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Hello there my wonderful friends, and welcome to the seventh lesson on this unit on Ancient Greece.

My name is Mr. Pedroza, and in this lesson, we're going to have a look at the following question.

So question is, who won the Peloponnesian wars? Let's have a look at the lesson structure for today.

So we're going to begin with the star words, which has some key vocabulary review.

Then we're going to have a look at what were Athens and Sparta like? We'll do a little comparison between those two city-states and then we're going to have a look at how were children treated in Athens and Sparta.

Then we'll look at the first Peloponnesian war.

Then we'll have a look at the second Peloponnesian war and then we'll do our end of lesson quiz.

Now, things that you're going to need, you're going to need your exercise book or paper.

You're going to need a pencil or a pen, and then you're going to need a ruler.

So, if you haven't got those things, go and get them now.


Let's have a look at the key vocabulary.

So we got six words.

You've got peninsula, you've got democracy, you've got oligarchy.

You have an ally, you have truce and you have tyranny.

So, the first one is a peninsula and a peninsula is a piece of land, which is surrounded on nearly all sides by water.

And it tends to be connected to a larger body of land by usually a narrow strip of land.

Then you've got democracy, and democracy is a form of government in which power rests with people.

Next one is oligarchy, which is a different type of government, in which a few people or a family rule.

Then you've got an ally, and ally is a person, a group or a country that has joined with another, for a particular purpose.

Then you have a truce, and a truce, so stop, or the end of war that is agreed upon by all groups.

Then you've got a tyranny, and a tyranny is another type of government in which a single person rules absolutely and in a cruel way.

Now, let's have a look at the first one.

So what were Athens and Sparta like? Now the Peloponnesian war was fought between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta.

And it lasted from 431 BC to 404 BC.

Athens ended up losing the war, bringing to an end, the golden age of ancient Greece.

So on my map, I can show you, so this is Athens, and this is Sparta.

And those two city-states fought a war known as the Peloponnesian war.

In which Athens ended up losing.

And that brought to an end, the golden age of ancient Greece.

So let's have a look at this one.

So the Peloponnesian war was fought between the Greek city-states of.

which two Greek city-states fought in the Peloponnesian wars? As a point, pause the video, and then fill the sentences.

Okay, let's have a look.

So, the Peloponnesian war was fought between the Greek city states of.

Athens and Sparta.

Great start my friends now, what were Athens and Sparta like? Well, the word Peloponnesian comes from the name of the peninsula in Southern Greece called the Peloponnese.

And this peninsula was time to many of the great Greek city states include the Sparta, Argos current, and Messina.

Athens and Sparta were probably the two most famous power and most powerful city states in all of Ancient Greece.

Now, however, they were really different.

Athens was ruled by a democracy and they were the first people to ever have such a system of government.

Sparta, on the other hand was ruled by a king, and they also had a small group of powerful men in council making it an oligarchy.

So on the one hand you have Athens, which is a democracy against Sparta, which is an oligarchy.

So there were two very distinct cities.

All right, lets complete the sentence.

Athens and Sparta were two very different city-states.

Athens was a, and Sparta was an Hm, but the key terms that you can use, you can use oligarchy or democracy.

So which city state was a democracy, which city state was an oligarchy.

All right, pause the video and complete those sentences.

Complete that sentence.

I kind of sound like so I can read the sentence.

So Athens and Sparta with two very different city states, Athens was a democracy good and Sparta was an oligarchy.

Awesome job.

Let's move on.

So let's continue.

What happens before the war? So after the Persian war, Athens and Sparta had agreed to a peace of 30 years, and the reason why they agreed to a peace was because they didn't want to fight each other while they were trying to recover from the Persian wars against King Cyrus The first, and his son Cyrus.

During the war against the Persian empire, Athens and Sparta had for a long time being enemies, they became allies and they had fought alongside other city states against the Persian frap, following the unexpected victory against the Persians.

Athens became powerful and wealthy and the Athenian empire grew under the leadership of the leader, Pericles.

So Athens and Sparta agreed to a 30 year.

