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Hello everybody, it's Mrs Baker here with your second lesson in the global problem series.

We're about to get ready, so if you'd like to find yourself somewhere nice and quiet to work, and if you can turn all notifications of your phone and we will get ready to do some really good work today.

Lots of really interesting things going on with regards to global warming and climate change.

So once you find a quiet workspace, please join me again and I'll tell you what we need for today's lesson.

That's fantastic then everybody, see you in a moment.

So, welcome back everybody and today's lesson is, the second in a series about global problems. And the focus is, what is global warming? Second lesson in a series of six.

For today's lesson, apart from that nice quiet space you found yourself now, you're going to need something to write with and something to write on.

There are some downloadable worksheets you can use in today's lesson as well but you don't need them, you can just write on your paper.

And obviously as with all of the lessons, you need to bring your brain, and it definitely needs to be in thinking mode today, because we are going to be talking about you using your own opinions to try and convince somebody either that they're very right or maybe that they're wrong.

So make sure you've got your thinking skills ready and that you're ready to advocate your point of view, something that's really important to citizenship.

Okay, if you're not quite with us yet in terms of what you need to write with or write on, then please pause the lesson and go and grab what you need, and you can meet me over on the video in just a moment.

So, what we'll be learning today then? In today's learning question, we'll be looking at, why do some people reject global warming? We'll start off by thinking about, what global warming actually means, then we'll look at what scientists, have suggested could cause global warming, then we'll have a look at the arguments that opponents put forward with regards to global warming.

And we'll look at that from both the scientific perspective and also from a political perspective.

So quite a lot to get through in today's lesson, so let's get started straight away.

First of all I'd like you to write down for me or draw a picture, bullet points, any kind of notes, what you understand from the term global warming so far.

So, I'm sure you've heard the term on the television or read about it in geography, just like you to write down, scribble notes, bullet points, pictures, of anything you think about when you hear the term global warming, okay? So if you thinking about that globe, you know many of you've seen them in the classroom, what does the idea of global warming actually mean? Is it as basic as something getting hotter? What do you actually know? What do you think? I'm only going to give you a few more seconds to write that down, 'cause know basically what you understand at the start of the lesson, and then by the end of the lesson, you can see if you've got a better understanding.

Hopefully you'll have, if I've done my job well.

Okay, so, definition of basic, definition there of global warming, is the process of our planet heating up.

So, the whole planet is just getting warmer.

And one of the reasons that we've looked at or scientists have suggested with regards to this, is that since the Industrial Revolution, when everything turned to factories, human activity has caused the earth to warm up by approximately one degree.

And while that might not sound a lot, you could probably make yourself one degree warmer by putting your jumper on I would think, it means that big things for people and wildlife around the globe.

So Industrial Revolution was a period when, instead of working out in the countrysides and on farms, everyone started to move, well not everyone but a lot of people moved towards cities like London and Manchester and Leeds, and began working in factories, and that was a big movement of population, and the factories ran and started to produce some pollution.

And from that time onwards, we've developed very much this industrial focus rather than a focus on rural communities.

And since then, the effects of that, has had this impact on our globe.

So, what does climate change and global warming actually mean? Because those two terms, they get mixed around quite a lot.

And some of you might be sitting there thinking, well, I've heard them, I'm not actually sure, what the real impact is.

So I'm going to show you a video now, that explains what they really mean, okay? So, watch very carefully, you can make notes or you can just sit and focus, but when we finished, there'll be some questions to answer afterwards.

So, make sure you're paying attention, and hopefully by the end of the video, climate change will be a little bit clearer of you.

I don't get it.

Climate change.

Scientists have noticed that the plant has been warming up in recent years and many are very worried about it.

Most think the much of this climate change, is down to human activity.

That some feel it's just part of a natural cycle.

However, agreed that the world's average temperature has risen by nearly one degree Celsius in the past 100 years.

It may not sound much, but global warming is already having a big effect in some parts of the world.

Where the patterns are changing, with more storms plus record high and low temperatures.

And in the Arctic, the area of sea which freezes each winter, has shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years, affecting both animals and local people.

If the average temperature goes up by more than two degrees, scientists calculate that the extra melting ice, will cause widespread flooding as sea levels rise.

Perhaps to the cause of global warming, is our huge use of what are called fossil fuels.

This includes burning coal and gas for heating and to make electricity, plus using petrol and diesel in vehicles.

All this burning of fuels, produces vast quantities of carbon dioxide gas or CO2, which escapes into the air.

CO2 is a so-called greenhouse gas, which traps heat in the atmosphere, adding to global warming.

At the Climate Change Conference in Paris, nearly 200 countries agreed to try to reduce their greenhouse gases, to keep global warming below two degrees.

It is a very positive first step, but now, all the countries need to live up to their promises and take serious action.

Got it.

