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Hello everybody.

It's Miss Simkin back again for your next science lesson.

And I've got somebody who wants to say hello to you today.

This is Charlie, and Charlie is my dog and he loves science as well.

So he's come to wish us a good luck for our lesson.

Say hello to Charlie.

Great, I'm going to let him go now and we're going to get started.

Our lesson question today is who is Louis Pasteur? Let's practise to say his name, Louis Pasteur.


He's the scientist that we are going to learn about today.

And we are actually going to do an experiment in today's lesson too.

Here is what we'll be doing today.

We're going to start with us star words, then we're going to learn about Louis Pasteur's story, then we're going to be a microbiologist, which is a type of scientist, just like Louis Pasteur was.

Then we're going to look at the results of our experiment.

And at the very end of the lesson, you will have a chance to show off your knowledge and what you've learned in the end of the lesson quiz.

For this lesson, you will need a piece of paper, a pencil, and of course your brain.

So should we get to our brains ready? Give it a tap, give it a shake.

Get the blood going into your brain.

and then lets take some deep breaths to get the oxygen to our brain, Great.

Now we're ready to start.

These are our star word for today.

star words, star words, star words.

I'm going to say them and then you're going to say them.


This one's really tricky, ready? Pasteurisation.

Let's practise that one more time.


And one more time, pasteurisation.

Good job.


Microorganisms. Mould.


Now let's talk about what these words mean.

a vaccine, is normally an injection like the kind you might have had at the doctors, and it protects you from a disease.

We'll talk about what pasteurisation in the lesson later.

Microorganisms, are living things that are so small we can't see them with our eyes.

They're micro they're really, really, really tiny.

So actually to help us remember what micro organism means, we could say it a screaky tiny voice, microorganisms. Good job.

Bacteria and mould are types of microorganisms. So they're living things that are too small to see.

Mould we can sometimes see when it grows enough food, but that's because there's so many of the little, so many of the little mould microorganisms that they get clumped together and we can start to see them when there's a big group of them.

We're going to be learning a bit more about mould this lesson.

Let's start with start Louis Pasteur's story.

So Louis Pasteur was born in 1822.

So that was over 200 years ago, which is why this photo of him is black and white it's very old photo.

At school, Louis loved learning about science and he went to college to study science and maths.

And when he left college, he became a science professor.

What was Louis favourite subjects? Say it to your screen.

Yes, exactly science like me.

He and his wife had five children.

How many children did he have? Show me on your fingers.

Good job.

But now this is a sad part of the story.

Three of his children died from a disease called typhoid.

This made Louis want to find out more about diseases.

And find a cure so he could stop other people's children from dying of these diseases.

Now Louis was a type of scientist called a microbiologist.

What types of scientists was he? A microbiologist, good job.

That means you're the type of scientist who studies microorganisms. There's teeny, teeny, tiny living things that are too small to see.

And sometimes microorganisms can be good, but sometimes they can cause diseases.

Louis made some pretty major discoveries during his career.

And one of them was a process he invented called pasteurisation.

So this is one of our star words, and I told you I'd explain what it means, and I will now.

So, sometimes bacteria can get into things that we eat or drink, for example milk.

Milk can turn it sour and then we can't drink it anymore.

But Louis Pasteur invented something called pasteurisation, which is when you can remove that bacteria by boiling the liquid, so making it really, really hot and then cooling the liquid down.

So in pasteurisation, I want you to do the actions with me this time we boil the liquid, we make it really hot.

Show me the the cation for boil, and then we cool it down.

So show me the action for bringing it back down.

Great we're going to practise that together.

I'm going to go and then you're going to go.

In pasteurisation we boil and then we cool.

What do we do in pasteurisation? Your turn.

Good job we boil and then we cool.

So Louis made the milk that we drink much safer.

What can make liquid sour and what is pasteurisation? Can you pause the video and say your answers to the screen.

Pause the video and answer those questions for me me now please.


These pictures on the screen of silk, which is a really soft material.

And then there is a silkworm.

Now silk the material is actually made by silkworms. The spin cocoons made of silk.

In 1865, Louis helped to save the silk industry.

Silk worms create the silk used fabrics and it was a very successful business.

But it was at risk because there was a bacteria that started attacking silkworm eggs.

And this meant that there were fewer silkworms to make silk.

But Louis save the day because he developed a process to stop the eggs being ruined by the bacteria.

And this is used by silk manufacturers worldwide.

Why was the silk industry at risk? What was happening to the silkworm eggs? Pause the video and tell your screen.

That's right.

There was a bacteria that was attacking the silkworm eggs.

Good job.

So, so far we've learned about two really good things, that Louis did.

Can you remember what they were? Pasteurisation, which made the milk safer to drink and he saved the silk industry.

Good job.

We're going to learn about the last amazing thing that Louise did.

This one might be the best.

So on the board, on the screen, you can see a picture of an old fashioned vaccine.

So remember a vaccine is something that stops you from getting a disease.

Now we get these and injections nowadays, but when they were first invented, they looked like this.

And the first vaccine was for a disease called chicken cholera.

And it stopped you from getting what stopped chickens from getting chicken cholera.

And it was Louis Pasteur who discovered this and he did lots of lots of research.

And over his life, he made vaccines for five different diseases.

So that means that people who take in the vaccine could no longer get the disease they were protected.

So Louis Pasteur saved lots and lots and lots and lots of lives.

And vaccines save millions of lives every day.

So this is probably the most impressive thing that Louis Pasteur has done.

What do vaccines do? Pause the video and tell your screen.

That's right.

They stop you from getting diseases, good job.

Okay, let's see how much you've learned.

There are three pictures on the screen that represent the three main things that Louis Pasteur did.