What, what did they agree to? So in the sentence, you've got three missing words.

The key terms are Persian, recover and peace.

Where do you think those words go to complete that sentence? So at this point, pause the video and complete the task.


Let's have a look and see where those key words go.

Athens and Sparta agreed to a 30 year peace to allow them to recover following the wars against the Persian empire.

Awesome job my friends, well done.

So let's have a look.

The geography of each city, gave them a distinctive character.

Athens is built all around the base of a big hill where the Acropolis sets overlooking.

Athens is fairly close to the sea and has good access to the surrounding islands and many trading routes.

In contrast, Sparta is surrounded by mountains.

So this is Athens then, and this is Sparta.

but Sparta is surrounded by mountains, which makes it really difficult for enemies to invade and gave the Spartans, lots of mountain areas for soldiers to train them on.

Athens, it's really close to the sea.

Sparta is surrounded by mountains.

Those are the key geographical differences between the two different cities.

So how were children treated and Athens and Sparta? Hmm.

Well, the way in which children were both up in Athens and Sparta was noticeably very different.

Athenians were orientated towards being really creative believe in educating their boys, not the girls though, and boys could choose to go into the army or navy if they wanted to Sparta, on the other hand, was very focused on obedience and being prepared for war and the people did not have luxuries to enjoy.

Spartan boys did not have to go to school or to work my fine, but actually what they had to go to was they had to go into the army and Spartan boys were trained from a very young age, some of them as young as seven years old to be trained as soldiers, and this was compulsory, meaning they had no choice.

So they would leave their families and they will leave.

They would live with the other training soldiers and they had no choice in this.

They just had to do seems very strange.

In which city state were boys, forced to train as soldiers from an early age.

Was there a, was it an Athens or was it B in Sparta? So in what city state were boys forced to train as soldiers from an early age? I think, and choose the correct option.


In which city state were boys forced to train as soldiers from a very early age, it was of course be, in Sparta.

So in Sparta, boys were trying from a very young age to be soldiers.

And this was compulsory.

Remember boys, as young as seven years old were trained as soldiers in the city state of Sparta.

I would not want to be a soldier at the age of 7.

Now, what were Athens and Sparta like for girls, girls in Athens were not seen as very important.

They had no say in anything to do a war, business or education.

There could be taught at home if they had rich parents.

In Sparta though, girls were seen as the future mothers of Spartan soldiers.

And although they were not allowed to fight in battle, the girls did take part in some of the training because healthy strong girls were believed to give birth to healthy, strong babies who could then become strong fighting soldiers in Sparta week, babies were left to die on hillsides.

And this was because Spartans only wanted strong children who would become strong soldiers.

How very scary? Now, lets have a look.

Why were weak babies weak babies left to die in Sparta? So to answer you can say in Sparta week babies were left to die because what was the reason why Spartans left weak babies to die? Have a think, and then write a full sentence to the answer, to that questions sorry.

Okay, let's look like what is the answer to this question? So, why would weak babies be left to die Sparta? This is very cruel.

And of course it was.

So in Sparta, weak babies were left to die because only strong and healthy children were desired as they could be trained as soldiers.

So I'm going to leave this answer up so that you can check it against your own.

Okay, let's talk, let's continue and move on to the first Peloponnesian war.

So this, by agreeing to keep the peace between them, remember they were meant to be in peace.

A peaceful 30 years, Sparta's and its allies became increasingly jealous and distrustful of Athens.

And finally in 431 BC when Sparta and Athens ended up on different sides in a conflict over the city of Corinth, Sparta declared war on Athens.

And the first Peloponnesian war lasted for 10 years.

And during this time the Spartans, they dominated the land and Athenians dominated the sea Athens built really long walls all the way from the city to the Seaport in Perez.

And this enabled them to stay inside the city and still have access to trade and supplies from the ships.

And although the Spartans never breached the walls of Athens during this fast war, many Athenians died in the city due to plague.

This included the great leader and general of Athens Pericles.

But Hey, you have some sentences that have some missing words.