Okay, so are you ready to answer some questions now on that video? Are ready to give yourself a quick challenge? There is a copy of this True or False grid, that is included in your downloadable pack or you worksheets.

If you don't want to copy that out or haven't got a copy of it to hand, just write question one, two, three, four, five down, number one, two, three, four, five, and then you can write True or False or T or F next to the questions as we go, okay? So, let's get going.

The temperature has risen by one degree in the last 100 years, is that true or false? Fossil fuels are not connected to global warming, is that true or false? In Paris, nearly 300 countries agreed to take action on climate change, is that true or false? Some people think climate change could be part of a natural cycle of earth, true or false? And lastly, question five, CO2 is a greenhouse gas, true or false? Let's have a look at those answers there.

True, for number one, temperature has risen by one degree in the last 100 years.

It's false to say fossil fuels are not connected to global warming, they definitely are.

In Paris nearly 300 countries agreed to take action, on climate change, no, not quite, it was about half of that, just over half of that agreed to take action.

Some people think climate change could be part of the natural cycle of the earth, yeah, that's one of the arguments that's put forward, and we'll look at that more later in the lesson.

And that's false for the final question with regards to CO2.

Okay, let's move on.

So, what do scientists think can cause global warming and climate change? Let's have a look at the evidence.

So, number one, fossil fuel is found underground and includes gas, oil and coal.

Ever since countries began to rely more on fossil fuels to make things in the 18th century, there has been a greater use of these fossil fuels, not just in the UK but across the world.

By burning these fossil fuels, we release invisible gases, which trap the heat from the sun.

We call this process the greenhouse effect.

So, the use of fossil fuels then has been directly linked to climate change and global warming because of this greenhouse effect, which is where basically, these invisible gases get trapped and may cause the temperature to rise.

So, what else is evidence that the scientists have put forward? Next, is deforestation.

So, forests absorb a huge amount of carbon dioxide, which is another greenhouse gas, from the air and they release oxygen back into it.

The Amazon rainforest is so large and efficient at absorbing this carbon dioxide.

It really acts like our planet's air conditioner, limiting climate change.

Sadly, many rainforests are being cut down to make wood and palm oil and to clear way for farmlands, roads, oil mines and dams. So because of this deforestation, this planet's natural air conditioner, is being taken away.

So, it's limiting effects on climate change is also reducing as well.

So we've got this increase use of fossil fuels, which is leading to more of the gases and we've got the air conditioner, which takes it away, being taken down due to deforestation.

So, both of those things together, is causing an increase in global warming.

So, what we like you to see, you and I, in terms of effects on global warming to the planet? Let's have a look.

So, a warmer climate might sound like a positive thing to some of us who enjoy sunny days.

However, this is not what global warming and climate change is about.

So, a warmer climate is likely to affect different areas of the world in different ways.

Some scientists expect the following will happen.

So some areas will expect more rainfall, and rainfall would increase flooding in some places.

Shrinking sea ice, so those polar ice caps will start to disappear, and that will lead to the sea levels rising.

And sea levels rising can also, include more flooding to certain areas.

And then lastly, we might see a change in the seasons.

So what we know is, spring, summer, autumn and winter, may combine or we may end up with a longer sort of wet autumn, and less time of a very cold winter, or we might end up with sort of, lots of long spring days but not recognisable summer, like we used to.

So, these seasons may change completely or they may just get longer or shorter, but there will be different cycles in the seasons as well.

So, how could global warming affect wildlife? So changes in the climate will affect the animals, including us as humans.

However, some will suffer far more than others.

So if we take for example, polar bears, they're at high risk because of the polar ice caps melting too quickly.

Polar bears need these ice caps to hunt from and rest on after long periods of swimming.

This is where they also breed.

All polar animals' habitats are under threat.

So anything else that lives in those polar ice caps, are these melting, there're under real threat.

Seals, for example, use the ice to make caves, and this is where they breed and raise their families.

So, if those ice caps go, then the seals will be under threat of extinction, just like the polar bears are.

In a different climate, animals who live in forests are also under threat.

Orangutans, for example, are losing their forest homes due to drought which increases forest fires, and we can also link in the deforestation.

So as the forest gets destroyed, animals like orangutans and other forest creatures, have got nowhere to live and that leads them to be under threat, and thus chances of extinction for other animals.

So, if you remember back to lesson one, and we talked about what some of the global problems were, and we listed some of them out and I've just got those here.

And at the top corner, global warming is actually on there.

And so far already, you may have noticed that there's a real link between global warming and some of the other problems that we listed.

So for example, we've just seen how global warming, can be really strongly linked to animal extinction.

For example through the deforestation and through polar ice caps melting.

So there's a really strong link there, between four of the global problems and global warming.

We can then say perhaps, if we manage to help with global warming, some of the other big global problems, would be much easier to solve.

So, you ready for some more challenges, let's go.

