# Lesson video

In progress...

Hello, and welcome to today's English lesson.

I'm Mrs. Butterworth, and I can't wait to get started on today's lesson with you.

Now, today's lesson is called Developing Analytical Responses.

So what we'll be focusing on is our analytical writing and how to make it the best it can possibly be.

So we'll be looking at a few strategies, a few phrases that will just elevate our analytical responses.

Sound good? Great, then let's get started.

So in this lesson, you will effectively develop your analytical writing, leading with big ideas and using tentative phrases and superlatives.

Now, before we delve into the lesson, let's look at those key words that you'll notice popping up throughout the lesson, and they will just help with our understanding.

So these words are depict, correlative conjunctions, comparative conjunctions and authentic.

Now, depicts is actually a very useful word because it means to show or represent something through a description.

So when you're writing analytical responses, sometimes you may want to use a different word to the writer presents or the writer shows.

So you could use something like the writer depicts.

So it's another way of just elevating your analytical paragraphs.

We're also looking at conjunctions today.

So we've got our correlative conjunctions.

Now, these are pairs of words that work together to connect ideas in a sentence.

So conjunctions are really useful for showing similarities and differences.

And we've also got comparative conjunctions, which can be used to compare ideas in a sentence and show similarities and differences.

Now, don't worry if those definitions of the conjunctions seem overwhelming or you don't understand because later on in the lesson I'm going to show you how to use them, and you'll be able to use them in your own writing.

So just remember those conjunctions, and we'll look at them later in the lesson.

And then the final word is authentic.

So authentic is quite a good word to use when we might be trying to discuss a writer's use of first person, for example, or a writer's use of direct quotations because you might be talking about how it has an authentic voice, and this means that it's genuine, real or true to its original form or nature.

So we might think particularly in nonfiction text, does it have an authentic voice? Does it sound real? Does it sound genuine? Okay, so what does our lesson look like today? So we're going to start with this idea of leading with big ideas.

So don't worry, we'll look at that in more depth in a moment.

And then we're also then gonna move on to developing analytical comments.

So let's start by leading with big ideas and considering what this is.

So let's begin by considering the main similarities and the differences between the texts we are looking at today.

So we're going to be looking at Florence Nightingale's "Letter to the Times" and Mary Seacole's autobiography.

So those extracts are available in additional materials.

So make sure you have copies of those to hand.

So what I would like you to discuss is what are the main similarities and differences between Florence Nightingale's letter and Mary Seacole's autobiography, okay? So pause the video so you've got plenty of time to discuss your ideas, or just sit and think quietly to yourself, okay? Pause the video and off you go.

Okay, lots of ideas to consider there.

So let's just feed back some of those.

So what I have done here is I have presented my similarities and differences in a Venn diagram just to make it nice and clear.

So let's look at the differences first.

So Mary Seacole, form is autobiography.

The audience is a general reader because it would be widely available to lots of different people.

It focuses on a description of her personal experiences.

It's anecdotal, and the tone is personal and reflective.

So now let's look at Florence Nightingale.

So these are the differences.

So whereas Mary Seacole's form as an autobiography, Florence Nightingale is writing a letter.

The audience is readers of The Times.

She actually directly addresses, "Gentleman of England," doesn't she? So there's almost a specific audience there.

So there's a kind of general audience of people that reads The Times, but then there's also she directly addresses this specific audience, which again is very different to Mary Seacole.

So she's not just describing her experiences, she has a really clear purpose as well.

She's advocating for the professionalisation of nursing.

It's very formal and persuasive because it's a letter to a broad sheet newspaper.

And the tone is much more assertive and authoritative compared to Mary Seacole, where it's more personal, more reflective, more descriptive.

Now, what are the similarities? Well, they both have the same subject about nursing in the Crimean War.

They both use first person.

So that's a really interesting point of comparison, isn't it? So how they both use first person, but perhaps they use it in a different way or to meet their different purposes.

They both depict detailed descriptions of injuries.

They're actually quite graphic at times.

I find myself almost wincing when I'm reading these extracts.

And yeah, like I just said, depicts the horrors and brutality of war.

And they both use emotive language because even though they've got different purposes, they really want to highlight and show the reality of war.

