Lesson video

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In lesson three today and we'll be looking at a really controversial issue.

And I hope you're enjoying talking about it and looking at the different opinions that exist.

So in order to get ready for today's lesson, please try and find yourself somewhere quiet to work, a little bit of space of your own if you can.

Turn notifications off when your phones and get ready to settle down, that will be great.

I'll see you in a moment to explain what today's lessons all around, thank you.

say, these are things we're going to need for today's lesson.

You're going to need something to write with and something to write on.

And you're certainly going to need your brain for today's lesson because we are looking at something that is really controversial, as you're going to need to think really hard about different sides of an opinion and which you which you support and perhaps why you disagree with the other side.

So, if you haven't quite got those things ready to hand something to write with something to right on, then please do feel free to go and get them and I'll be back, you can meet with us in a moment.

So just pause the video now, if you need to go and collect something to write with or something to write on.

So, what are we looking at today then? In the questing for learning is why is fracking so controversial? And obviously before we can think about why fracking is so controversial, we're going to have to have a look at what fracking is, what are the risks and what are the benefits of fracking? And what do you think about fracking, this going to be our final exercise.

So you are going to come up with your own opinions and write why you believe what you do.

So you're going to write an informed opinion by the end today's lesson based on what we're learning.

And obviously, our unit is around global problems. So that should give you a clue that fracking is one of those global problems that we need to think about.

Okay, so let's have a look at what it is.

Little thing to get you thinking in, to start with, when planning for the future the government should always put the environment first, okay? So when planning for the future the government should always put the environment first.

What do you think about that? Do you think that's right or do you think the government should have other priorities? I know at my school students feel really strongly about the environment.

There's an eco committee and there's lots of organisations that try improve what we do at school in terms of the environment.

So you yourselves as young people what do you think, should the government put the environment first or do you think sometimes governments have to think about other things rather than the government? Have a think, not going to ask you to write it down, just to get you thinking about today's lesson, what are your views? And we're going to come back to that idea at the end of the lesson.

So, we need to find out what fracking is, don't we? Before we can investigate why it could be a global problem and what you actually think about it.

So, hydraulic fracturing or fracking is a technique used to collect the natural gas which is found deep underground.

So the term fracking is actually a short name for the official term of hydraulic fracturing, okay? And we're just going to find out a little bit more about what that actually is.

So how does fracking actually work then? So the process of fracking is really quite simple and we've known about it since the 1940s.

However, the technology has developed to make it much easier now.

You're going to go over to the worksheet and what a video that will explain to you what the process of fracking actually entails.

Please make sure you watch really carefully because after the video there's going to be some questions for you to answer.

[Announcer Natural gas provides one third of all the energy consumed in the UK.

It is used by industry for cooking and heating in homes and by power stations for the generation of electricity.

Currently half that gas has to be imported and forecast suggests that figure will rise to more than 60% by 2025.

One domestic option is shale gas and oil.

Deposits a name to exist in the North of England, the Weald base in Sussex and Surrey and the Southwest and the Central belt of Scotland.

Shale gas and oil occur naturally in a layer of impermeable rock around a mile underground.

Extracting the gas and oil involves a four stage process and at every stage potential operators must get consents from independent regulators and public consultation must take place.

Potential operators in the UK are currently at the first stage, exploration.

Once companies have consent, they are allowed to explore supplies at approved sites to find out how much gas and oil could be extracted commercially.

A typical exploration site starts with construction of a well pad.

It may contain Portakabins, a staff living quarters and offices, water and waste storage and processing facilities.

During drilling, there will also be a drilling rig.

The entire site is around one to two hectares, the size of one to two football pitches.

Operators use the process of hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, to help the extraction of the gas and oil supplies deep underground, otherwise operations as similar to other onshore oil and gas extraction.

Well, fracking is a nickname, a short name for hydraulic fracturing.