Can you draw a picture of each one? So it just has to be a simple picture? And then can you match the picture to the achievement? So for example, I would draw the first picture and then I'd read number one, number two and number three and add the correct achievement underneath it.

Say is the first picture showing number one, created vaccines for five diseases? Is it showing saved the silk industry? Or is it showing invented pasteurisation,? Pause the video now to draw your pictures and match them to the achievement.


Good job.

So the first picture is showing that he created vaccines for five diseases.

The second picture is showing that he saved the silk industry.

So that's our silkworm.

And the third picture is showing that he invented pasteurisation.

Well done if you've got all of those correct.

Now in this part of the lesson, we are going to be microbiologists, just like Louis Pasteur.

Microbiologists study microorganisms. So we are going to study a microorganism cold called mould.

What microorganism are we studying? Mould, exactly.

And we going to find out which conditions mould grows best in.

And it's important for us to find out where mould grows, how it grows, what conditions it likes to grow in.

Because that is important information for us to know so that we can stop mould from growing on our food.

You can try this experiment at home, but first of all, you need to check with your parent or carer, and second of all, you need to watch me do it first please.

If you don't want to do it yourself at home or you don't have the things that you need to do at home, that's okay because you're still taking part in the lesson and you're still being a microbiologist by watching me do the experiment and sharing my results.

So let me start by showing you what we need.

We need two pieces of bread.

It doesn't really matter what kind of bread and one of these pieces of bread, we're going to leave dry and the other we're going to make dump.

So we're going to put some water on it to make it damp.

Then we're going to seal both pieces of bread in their own plastic bag.

Am I going to leave them for seven days, for a week? And we're going to see how they change.

We're going to see if mould grows on them.

We're going to see if maybe mould grows more on one than the other.

So let's get started.

The first thing I'm going to do is I'm going to label my plastic bags.

So I know which one is which.

So I'm going to take my first plastic bag and I'm going to label it, dry because this is going to have my dray bread in it.

And then I'm going to take my second and I'm going to label it, damp.

Straight away I can take my dry piece of bread and I can just put it into my Ziploc bag because I'm not doing anything to this piece of bread.


I can put that to the side.

Now for my damp piece of bread I've got a bowl of water here.

Now I don't want my piece of bread to be soaking wet so I'm not going to put it in for long, but I'm just going to dip it and then turn it over and dip it in again.

And then I'm just going to shake it to get out any excess water that might be there.

Then I'm going to put it into the dump bag.

There we go.

so now going to leave these somewhere for seven days.

I'm going to choose a place around my house where nobody's going to accidentally eat them.

And I'm going to tell the people in my house that this is part of a science experiment and it's not food to eat.

Okay, it's not safe to eat mouldy foods and make sure if you're doing this experiment at home you also warn the people who are living in your house.

And then I'm going to show you the results of what has happened to my breath seven days later.

Now, if you would like to do this experiment at home, you can, as long as you get permission from your parents or carer.

You can use any type of bread, you could use much smaller pieces of bread than this, especially if you don't want to waste food, you could do this experiment with just a tiny corner of the bread and seal it in a plastic bag and see what happens.

Of course, if you don't have a plastic bag, you could wrap them in clean film or put them in a box instead.

Let's take a look at our results.

So these are pictures of my bread after I had left it for seven days a week.

So let's see what's happened.

This is a picture of the bread that was dry.

What can you see? There's a patch of light grey green stuff on it, isn't that? Can you see it? Can you take your finger? Can you point to where it is on the screen, please? Do you know what it is? It's mould exactly.

So my dry bread after a week has grown some mould.

Can I eat this bread now? No.

Most moulds would be harmful us to eat and make us feel ill.

There are some modes you can eat like if you've ever had blue mouldy cheese, but moulds on bread, we shouldn't eat.

Let's take a look at it and compare it to our wet bread, or our damp bread.

What's the difference that you can see, have a look at both pictures.

Which one do you think has the most mould? Point at it.

The damp bread has the most mould.

Although the dry bread has quite a big circle in the middle, the damp bread has lots of mould all over it.

It's spread out.

There isn't a bite of that bread that you could take without getting a mouthful of mould.

So what do our results tell us about where microbes, like mould like to grow? Do they prefer to grow in dry places or in damp and wet places? Pause the video and tell your screen.

That's right, they prefer to grow in damp places.

How do we know that? Because there's more mould on our damp bread.

So let's say that together, mould prefers to grow in damp places.

We can tell because there is more mould on our damp bread.

Good job.

Now we'll go into write a conclusion to explain what happened.

What did we find in our results? Can you write a sentence that starts with, I found that and then explain what did you find with your bread.

I'll give you a hint I just practise saying it out loud.

Pause the video and write your sentence for me now, please.


The next thing I'd like you to do is to draw a diagram or a picture to go with your sentence.

So can you draw a picture of the dry bread? And can you draw a picture of the damp bread? If you need to reminder this is what our bread looked like, take a mental image or pause the video on this slide if you want it up while you're doing your drawing.

Great, good job.

I'm really proud of the hard work that you've done today.

You've learned lots about Louis Pasteur.

You've had a go at being a microbiologist and conducting your own experiment and writing up the results.

Well done, fantastic work.

If you would like to share your work with Oak National, then you can ask your parent or your carer to share your work on Twitter and tag @OakNational or the #LearnwithOak.

You can also take @Teach_STEMinism, and then I will be able to see your work too.

Just before you go don't forget to take your end of lesson quiz and see how much you remembered.

Have a fantastic rest of your day.

You've definitely earned a bit of a rest with all of your hard work today, and I will see you back here soon for another science lesson.