So that emotive language is really important to provoke those responses, those emotional responses from the reader.

So I want us to think about this idea of the big ideas, okay? So we're gonna be looking at this in this first part of the lesson.

So you may know what I mean by big ideas.

You may be wondering what am I talking about? But maybe you can have a little guess in that case.

So what would you consider to be the big ideas in the Venn diagram? So pause the video so you can discuss your ideas or think quietly to yourself.

Or you may even want to jot some ideas down.

So what are the big ideas in this Venn diagram? Off you go.

Okay, so I've highlighted what I consider the big ideas.

So the big ideas are things like form, subject, audience and, again, the subject and what they are presenting.

So in this case, the horrors and brutality of war.

So we're not thinking about methods or specific uses of language.

So we're not thinking about things like first person or direct address at the moment, but we're thinking about these big ideas.

So what is the purpose of the text? What is the form? What is the subject? Who is the audience or the reader? So that's what we're thinking about when we're considering big ideas.

So true or false time.

Both Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale's texts are written in the form of a letter.

Is this true or false? That is false.

Excellent, well done, everyone.

Now you need to justify your answer by picking A or B.

Who's feeling confident? Ready for the answer? Great, it's B, the Seacole extract is the form of an autobiography, whereas Nightingale's is a letter.

So remember form is one of our big ideas.

So this is a really good point of difference in terms of Seacole and Nightingale, this kind of big idea here.

So when writing analytical paragraphs, it can be useful to begin with the big ideas.

So the big ideas can help to focus your analysis and give you something to hook onto.

So what I mean by that is once you start to delve into specific language features and methods, being able to hook them back onto the big idea can help.

So for example, if you're talking about first person, how does that link to the writer's choice of form? If we're talking about direct address, how does that link back to that big idea of the purpose and the audience? So it can be a really useful way to focus your analysis and give you lots to talk about in terms of your analysis.

So you might want to think of your paragraphs, your analytical paragraphs like this.

Nice little triangle there.

So you start by identifying and comparing a big idea from a text.

So remember, we're thinking about purpose, audience, form, subject, that sort of thing.

Then you break it down and you start to identify the methods.

And then there's a comparative analysis of methods linked to the big idea.

So if you think of your analytical process in this way, you should be covering everything you need to to write really good analytical paragraphs.

So we're gonna start with this first part, so identifying and comparing those big ideas.

So first, you need to identify some big ideas.

So like I've said so far, let's just recap, these include purpose, subject, audience, form, and perspective as well.

This is a very important one.

So what is their perspective? Who's perspective are they writing from? What type of perspective is it? So we have already thought about this, but let's just make sure we've really got it, that we really understand it.

So I want you to think about those specific big ideas and identify what these are in the two texts.

So pause the video so you can discuss these, or just think quietly to yourself, okay? So can you identify what the big ideas are in the two texts? Off you go.

Okay, great.

Lots of you really starting to understand the big ideas in the text, and what they are, brilliant.

So A, B or C, which of the following statements is true? So you are looking for the true statement, A, B or C.

Okay, let's see.

Perfect, both Seacole and Nightingale present the brutality and horror of war.

That one is true.

So you can see here in this answer that the focus is on the subject or what's being presented, so the brutality and horror of war.

So that's a really good big idea to start an analytical paragraph with.

So once a big idea has been identified, you can create comparative topic sentences.

So it's really important that that first sentence in a comparative response is comparative.

So if we look here, let's look at this example.

"Neither Seacole nor Nightingale "understate the horrors of war.

"Instead, they offer an authentic insight "into the experiences of nurses in the Crimean War." Here's another one.

"Both Nightingale and Seacole "focus on the reality of conflict, "however both use different forms "to convey their personal experiences.

"Nightingale, a letter, "and Seacole, an autobiography." So I just want to unpick what makes these successful comparative topic sentences.

So we'll look at each of them individually and just consider how they're structured and what they do to make them successful.

So this first one uses correlative conjunctions to draw close comparisons of the text.

So you'll remember when we were looking at our keywords, we said we would be looking at conjunctions today.

So here's our first example.

So you can see here the corelative conjunctions are neither and nor, so neither Seacole nor Nightingale.

And remember, we said that corelative conjunctions are pairs of words that work to join two ideas together.