What you basically do is drill a hole into the shale, vertical for a while going down and then it becomes horizontal far below the surface.

And you pump high pressure fluid, a mixture of water and some chemicals into the shale, cracking the rock.

These fractures are opened up by the high pressure and what you do is you put tiny particles, usually sand in these holes or these cracks and that's known as proppant.

And that sands keeps the cracks open so the gas flows out of the cracks into the well.

But of course, what first comes out isn't generally gas, it's the fluid that you've pumped down the well, then the gas starts coming out.

If exploration is successful operators can then apply to begin the pre-production stage.

During pre-production more wells will be drilled on the same site and more equipment, water and chemicals transferred to and from the site.

Operators then apply for the next stage, production.

During this stage, the oil is sent to a refinery and the gas can be connected to pipelines or tank it away.

The final stage of the process is decommissioning.

Operators make the wells safe for abandonment and must restore the site to its original condition.

Okay everyone, so I hope you've got a better idea of what fracking involves now.

So it's that process that's used to get the gas out of the ground and up and sort of into tanks and taken away.

So you ready to challenge yourselves to see just what you do understand about fracking? Let's have a look.

I would like you to write a paragraph explaining what fracking is and your challenge is to see if you can include all of the key words at the bottom of this page, okay? So very simple paragraph in your own words to explain what hydraulic fracturing is.

And you can see that's one of the key terms so you can explain fracking is hydraulic fracturing, perhaps that could be a good way to start.

And then using the key terms along the bottom of the page you can explain the process that you've just seen on the video, all right? So, if you pause your video now, you can see these keywords and you can write your own paragraph to explain what need to do.

Okay, well, then everybody, I'm sure you've made a really good job of that.

I'll just go through an example here, so you can see what it might look like.

So I've started by saying, fracking is a nickname for hydraulic fracturing.

This is the process you use to extract shale gas, which is stored deep underground in shale rock.

To reach the gas, companies have to go through the process of drilling deep underground and then pumping water into the ground.

This causes the shale rock to fracture or crack and release the gas which travels back up the pipe.

There is a four stage process to fracking, the first is exploration, where companies test to see if shale gas is in the ground.

And the last is the decommissioning, where companies must make the site safe, so make the site, uh, it's a bit of a tongue twister, isn't it? Must make the site safe and puts it back to how it was before.

Okay, so I think I've managed to use all of those keywords there.

I hope you have managed to use all the keywords in your really short paragraph, perhaps you could tick them off or perhaps you've highlighted them as you've gone along to make sure they're there.

So the process of fracking then seems quite simple, doesn't it? And it's about getting this natural resource out of the ground and we seem to need more gas and shale gas is a form of gas, so why is it in our unit global problems? Let's find out.

Let's think about first of all, why we need fracking.

So, let's think about the idea of a fossil fuel.

Now fossil fuels I think we've talked about already in some of our previous lessons.

So you should be familiar with what they are but we'll have a quick recap.

A fossil fuel is found underground and it includes gas oil and coal, And ever since countries began to rely on more factories to make things in the 18th century, there has been a greater use of these tools, not just in the UK but across the world.

So if you remember, we've been through this industrialization process and that means that less people are working in the rural areas and the countryside and more people have moved into the cities and we need factories and obviously factories need things to run on and that's why we've been using those fossil fuels.

There's not an endless supply of fossil fuels so, and in the UK we have to buy much of our gas from other countries and this is expensive.

Fracking in the US and Canada has produced enough gas to last from about 100 years.

So that means now they're relying on their own gas rather than bringing it in from other countries, which can be really expensive.

If companies start to use the shale gas beneath the earth, this is cheaper and some scientists say it's actually better for the environment than using fossil fuels.

So shale gas could be a really good alternative to fossil fuels.

Why then are we looking at shale gas and fracking as a possible global problem? Let's move on and see.

So, have a look at this little illustration and hopefully it will give you some idea of some of the problems that might come about because of the fracking.