There are six key words that are missing.

the key words are Sparta, Pericles, plague, you got walls, you've got the date of 431 BC and you have Athens.

So where do you find those words? Once you figure that out right than that, and read the sentence back to see if it makes sense.

So pause to think, and then complete that task.

So, Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 BC.

The war lasted 10 years with Athens dominating the seas and Sparta dominating on land.

Athens built walls, which kept the Spartans at bay However many people, including the great leader and general Pericles, died due to plague.

That is the answer to those sentences.

So that's done.

I'm going to leave it up so that you can check it against your own.

Awesome job my friends, excellent.

All right, so lets have a look, after the Peloponnesian war in 421, BC Athens and Sparta, they agreed to a truce.

They agreed to stop fighting.

And it was called the peace of Nicias named after the general or the Athenian army.

And after this Sparta and Athens, they lived happily ever after.

actually they didn't because they went to war for a second time.

And in 451 BCE Athens decided to help one of the, one of their allies on the island of Sicily, as you can see with the yellow circle there.

and they sent a large force that to attack the city of Syracuse, Athens lost the battle horribly and Sparta decided to retaliate starting the second Peloponnesian war.

The Spartans began to gather allies to conquer Athens, and they even enlisted the help of the Persians who lent them money to build a fleet of warships.

However, Athens recovered and won a series of battles between 410 and 406 BC.

How about in 405 BCE? The Sparta's in general, Lysander defeated the Athenian fleet in battle.

With the fleet defeated, The people in the city of Athens began to stop.

They began to run out of food and they did not have the army to take on the Spartans on land.

And in 404 BCE, the city of Athens surrendered to Sparta the city states of Corinth and Thebes, which are, here, I'm going to point them to you.

So this is Athens.

This is Sparta the citizens of Corinth and thebes they wanted to punish Athens and they wanted the city destroyed and the people enslaved, however, Sparta disagreed.

They made the city tear down its walls so that it would be easier to conquer in a next war, but they refused to destroy the city or enslave the people.

So in this one you need to write whether these statements are true or false, okay? So I'm going to read these to you and then I want you to decide whether they're true or whether they're false.

In 405 BC, the Athenians defeated the Spartan fleet.

Once they surrendered, the city states of Corinth and Thebes wanted the city state of Athens destroyed, and its people enslaved.

And C Sparta forced Athens to tear down its walls.

So which of those statements are true? Which ones are false? I don't know.

Now you're going to tell me, so pause the video and complete that task.


Let's see.

Let me see what you learned from me.


And 405 BCE the Athenians, defeated the Spartan fleet.

That is false.

Remember that in 405 BCE, the Spartan general, Lysander defeated the Athenian fleet in battle.

Now B, once it surrendered, that the city state of Corinth and Thebes wanted the city of Athens destroyed and its people enslaved.

That that is true.

They wanted to punish Athenians, and C, Sparta force Athens to tear down its walls.

That is also true.

Remember the Sparta disagreed with Thebes and Corinth, and they did not destroy Athens.

So those are the answers to those questions.

I'm going to leave them up for you just to check against your own.

Let's try that and see what happens after the end of the second Peloponnesian war.

So after Sparta's, the defeat of Athens, they ended democracy and they set up a new government in Athens ruled by the 30 tyrants.

And so Athens saw a period of tyranny, but the Athenians didn't like this.

And therefore this only lasted for one year as the local Athenians they overthrew the tyrants that had been brought by the Spartans and they restored democracy.

And Sparta, instead of becoming a great power themselves, they were defeated the defeated by thieves in 371 BCE at the battle of I And guys that is the end of the lesson.

Great work today.

Awesome job.

It's now time to complete your end of lesson quiz.

And if you'd like to, as always, please ask your parent or carer to show your work.

They can do it on Instagram, they can do it on Facebook, they can do it on Twitter.

They're going to tag up Oak national, and they're going to use the hashtag LeanwithOak, so if there's anything that you want to share, please ask your parents or carers to do it for you guys.

Thanks so much for all of your hard work today.

I hope to see you in our next lesson.

Goodbye my friends!.