you fear is for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership of a particular social group.

Particular social group can cover quite a lot of different situations, including asylum claims based on sexuality.

You will also need to show that you cannot get protection in your country of origin or the country where you normally live.

If it is the government of the country you fear, it is clear why you cannot ask for protection.

If you are in fear of your family or community members, however, you would need to prove that the authorities in your country cannot or will not protect you.

The decision makers considering your asylum claim may also try to say that even if you're in danger in your home town, city, or region, there might be another part of your country where you could live and feel safe.

In order to be recognised as a refugee you will have to prove that you would not be safe anywhere in your country or that you could not survive in another part of your country because you wouldn't be able to work or wouldn't have anywhere to live, for example.

Persecution is about danger to you as an individual.

If you are fleeing war or violence affects many people, not you specifically but everyone in your town or region, just by being in that place, you may qualify for a different kind of protection.

In the UK, people who can prove that they are in danger of persecution as an individual, usually qualify for refugee status.

If you can prove you're in danger from a serious and individual threat, from indiscriminate violence, and situations of international or internal armed conflict, you may qualify for humanitarian protection.

There are situations where someone could arguably qualify for either of these.

For example, in Syria, some people are in danger from indiscriminate violence and targeted persecution In order to prove that a fear of persecution is well-founded, i.

e.

is likely, you will need to provide evidence.

The evidence that everyone has is their story.

What has happened to you? What have you been threatened with? What has happened to your family, colleagues, or other people you know? Why did you leave? Why can't you go back? In many cases the decision makers do not believe you when you tell your story.

You need to think about what other evidence you can get to prove what you're saying happened is true, and what you think could happen to you is likely.

Are there witnesses to things that happened to you? Have you got documents that prove any part of your story? These may include medical records, arrest warrants, court documents, letters from friends or organisations showing you're in danger.

Is there newspaper coverage of an event you're talking about? Are there human rights reports that show the situation in your country is like you say it is? Do you have any evidence that can prove your identity, including your nationality? It can take time to get this evidence, so it's important to start thinking about it as soon as possible.

It's very difficult to be told by a decision maker that they do not believe you.

It's important to be prepared for this and to have people around you to support you through the process of seeking asylum Hopefully you watched the clip, and hopefully it made sense.

You might want to get that different coloured pen out to note down some feedback.

So asylum is a form of protection given by a government along with the right to stay in a country.

And if they're given asylum then this length might be limited.

Religion, nationality, political opinion, membership of a social group, e.

g.

sexuality.

So these are the different reasons people may claim asylum.

Asylum seekers have to attend an interview and this is overseen by the Home Office, which is a government department.

And then if you did the extra questions, you need to provide details of events, leading it up to you leaving, why you're being persecuted or mistreated, if you've got any witness statements, any official documents, any news of what's happening in your country, any human rights reports, et cetera.

So it's that, kind of anything you can give to support your case further.

And finally, well-founded fear is having strong evidence to believe that you are going to be persecuted slash mistreated if you go back to the country you are fleeing from, either immediately or in the future.

And this is typically because of who you are or who others think you are.

So, for example, with sexuality, maybe it's to do with your homosexuality or your transsexuality, or you might be a different religion and other people maybe don't agree with that.

So, this is just a question for you to think about.

After what you've just learned and what you've just thought about, do you think the UK asylum process is fair? Why? Or why not? Now this is a really big question.

And this is a question which is often talked about in politics.

It's often in the media.

As I record this in August in the summer holiday in 2020, there is a ongoing debate about migrants and asylum seekers arriving in the UK.

So it's a very big question to consider.

So just to give you a little bit of context and some facts and figures.

In 2019, the UK gave some form of protection.

Now there are different types of protection that the UK can give, but it gave some kind of protection to 18,519 people.

And this rose from 2018, and 7,351 of them were children.

Those who claimed asylum, so those who came to seek safety, amounted to 10,555, and these people came from a range of countries, so Iran, Turkey, Sudan.

So that's just some context for you.

So now we're going to look at what kind of support people get.

And we're going to use some real life case studies to look at this because it's always nice to see how this applies to the real world.

And we're going to use some case studies put together by a charity called Refugee Action.

So what I'm going to ask you today is, I'm going to ask you to draw a person.