And if you see at number four, it does say debate and this is why we're saying it's a controversial issue, okay? Some people feel very strongly on one side that it's actually a really good thing.

And some people feel really strongly on the other side that actually, it's a really bad thing for the globe.

And we've heard already that it's not just happening in the UK, this also happening in Canada and in America and other countries as well.

So, the diagram shows you where the well is and the blue line shows you how the water and chemicals can be pumped into the shale rock.

Once that's happened, the fracturing occurs into the rock and the gas starts to escape, which is the orange line that comes back up out into the top of the world and that can be taken away for processing.

So the drillers, they're hoping to find huge amounts of natural gas in the world's largest single deposits and that they believe will help meet the UK energy needs for the next 50 years, okay? And this is happening or what's happening in an area around Blackpool.

But those people that worry about the environment say this is a global problem because there's fear of earthquakes.

There's is fear of the chemicals that are used during this process leaking into the groundwater and that would poison water supply to the homes nearby.

Also an increase in air pollution and they're suggesting that actually the process of fracking could increase the level of global warming rather than other saying, well, it's better than fossil fuels so it's going to decrease global warming.

Other scientists are saying, actually, it's going to increase that.

So you can see already, we've got this debate and it's going to be a controversial issue.

Let's have a little bit more then and see who's on which side.

So fracking can create new jobs for people.

Fracking can solve the energy problem the UK is facing.

Fracking will benefit the economy.

Burning shale gas from fracking contains less CO2 than other gases, so it's better for the environment.

As a cheaper fuel, it will help people who struggle to pay to heat their homes.

So when we look at that, there seems to be some really positive outcomes of fracking, doesn't that? And not just for one group of people either.

So you would think perhaps the environmentalist would be quite happy about the idea that there's less CO2.

Then people who were looking for work and the government would be quite happy about the idea that fracking can create jobs.

And we've got there listed that there could be 74,000 direct and indirect jobs coming from sort of arranging a fracking site.

And that there's half the CO2 emissions of coal used from shale, okay? And then at the bottom, we've got that one that could be really big, saying actually shale gas is a cheaper fuel.

So for those people who can struggle to pay their energy bills, sometimes it's the elderly, sometimes it's families on limited incomes or single people on limited incomes, who really struggled to pay for their gas or electric bills.

They would have a better chance of heating their home and they would be able to afford their bills more easily.

So that would be a positive for the whole community or certainly members of the community.

So all of this looks quite good, doesn't it? So why then is fracking so controversial? Well, here's the risks, if you look at the illustration you can see.

People are saying and this includes some scientists that risks to the environment are unknown and there's also this danger of water contamination.

Some countries have banned fracking as they believe the environmental risks are just too high.

And this includes France and Germany and some states in the USA.

In 2019, Scotland confirmed it would continue its temporary ban on fracking.

So although we live in the UK, before and while England was still allowing fracking to take place, Scottish parliament said, no, we don't want this to happen, we're not going to allow fracking to take place in Scotland.

So why do you think these countries may have taken this decision? We've looked at the benefits and now we're thinking about the risks.

What would make some states in the United States, what would make France and Germany and what would make Scotland say, no, it's not worth the risk.

Perhaps you could jot a few ideas down here now because it's going to be really important when it comes to your arguments that you write later, that you understand what the different arguments are.

So just thinking about it maybe you could do a quick mind map of what the different risks are and what the different benefits are.

Why would some governments say, no, and some governments say, yes.

And even in the United States, some states are saying, it's okay, and some States are saying, no, it's not okay.

So within the same country, you've got people living near each other, some places will have fracking allowed and some places will not have fracking allowed, okay? So I hope by now you've got a little mind map or a couple of bullet points showing some of the risks and probably some of the benefits of fracking.

So, let's have a look again then, of what these risks are, feel free to add to your little bullet points on mind maps as we go, because this is a little bit more detailed.