What can you remember then? Which of these on not a fossil fuel? Is it option one, oil? Option two, solar energy? Option three, gas? Or option four, coal? You can write it down or just shout at me.

I'm going to count you down in five, four, three, two, one, you got it, it's solar energy.

So solar energy coming from the sun is not a fossil fuel because it's not kept in the ground, it doesn't build up over a long period of time.

Next one, what is absorbed less now that trees in the rainforest are being cut down? Is it option one, oxygen? Option two, acid rain? Option three, carbon dioxide? Option four, smoke? And I'm going to count you down, in five, four, three, two, one, shout at me, yeah you're right, carbon dioxide.

So our planet's air conditioning unit, isn't being able to do its job because it's being cut down for different reasons.

And which of these is not an effect of global warming? Is it option one, rising sea levels? Option two, increased rainfall? Option three, melting ice caps? Or option four, polluted waters? You give a count down in five, four, three, two, one, yeah, well done, polluted waters isn't direct an effect of global warming.

So, next task, again you can find this little template of the mobile phone on your worksheets if you'd like to, or you don't have to use it, you can just write the text message to a friend without using the cutout phone.

If you'd rather, just write it and you can do that.

So, remember if it's a text message, we want it short and snappy, but we do want it to meet the point.

Try to include what it means in terms of what global warming means and climate change, what may happen and at least one effect of global warming on climate change, okay? So, pause your video now and complete your text message task.

So, it's better you come out with really good examples, here's one that I've put together.

So, climate change means earth's temperature slowly rising, it's gone up by two degrees.

If this carries on sea levels will rise, areas will be flooded.

It's caused by using fossil fuels like gas and coal.

So, why does some people oppose climate change then? Around 97% of the scientific community, agree that climate change is happening.

However, some people still find that it's hard to believe.

And there's a number of reasons that they offer for this, and let's have a quick look at what these are.

Number one, the earth has gone through these natural cycles of climate change.

And that is true, we've had things like, a mini Ice Age before, and the earth has heated up and cooled off again, and some people are just suggesting this is part of this natural process that we've seen before, and it's always happened and we just kind of overreacting to what we're seeing.

Number two, it's kind of connected to that, by saying that, even if climate change is happening, the earth will find a way to compensate for it because it has done before.

And what the scientists are saying, is just predicting the worst case scenario and it won't actually get that bad because earth find a way to adapt just like it has before.

And with the number three, if the earth is getting hotter, why is there so much rain and flooding? Global warming cannot be real.

So there's just that the temperature is going up, why have we got so much rain and flooding? And other people have countered the arguments by saying, well look, the rain's going up, the sea levels are rising, the ice caps are melting and that's what's causing the flooding.

But others are saying, well I can't actually see why there's so much rain, and also why the winters have been so cold as well.

And number four, other people are questioning the data the scientists are using and saying, is it over the right time frame, as accurate as it could be? So, they're questioning whether or not, this data is as accurate as it could be.

So it's a range of questions and points that people say about why global warming may not be as a big of concern or perhaps isn't a worry at all for some.

So you've got a famous critic here of climate change, President Trump of the United States.

And he in number of text messages and a number of statements, has put out some quite mixed messages with regards to climate change and global warming.

So there's no denying that he does want a clean environment, he says that, when a couple of examples on this he says, the environment is very important to me, someone wrote a book that I am an environmentalist.

And he also says, I want the cleanest water on the planet, I want the cleanest air anywhere and crystal clean water.

So you're saying that he does value a very clean environment but then, he also said the United States would join the One Trillion Trees Initiative.

So, that seems very positive for the planet.

But then he says things like, it's freezing in New York, where the hell is global warming? And he also comments on the Paris Climate Change, that it was badly flawed and it protects the polluters, it hurts the Americans and costs a fortune, not on my watch.

And he also comments that the weather has been so cold for so long, that the global warming HOAXSTERS, so he means those people are making this up, were forced to change the name to climate change to keep the cash flow.

So there's definitely some mixed messages coming out in terms of what President Trump said across the years with regards to climate change.

So, when we look at President Trump and his views, there's some important things we need to consider about why perhaps he says this.

In the USA, a large number of people rely on jobs from the coal industry and manufacturing.

So trying to cut the use of fossil fuels could cut jobs and he could lose support.

It could also make the goods they manufacture there, in the United States, more expensive and less competitive than other countries.

Governments have to balance choices they make, based on domestic policies, so things that affect people at home.

So in Donald Trump's case that's the United States, and international policies, things that affect the rest of the world.

So, that would be the Paris Agreement for example, where countries came together to agree to try and sign up to improve climate change.

So far, President Trump has prioritised domestic policies to focus on keeping coal mines open and manufacturing going well.

To do this he has to change international policy.

He withdrew America from the Paris climate agreement, which 187 other countries agreed to.