If you can use a whole A4 page then that would be great, a bit like mine on your screen there.

And I'm going to ask you to access the worksheet attached to the lesson.

On that worksheet you will find some real life case studies.

So these are all real people who have claimed asylum.

And as you'll read in the case study, what I want you to do is, is around your person I would like you to note in one colour the support they get.

So what help do they receive when they come to the UK to seek asylum.

And then in another colour I would like you to note the challenges they face when trying to access support.

Even when they receive the support, what is challenging about being an asylum seeker in the UK? And it might be the case you find a support and a challenge in the same case today, and that's fine too.

So pause the lesson now, access the worksheet, and complete the task.

So hopefully you found reading those case studies interesting.

I just picked out a few things.

So if you're seeking asylum, you will be offered somewhere to stay.

And this could be a house, it could be a flat.

It could be a place in a BnB.

It could be a hostel.

It could be anywhere, okay.

And it probably won't be in London or the South East.

And this is due to the population size, and the availability of accommodation now.

And this accommodation will vary in standards as well.

You will receive some financial support.

So if your asylum application is ongoing and waiting to be heard you will receive £37.

75 a week.

And this is to be used to buy everything that you need.

So your food, your toiletries, your clothing, and if you're pregnant, then you may receive some extra money, or if you have young children you might get an extra three to five pounds per week.

But again, this is often quite difficult to access.

And for people to live on £37.

75 a week is often quite challenging, because one of the big stopping points for asylum seekers is that they can't work.

So when you read in the case studies, I'm sure you came across the kind of people who are saying that they have these skills and they want to use them and contribute to society, but due to asylum legislation they're not allowed to.

And there are calls for this to be changed and for asylum seekers to be able to work while they're waiting on their application outcome.

I'll leave you to decide if you think that's a good or bad thing.

If they are of the age of between five and 17, then they can receive education.

So they can go to school, and they may be entitled to free school meals.

So again, I don't know, there's going to be a lot of you watching this.

Maybe you have some asylum seeker children in your school, maybe you are an asylum seeker child yourself.

So the kind of thing you are able to access is schooling.

And you can get access to the NHS, so you can get access to health care.

So you can go to the GP, or you can go to hospital, you can get some prescriptions, you can have dental checks.

So if you are escaping a war-torn country, then you might not have had any hospitals for months or maybe even years.

So it might be that you need some kind of help pretty soon.

And that is something that you'll get if you have an asylum application in the UK.

So going back to our previous question of the question I'm asking you to think about, do you think our asylum process is fair? Again, I'll leave that up to you to decide.

So now we're just going to have a very brief look at the asylum system in the UK, okay.

So this is a simplified version of what happens.

So an asylum seeker will enter the UK, and then meet an official.

They will claim that they are going.

that they want to seek asylum.

They are taken to an asylum centre and they begin their asylum application process.

Now this process is meant to take six months, but if you read accounts by asylum seekers, it often takes a lot longer, and you await your outcome.

So while you await your outcome, you are still an asylum seeker.

Now if you are granted your.

if your asylum application is granted you are given something called a leave to remain.

So that means you can remain in the UK and you become a refugee.

So you get refugee status and then if you stay in the UK, then you can eventually apply for citizenship.

So you can become UK citizen, and this just gives you more rights.

But sometimes your application is denied, and you can either appeal this.

So you can challenge this and say, well, actually I think you made a mistake.

Or, and then if that works, then again, if that's approved, then you become a refugee.

But again, if that is denied, you are asked to leave the UK.

And it is against the law to stay in the UK if you are asked to leave without appealing.

So we've looked at some support that migrants are given in the UK, but what about globally, okay.

Now we looked at the United Nations before.

We've mentioned that they're an inter-governmental organisation who work with governments around the world to try and overcome key issues.

And the United Nations have put into place a number of legal frameworks which countries have signed up to.

One of them is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

And Article 14 of that says that everyone has a right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

So it is a human right to seek asylum.

And many countries have signed up to this declaration and said that they will honour it.

There was also the United Nations Refugee Convention in 1951, and this offers a universal definition of a refugee, it outlines the rights of a refugee, and it gives you a strict criteria of if a refugee should be accepted or not accepted.

And it's tells governments what they should do when they're hosting a refugee.