Water companies have said that there's a risk of polluting drinking water with methane gas for homes near fracking sites.

There's a large amount of water used in the fracking process, which is contaminated with waste chemicals and has to be disposed of.

Some people find this wasteful of water, which is a precious resource.

So quite often, we have places that are suffering from drought or we don't have enough water and there's an awful lot of water used in the fracking system or precess.

And that water can't really be used again because of the amount of chemicals that's in there, it has to be disposed of.

So it seems like quite a waste of water, which can be expensive.

There have been earth tremors connected to fracking sites in Blackpool in 2011, in Canada and in Ohio, Alabama, Oklahoma, Texas or in the USA.

So an earth tremor is an indication that there has been some unsettling of the earth and there's been some what we describe as seismic activity.

So it's like a low level earthquake and it obviously means that something's happened underneath the ground that's cause movement.

And that's not really surprising I guess, if you pumped a lot of high pressure water deep down into the earth, okay? In the UK, this can affect people's homes and businesses as we are a densely populated country.

So fracking in the UK is likely to take place quite near people's homes or quite near businesses.

Whereas in other countries like Canada and some states of America, they have a lots of open space, so the fracking can take place when no homes are near.

So if there's earth tremors around some of the areas in Canada and the USA, less people are likely to be effected but an earth tremor in Blackpool would actually affect people's homes.

So that's something to think about when we're talking about the risks of fracking.

Some of you may be sitting and listening to this lesson today, thinking, actually, I remember there being some fracking happening near our home or in our community and you may know more about this already and what some of the risks or what some of the reasons people gave for not wanting fracking are, so feel free to include that in your list or any arguments that you make later on in the lesson.

So, what is the alternative? So, if we can't use our fossil fuels because we know they're running out and they also cause this greenhouse gas and that global warming issues, what should we use instead? And you can see those fossil fuels saying, we've got these untouchables so it's stop the average temperature going up by more than two degrees, we need to make sure that we've got 30% of our oil reserves, 50% of our gas reserves and 80% of our coal reserves left.

We've just got to stop using those things to protect the world, okay? So, what's the alternative then? Well, some people argue that money should be spent on researching and investigating renewable sources of energy.

This they believe will create new jobs and benefit the environment in the long term.

Here in the UK, the argument is the use of fracking will not help us reach our goal to reduce carbon emissions required by the Climate Change Act in 2008 and it won't help stop global warming.

So lots of people are saying, look, doing this, it's not actually going to get us any further forward with this Climate Change Act.

It's not actually going to help with carbon emissions, so this is why it's one of our global problems and it needs to be dealt with.

You may have heard of the term renewable energy previously and it's energy that can be replenished naturally with time.

So some of the ones that I expect you're familiar with, is the idea of solar power or wind power and geothermal power is talking about using natural heat.

So, what do you about carbon emissions then? Carbon dioxide is an important heat-trapping greenhouse gas, which is released through human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, as well as natural processes such as respiration and volcanic eruptions.

Carbon emissions are a measure of how much CO2 is released, while some CO2 is essential to much increases the greenhouse effect and air pollution.

This is why countries want to become carbon neutral.

Zero carbon or carbon neutral and net zero, they're all kinds of similar.

It's often confusing for the general public but the overall objective is that our carbon emissions have to be below zero.

And that comes from a lecturer in energy and climate at the University of Manchester.

Because we often hear these terms used, don't we? This idea of zero carbon, net zero, climate niche or you here MPs talking about it, you hear scientists talking about it, we'll see it on the news.

And people tend to swap it in to use these phrases but at the end of the day, they kind of mean in the same thing.

Our overall objective is that our carbon emissions need to be down to zero and this is going to prevent this air pollution.

And it's one of those big global issues that we've been talking about over the past few lessons.

So, here's task two for you, everybody.

If you go to your worksheet, you'll find this grid there and you can complete it there.