So neither Seacole nor Nightingale understate the horrors of war.

So you can see that that correlative conjunction is really good at drawing a close comparison of the text.

And then it also identifies and compares a big idea.

So here, it is the subject and perspective.

So neither Seacole nor Nightingale understate the horrors of war.

Instead, they offer an authentic insight into the experiences of nurses in the Crimean War.

So we can see that the subject is nursing in the Crimean War, and there's this authentic insight into their experiences.

So we know that that perspective is going to be from the nurses themselves.

It's authentic, it's real, it's genuine.

Now let's consider the second sentence and what makes this effective.

So again, we've got those correlative conjunctions to draw that close comparison.

But this time, the correlative conjunctions are both and and.

So both Nightingale and Seacole, dot, dot, dot, dot, dot.

So you can see there that correlative conjunction really drawing a close comparison.

So it's a good thing to do to use them in your comparative topic sentences.

This one also uses a comparative conjunction to identify a difference.

So here's our second type of conjunction.

So we can see here, it says, "However, both use different forms "to convey their personal experiences.

"Nightingale, a letter, "and Seacole, an autobiography." So we've got that comparative conjunction there.

So other comparative conjunctions include whereas, equally, on the other hand.

So you can use those to identify similarities and differences.

And then we've got our big idea, which is identified and compared.

And here, it is the subject and the form.

So both Nightingale and Seacole focus on the reality of conflict.

So we've got that big idea of the subject.

And then, they however both use different forms to convey their personal experiences, Nightingale, a letter, and Seacole, an autobiography.

So we've got that comparison of form.

And hopefully, what you can see is by identifying the big ideas in these comparative topic sentences, you can see how they're setting up a really good paragraph.

It says exactly what you're going to be discussing, exactly what you're going to be focusing on.

And we can assume from these comparative topic sentences that the methods that are identified and then analysed and compared will link back to the big idea.

So in this case, subject and form.

Okay, so let's think about our comparative conjunctions.

Which of these sentences uses a comparative conjunction to identify a similarity? So we're looking for a comparative conjunction and a similarity.

Is it A, B or C? What do you think? Okay, shall we look at the answer? Let's see, here we go.

So the comparative conjunction here.

So, "In her autobiography, "Seacole aims to reveal the lived experiences "of nurses on the front line.

"Likewise, Nightingale emphasises the struggle nurses face." So you've got our comparative conjunction there in likewise, and it shows that similarity.

So let's just look at the other two sentences and what they do.

So we've got, "While Seacole's text is a vibrant personal memoir, "Nightingale's letter aims to persuade "and advocate for the respect of nurses." So that one doesn't use conjunctions, but it does compare the texts and the big ideas.

And in B, "Both Mary Seacole's autobiography "and Florence Nightingale's letter "provide valuable insights into 19th century healthcare." So this one uses correlative conjunction, doesn't it, with the both and and.

So actually, all of these are really good examples of comparative topic sentences.

But for this purpose, we were just looking for the one with the comparative conjunction and the similarity.

Okay, so it's over to you now for our first practise task.

And what I would like you to do in exactly the same way as we have been looking at, I would like you to write two comparative sentences about Seacole's autobiography and Nightingale's letter, focusing on those big ideas in the text.

So draw on everything we've discussed so far in the lesson and think about those examples that we looked at using correlative and comparative conjunctions.

So in this grid, you have everything you need.

You've got a list of big ideas that you could focus on, your comparative conjunctions and your correlative conjunctions.

So make sure you've got everything you need to get this task completed.

And when you're ready, you'll need to pause the video and get your sentences written.

Okay, off you go.

Okay, so well done.

That was okay, wasn't it? It was brilliant because we've done all the hard work already with all the discussion and the looking at the examples.

It was just a case of writing these things up.

So we have Sofia here.

Sofia has created this comparative sentence.

Let's have a look at it.

"Both Seacole and Nightingale use first person pronouns "to convey their experiences." So what I would like you to do, please, is look at this sentence, and I'd like you to discuss, can you give Sofia a what went well and an even better if.

Okay, pause the video so you've got time to come up with your what went well and an even better if.

Off you go.