And many countries have used what the United Nations says and they've put it in their own legal systems. So not only do they offer legal support, they're also on the ground helping people practically.

And the United Nations is split up into lots of different parts and one of that part is called the Humanitarian Affairs Office.

And the Humanitarian Affairs Office help to coordinate and deliver practical support for migrants.

For example, they might set up camps to provide accommodation.

They might deliver food, they might support health services, and they might make sure the camps are secure.

So these are just a couple of refugee camps around the world.

One is to support the refugees in Syria in Jordan.

And another way migrants are supportive globally is by people called NGOs or non-governmental organisations.

And these are charities and pressure groups, so groups which work to promote a particular idea or course of action.

And often charities such as Oxfam, the Red Cross, and Save the Children work in partnership with the United Nations to support migrants.

So in camps, they might work to provide food, shelter, and might work with people to give them activities, especially children.

Pressure groups such as Amnesty International work to raise awareness of migration and issues migrants face.

And they are a global organisation, so they do this on a global scale, but you will also find them in the UK.

But we also have more local charities who work in the UK to raise awareness of migrant issues.

So for example, you've got the Refugee Council, and you've got the Refugee Action.

And these work to support refugees and asylum seekers right here in the UK.

So here are some examples of charities at work.

So this is Oxfam in East Africa.

So this is them supporting migrants and working with them in a camp.

This is a play area set up by Save the Children in Syria to give the children some things to do.

And this is Amnesty International protesting, having a demonstration, which they do for various global issues, including issues facing migrants.

So what I would like you to do now is have a look at six pieces of information below.

And this is all information about the support available for migrants globally.

And in each box you are to correct or fill in the missing piece of information.

So there is an error, or there is something missing in each box.

As you write them out, you have to correct the error using the information that I've just told you about and we've just been looking at.

So pause this video now and have a go at that, please.

So hopefully you got some of these correct answers, hopefully you got them all.

So claiming asylum is a human right.

The 1951 Refugee Convention is a piece of international law used to define and give rights to refugees.

The United Nations provides legal support and practical support to migrants.

Charities such as Oxfam, Red Cross and Save the Children work in partnership with the United Nations to support migrants.

The pressure group Amnesty International work to raise awareness of the issue of migration and migrant rights.

And the UK have several charities that work to support migrants, e.

g.

the Refugee Council and Refugee Action.

Well done for those of you who got them right.

I'm sure you all did.

So you might be thinking, okay, that's all well and good, but what can I do to help? Now one of the main important things of citizenship is about equipping you with the skills and knowledge to become an active citizen.

And there are lots of units that you can take part in in Oak to upscale you in becoming an active citizen.

But these are some of the things you could do around the issue of migration if you'd like to help more.

So most things, best thing that you can do is become informed about what's happening.

And by the fact that you're doing this unit, that's a really good start.

So well done on that.

But you could also access things like the Refugee Council or Refugee Action to read about their work and the stories people have gone through.

Now you might want to chat with an adult.

That's okay.

And if you're upset reading some of the stories, make sure you've got someone around to support you.

Or you can raise awareness.

So if you use social media, you can have a look at sites like the UN Refugee Agency or Refugee Action.

You can reach out to others and tell them about what you've been learning about.

But there's often a very negative picture in the media of migrants, and by becoming informed, you can help change that by correcting people and speaking to people about, well actually that's not true.

Or you can take part in things.

So every year the United Nations have a World Refugee Day on the 20th of June.

And there's also a Refugee Week which takes place in June.

So you could speak to your school councillor or your teachers and do something in school to raise awareness of that.

And you could take personal action.

So groups like Amnesty International have annual campaigns, for things like, things such as Write for Rights, and you can take part in one of them.

But make sure you check with an adult first so that's okay.

So there are lots of things that you can do if you want to, to help raise awareness about this issue and become an active citizen.

So that brings our lesson to an end.

And hopefully you now feel like you're able to do these things, that you can explain how migrants are supported in the UK.

You can explain how migrants are supported globally, and you know how to undertake some action if you want to show solidarity and support with migrants.

So, that bring the lesson to an end.

Hopefully you learned something new.

Please make sure you complete the exit quiz after the lesson to see how much you've learned.

Have a good day, and hopefully see you again in the next one.

Bye.