Alternatively, you can just write question one, two, three, four, five and answer true or false as we go.

So if you pause your video now and take the time to work out, whether these answers are true or false.

Am sure we're going to do it really well 'cause I know you've been paying great attention, works on everybody.

Okay, so let's see how you did then.

Germany has banned fracking.

And that answer is most definitely true, bet you've got that one.

Fracking is a form of renewable energy.

Nope, certainly isn't, it's pulling out energy from deep inside the ground.

So once that's gone, it's gone, it's not renewable.

Fracking would create jobs.

Yeah, that's true, it certainly would.

Earthquakes have been linked to fracking.

Yeah, well, certainly earth tremors, which is a type of earthquake so we're going to give that yes, true.

Shale gas produces more CO2 than gases.

No, it doesn't, it does produce less so that's a false statement.

How did you do? Been paying attention? I bet yeah, because this is quite interesting, isn't it? Well, I think it is.

Okay, so what are people actually doing about fracking? There seems to be a lot of disagreement about it so what are people doing about it, either here or in your local community? Because this is one of those things that although it's a big global problem, it's also important to people locally.

So, people who are affected by fracking in their area, they feel strongly about it and they formed campaign groups to raise awareness and try to stop fracking.

Now some of you might be aware of that yourselves, if there's been fracking in your communities, you might've seen a campaign group, we might be aware of them.

Perhaps someone you know is part of the campaign group.

One of these groups is called Frack Off.

People who belong to Frack Off organise meetings, handout leaflets, attend demonstrations, they write letters and try to educate, try and give an education to others about the risks of fracking.

There are local groups of Frack Off across the country and they have a website with all their posters, leaflets, videos to download.

So all local organisations can access what they need for that own campaigns.

So this is quite a good way of organising things.

So although Frack Off is kind of a central campaign group, they've got everything available on a website.

And then if you're trying to organise a campaign in your town or your village because somebody wanted to campaign, somebody wanted to start fracking in that area, you can go to the website and you can get all the leaflets, all the information, you could hold meetings to explain to people what the implication of fracking was.

And then you can get the support from other local people or other groups perhaps elsewhere in the country who've already run a campaign.

So it's quite an organised way of them running a campaign.

So, what does the government say then? Well, the government has to consider a loss of things.

It must consider the environment and the promises it made under the Climate Change Act of 2008.

However, it also must consider the future of the UK economy and its energy needs.

It's committed to being carbon neutral, that's basically zero carbon, no carbon by 5050.

And it did see or does see that shale gas is a way to do this.

There were lots of debates regarding fracking in the House of Commons but in January 2015, MPs voted not to ban fracking.

So despite the fact that lots of MPs spoke very strongly about the risk that we've all seen and the fact that people in Scotland had kind of said, we're not happy about it either, what we find is that fracking was allowed to go through, the MPs voted to say that fracking was allowed to happen.

So, we've a lot to think about and pause your video, is to write a short statement, giving at least one reason to explain whether or not you agree with the decision the government made, okay? So the government decided it's okay to keep fracking or allow fracking to happen because of the idea of the amount of gas that they need and that shale gas could help.

So I would like you to write a short statement giving your views and try and use some of the evidence that we've talked about so far in today's lesson to support what you've said, okay? So, pause the video now and write your statement.

Okay, everyone I hope you've done really well at that.

Hopefully you found lots of evidence from the lesson that you could use.

So, something that you may have said was, I agree with the government allowing fracking to take place in the UK, as there are many benefits.

For example, Britain would no longer have to rely on importing gas and this would bring the price down greatly and lead to a reduction in the number of people living in fuel poverty.

So that idea of fuel poverty is when people can't afford to pay their bills and some people turn off the heating, even when it's cold because they just can't afford to pay for their heating.

Alternatively, you may have said, I don't, not agree with decision the government made, the risks to the environment for example, from pollution to the local water supply and earth tremors are too great and the benefits are just not high enough.