Okay, great, shall we compare our what went wells and even better ifs? Great, okay, so what went well? So what went well is that Sofia has used correlative conjunctions to draw a close comparison.

So we've got both and and used there.

But what would be even better is if Sofia led with a big idea rather than a method or language feature.

So you can see here, Sofia has focused on first person pronouns.

So that's not really a big idea, that's a method or language feature that she's picked out, and we want to save that for later on in the analytical paragraph.

So what I would like you to do is now look at your own writing and give your own writing a what went well and an even better if.

You may want to rewrite to improve your comparative sentences.

So pause the video to get that done.

Off you go.

Okay, so we've thought about our big ideas and our comparative topic sentences, but now we're going to move on, thinking about how we can develop analytical comments.

Okay, so keep up that hard work and let's keep going.

So now we are going to focus on identifying methods and comparative analysis.

So if you remember, we were thinking of our paragraphs like this triangle.

So we've looked at our big ideas, now we're gonna think about identifying methods, and then that comparative analysis of methods linked to the big ideas.

So you have explored the big ideas of the texts, well done, that bit's done, but now we need to think about and identify the methods.

So what I would like you to discuss, please, is which methods from the text would be the best to explore the following big ideas.

So these big ideas are purpose, form, subject, perspective and audience.

Now, before you start, I'm going to give you a little hint.

So look for examples of direct address, first person pronouns, adjectives and imagery, and consider which big idea they link to best, okay? So pause the video so you can discuss which methods from the text would be the best to explore the following big ideas.

Off you go.

Great work, everyone, that's fantastic.

So lots of you picking up that perhaps the first person pronouns are really good for discussing and exploring perspective because obviously they linked that idea of the first person.

Lots of you considering purpose and audience when we're thinking about adjectives and imagery.

Because thinking about those adjectives, they create those amazing descriptions, don't they? Which for both texts, their purpose and audience, it really suits that really well.

And lots of you thinking again about this idea of direct address and how that really suits Florence Nightingale's purpose of reaching a specific audience, and her purpose of persuading for the professionalisation of nursing.

So there's lots of things there.

And again, the imagery for the subject.

So the depiction of the Crimean War.

So you can see how these methods can start to link to these big ideas and help us to develop our analytical responses.

So once we have identified our method, we now need to explore the similarities and differences in how the writers use different methods.

Because like I said, writers may use the same methods, but they may use them in a different way.

So for example, Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale both use first person, but they use it in very different ways for very different purposes for very different forms. So one way that you can explore the similarities and differences is to use superlatives.

Now, superlatives are used to express something that is the most or greatest.

So you might say something like it is the most or it is the least.

And that word there, the X-est, you can add in a word there.

So the greatest, the biggest, the smallest, okay? So that's how we can use our superlatives.

So let's look at an example in a sentence focused on these texts.

So, "Arguably, Seacole's use of first person "is the most personal, "offering an insight "into her deepest thoughts and feelings." So you can see here by using that superlative, not only are you drawing a comparison between the texts, but you're also starting to evaluate, aren't you? So you're saying, you're making the statement that Seacole is the most personal.

Let's look at another.

"Nightingale's letter is the most assertive and persuasive "of the two texts, "using direct address "to challenge the gentlemen of England." So again, you can see it draws a comparison.

We're saying that Nightingale's letter is more assertive and persuasive.

But by saying it is the most, it's starting to evaluate those texts as well and their use of methods, which is a really great thing to do in our analytical paragraphs.

Okay, so A, B, C, or A, B or C.

Which of these sentences does not include a superlative? So we're looking for the sentence that does not include a superlative.

Is that A, B or C? Let's have a look.

Okay, so lots of you think you've got the right answer.

Shall we check, okay? So the answer is B, this one does not include a superlative.

So, "Both Nightingale and Seacole "offer vivid and personal accounts of their experiences." But I wonder if you can see the superlatives in A and C.

So in A, "Nightingale's writing is arguably the most influential "and most recognised." We've got our superlative there in the most.

And in C, "Seacole's autobiography offers the least logistical detail "compared to Nightingale's letter." So we've got our superlative there as well.

Well done to everyone that got that answer right.

So the other thing that we want to look at today is the idea of tentative language and using tentative language in our responses.