He replaced President Barack Obama's Clean Power Plan, which would have limited carbon emissions from coal and gas-fired power plants, and he replaced that with the Affordable Clean Energy Rule.

And this has weaker regulations, so it allows more pollution.

He attempted to freeze the fuel efficiency standards, imposed on new vehicles and prevent California from setting its own emission rules.

So, if we look at this information, we can see that very much, Donald Trump as the president of America, has focused very much on saying, I need to make things right for the people in the country that I live in, the country that I lead and that sometimes means moving away from international policy, okay? So, are you ready for one final challenge for today's lesson? I hope you are.

Domestic policies refer to making plans connected with other countries, is that true or false? I'm going to give you five, four, three, two, one, shouts at me, yes both, domestic means connected to your home country.

International policies is about working with other countries.

Okay, so final task for today then, you are going to imagine that you have three minutes with president Trump, that's one-on-one time.

And what do you want to tell him about climate change? Thinking about everything that you've learned from today's lesson, do you think domestic protests should take priority over international ones? Would you encourage him to do more about climate change? Can you show him any evidence that would convince him, now is the time to act on climate change? Remember, your views count here.

You may think President Trump is correct in prioritising job and the USA first, or you may think that the effort for the environment, is more important than one country.

It's entirely up to you, and here you are advocating your views.

So you need to try and make your message as strong as you can, you only have three minutes, you need to use some evidence from the lesson and be as convincing as you can.

Three minutes of Donald Trump's time.

He's a very busy man, so you've got to be purposeful when you make your argument to him.

So I expect lots of you have heard of Greta Thunberg before, she's a climate campaigner.

And she made a very famous speech to world leaders at an international economics conference in 2019.

And it's become known as tha, How dare you conference.

So if you just go and watch that clip, if you need some inspiration, that should help you, write your three minutes speak as well.

This is all wrong, I shouldn't be up here.

I should be back in school on the other side of the ocean.

Yet you all come to us young people for hope.

How dare you? You have stolen my dreams and my childhood with your empty words.

And yet I'm one of the lucky ones.

People are suffering, people are dying.

Entire ecosystems are collapsing.

We are in the beginning of a mass extinction, and all you can talk about is the money and fairy tales of eternal economic growth.

How dare you? For more than 30 years, the science has been crystal clear.

How dare you continue to look away and come here saying that you're doing enough, when the politics and solutions needed, are still nowhere in sight.

You say you hear us and that you understand the urgency, but no matter how sad and angry I am, I do not want to believe that because if you really understood the situation and still kept on failing to act, then you would be evil, and that I refuse to believe.

Just a reminder then, you're writing your message or your speech to Donald Trump.

Need to include your opinion on global warming, evidence you have to support this, why you want him to agree with you.

Now that might be that he's doing the right thing, putting domestic policies first, or you might think that now is the time to act on climate change.

So pause your video now and write your message to Donald Trump.

Okay, he does some really, excellent work today guys, well done.

And I'm hoping that you've got a much better understanding of climate change and global warming.

What can you do to take this further? Well firstly, you can talk to people at home, friends and others that have taken the lesson, and see if they're worried by climate change or if they've got anything that concerns them, maybe you can answer some questions now.

Then you can investigate, are there any actions that individuals could take to help with climate change? Is there anything that you could do that might make a difference? And we've looked in the lesson to see what Donald Trump has done in America as president of the United States.

But what about the UK government? What have they done on climate change? Perhaps you could investigate that further and see whether they're prioritising international policy on climate change or domestic policy on climate change.

Perhaps you could also give your speech on climate change to somebody else and to see if they think that it's convincing, have you advocated your point of view? And I would especially like to see your speeches.

And I'll tell you more about that in just a moment.

So let's have a quick recap on what today's lesson was about then.

So, we looked about, the main focus of why do some people reject global warming? You should have a better understanding now of the terms global warming and climate change.

We looked at the evidence with scientists and what they said causes global warming.

And we looked at the arguments opponents have put forward, both the scientific arguments and the political arguments that people give.

I'd be really excited to see your speeches, you might want to record them or you might want to write them down and send them in.

If you would, please ask a parent or a carer to share your work on either Instagram, Facebook or Twitter, tagging in @OakNational and #LearnwithCitizenship.

You can also put my name and that's Mrs Baker or just put #Citizenship as well, so we know whose work it is.

And it'd be really great to see what your views were and what you're advocating.

I'm looking forward to seeing you again for the next lesson.

We're going to do a lot of work as we move through this unit about your views and what you can do about environmental issues and other global problems. So, the more you enjoy taking action the more you enjoy investigating these things, the more you're going to enjoy this unit.

So until I see you next time, take very good care of yourselves and enjoy investigating further on climate change and global warming, and I'm hoping to see some of those speeches very soon.

Take care everybody, bye bye.