I believe that it would be better to invest in renewable and sustainable energy.

Now there's no right or wrong answer to this everyone, it's really down to your view.

And it is a controversial issue, some people can see the benefits and think they outweigh the negatives.

Other people say, actually, the negatives outweigh any benefit that we get from fracking.

So it's one of these things that when you talk to others, they're likely to have a strong view, either the same as you or quite different to you.

Okay, so, fracking continued to be the subject and people had strong feelings about it.

Campaign groups, such as Frack Off and Friends of the Earth continue to organise campaigns in areas, nationally and locally to demonstrate about the effects of fracking and what was believed to be the risks.

Then on the 2nd of November, 2019, the government made an announcement.

So, this is from a press release in November, 2019.

Fracking already takes place across the world including in the US, Canada and Argentina.

Ministers have always been clear that the exploration of England shale gas reserves could only proceed as science shows that it is safe, sustainable and a minimum disturbance to those living and working nearby.

On the basis of disturbance caused to residents living near Cuadrilla's Preston New Road site in Lancashire and this latest scientific analysis, the government has announced a moratorium on fracking until new evidence is provided.

Now moratorium means that there's a temporary delay or suspension of an activity within law.

So really, what the government did here in November 19, was say, we're not happy with how things are going with fracking and we're going to put a temporary stop, okay, a temporary stop to fracking until we can find some more evidence that shows that it's safe and then if that happens, fracking can start again.

And that was based on some of the issues that happened around the New Preston Road site, as well as other scientific research that had taken place.

So you can imagine that campaign groups like Frack Off and Friends of the Earth, were really, really pleased to hear that news.

So, sometimes it's really hard to put the other side of the case, especially when it's an issue you feel very strongly about, okay? And people feel very strongly about fracking, whether they live near a site that could be affected or not and it can be hard to look another person's point of view when you're in this situation.

So for this task, I'm going to ask you to offer an argument to support fracking, if you actually disagree with it or if you agree with fracking, I want you to explain what the risks are.

Now, the reason I'm doing this, it's actually two fold.

Firstly, it's a really good skill to be able to understand somebody else's point of view, it helps you to create a really good argument.

And secondly, it will be really good to advocate a different point of view and it helps you understand more about the issue of fracking, okay? So, if you're in agreement and you like the idea of fracking, you think it's positive, you are going to write about the risks.

If you disagree with fracking, then you are going to write to say what's good about fracking.

So basically your writing the opposite of how you feel, everyone got that? You're writing the opposite of how you feel about this controversial issue of fracking.

So, when you're ready, you're going to pause the video now and remember you're writing the alternative view to the one you believe in.

Okay, if you need some help, what we've got here is how to write to argue.

So, to be effective, you should approach this logically.

You need to plan carefully.

You should know what people on the other side of the debate would say and be able to counter them with arguments and evidence.

Sometimes drawing a table of the pros and cons can help, you could add more columns where there are several perspectives.

A strong opening statement that summarises your argument is also a good idea to recognise there are differences and opinions on the issue, then writes some real paragraphs.

A strong conclusion with your most convincing piece of evidence to sum up leaves your audience knowing exactly how you feel.

So, here is how to write some real paragraphs.

By following this format you can build strong and persuasive arguments for your main paragraphs.

You give your reasons, a short statement or headline that is an important claim in your speech or argument.

You give some examples, a statistic case study or illustration that supports the reasons.

Then you do your analysis, an explanation of the relevance of the example and of the reason as in context and clarification.

And then you do a link, a connection back to the reason and where relevant to the broader topic or theme of the speech as a whole.

Here are some connectives that may help you while you're writing your argument.

So, instead of, alternatively, in contrast, where as, on the other hand, unlike, otherwise, likewise, similarly, equally, as with, in the same way.

So there's quite a lot of support there for you in writing this argument and I look forward to hearing what you've got to say later on.

So, here is an example argument then I put together and in this case I've written to say that fracking is a good thing, okay? So although fracking is a very controversial issue and people have strong feelings about whether or not it should be banned.

Like it has been in Scotland, Germany and parts of the USA, I believe it should be allowed despite the worry about the environment.

One argument for banning fracking is based on the pollution of water to people's homes from the site.

However, fracking companies are able to take precaution against this.

There are many fracking sites around the world, for example, in Canada, where this has not been an issue, therefore there is no reason to think it would be here.

I feel this is no reason to prevent fracking.

Additionally, the cost of fuel will decrease as it will no longer be imported.

This will mean reduction in fuel bills for many and help those living in fuel poverty, struggling to pay bill.

This is a great benefit to many people and should be considered when making decisions.

The process of fracking would also bring many jobs to an area.

So overall there would be a boost to the economy, which would be positive for the UK and it's another reason I believe companies should be allowed to carry out the process.

In conclusion, the evidence points to a very limited environmental threat from fracking.

The economy benefits are fracking, the economic benefits from fracking are clear, bringing jobs to the local community and reductions in the cost of fuel bills, the benefits of fracking outweigh risks for the majority of the UK.

So hopefully you can see in that answer, how I have used the real arguments, how I've used some evidence, how I've made links back to the question.

Now remember, we were writing to persuade, we were looking at different points of view.

So this doesn't necessarily mean that you support what you've written.

In fact, I asked you to write the opposite of what you believed at this time.

So, when planning for the future, the government should always put the environment first.

This is the question or this is the comment that we talked about at the start of the lesson and I asked you just to think about it.

So now you know a little bit more about fracking, I'd like you to think about this in terms of fracking.

So when planning for the future the government should always put the environment first.

So if we're planning for energy use and fracking offers a way to get more energy, certainly we would have more energy reserves, should the government put the environment first or should the government puts our energy and people live in fuel poverty and things like that first? So if you remember at the start of the lesson I said, I was going to ask you to put your opinion together, based on today's lesson.

And that's exactly what I'm doing now, I'm asking you to put your opinion together, okay? So looking at this quote again, what do you think? See if you can write a statement now, just a sentence or two answering in your own view what do you think.

Okay, so, you've worked really hard today, we've come to the end of our lesson now.

But, because this is such a controversial issue and because there's lots more to talk about, I really hope that you'll be able to talk to other people about their view on fracking and talk to them about the risks and benefits and see what they think.

You could also do some research to see if there were any fracking sites near you or are there any renewable energy sites near you, for instance, a wind farm.

And then you can investigate further what action the government has taken on climate change.

Remember to keep any notes that you make, ask questions and hopefully you could enjoy investigating further.

Let's have a look at what we've covered today then.

Hopefully, you now know what fracking is, you know about the risks and benefits of fracking.

And you've been able to come to your own conclusion with regards to whether fracking is a positive thing or not and whether the government should always put the environment.

I said, I know you've been working so hard and I'm pretty certain that some of your statements and the way you've written is going to be really interesting and wonderful to hear.

I would like to listen to them or maybe you could take a photograph of them and ask a parent or carer to share your work with us.

And that could be done by Instagram, Facebook or Twitter, by tagging @oaknational and #learnwithoak.

You might want to record yourself making your argument, you might just want to write your speech down and take a photograph of it.

However you'd like to share it, I would love to see it because I really enjoy seeing your views and how you feel about things.

The whole point of these lessons is not just to include and expand your understanding of the problems but also to see how you feel about that because you guys are the ones that could be making decisions in the very near future.

So, well done for working so hard today.

One final task for you to do and that is to complete your exit quiz, so you can show just how much learning that you've done.

And I look forward to seeing you for lesson four, which is actually one of my personal favourites to teach students about.

So I'm hoping that you will catch up with me next week or whenever you have a lesson next to do lesson four in the global problems series.

Take care now everybody, bye bye.