So what does that mean? Well, tentative language puts forward ideas rather than definite answers.

So for example, you say things like it could, it may, it might, perhaps, maybe, arguably.

So let's look at an example.

So you can see here, "Arguably, Seacole's use of first person "is the most personal, "offering an insight "into her deepest thoughts and feelings." So you can see here, using that tentative language is almost like an exploration, a discussion, rather than this is a statement.

So it just makes your analytical responses sound much more sophisticated and much more exploratory and interesting.

So let's look at this one.

"Perhaps Nightingale's use of vivid imagery "aims to evoke a strong reaction from her readers "and compel them to take action." So we've got our tentative language there in perhaps.

And again, you can see it sets up the analytical response almost like a discussion, an exploration rather than a series of statements.

So it's a really good thing to do when you are writing your analytical responses.

Okay, so we've got our two pupils here.

We have Laura and Jacob, and they have both written these sentences.

So let's read the sentences through together.

So Laura has written, "Nightingale and Seacole use emotive language "to convey the urgency and gravity "of their nursing experiences." And Jacob has written, "Nightingale's confident use of medical terminology "might suggest she's more experienced than Seacole." So what do think? Which pupil has used tentative language? Is it A, Laura, or B, Jacob? Okay, so the answer is B, Jacob.

And we can see there, he's used that word might.

It might suggest she's more experienced than Seacole.

So we have reached our second practise task.

Well done, everyone.

Let's keep up the excellent work.

So we want to use those comparative sentences from task A.

So make sure you've got those.

So using those comparative sentences from task A, I want you to develop your response by identifying and comparing the methods used by the writers, okay? So everything that we have been working on will help you to complete this task.

We've done the hard work, we've just got to write it up.

So what I would like you to do is include superlatives and tentative language.

And you'll see here in the grid, I've got your superlatives and some tentative language for you to pick from, okay? So as I say, we've done the hard work, we've discussed it, we've looked at examples.

So all we've got to do is just write up our own versions, okay? Has everyone got everything they need? Okay, fantastic.

So pause the video, and I can't wait to see what you come up with.

Off you go.

Well done, everyone.

Gosh, I've been really impressed with how you've been drawing on all of our discussions and all of our previous work on how to write these analytical paragraphs.

So well done for doing that.

And hopefully, lots of you are seeing how tentative language can really elevate your paragraphs.

It sounds really good, doesn't it? Really sophisticated.

So try and use tentative language where you can, as well as those comparative and correlative conjunctions.

Okay, so Sofia uses a checklist to check her work.

So the checklist is as follows: identify methods used, use superlatives and use tentative language.

So let's look at Sofia's work and how she has used the checklist.

So here's her work.

"Both Seacole and Nightingale "present the brutality and horror of war.

"In using powerful and vivid imagery, "the writers aim to immerse their readers "in the realities of their experiences, "provoking emotional reactions from their readers.

"However, arguably, Nightingale's depiction "is the most stark and technical.

"This is perhaps due to the purpose of her letter, "which is to advocate for nurses "and the betterment of their working conditions." What a great paragraph.

I really love how Sofia has really explored those big ideas and linked them to her analysis.

So she's identified methods and she's talked about purpose and subject.

So it's a really, really good paragraph.

But let's just consider it in terms of that checklist.

So absolutely, Sofia has identified the methods.

So we've got powerful and vivid imagery.

She's also used superlatives, so, "Is the most stark and technical," to draw that comparison and sound evaluative.

And her tentative language in however, arguably and this is perhaps due to.

And again, you can see how this tentative language has allowed Sofia to develop her analytical comments and to develop her argument.

So it's a really good example of that.

So well done, Sofia.

Okay, so now it's your turn.

So I'd like you to self-assess your own work using the checklist, okay? And when you're done, you may even have time or want to rewrite some of your paragraph.

That's entirely up to you.

But definitely use the checklist to self-assess your own work.

So pause the video and off you go.

Okay, well done.

All of that hard work has paid off, and we are now at the end of the lesson.

So very well done to each and every one of you.

So let's just go through everything we have learned.

So we know that when writing analytical responses, you should begin by identifying and comparing a big idea, that you should use correlative and comparative conjunctions to draw close comparisons.

So hopefully, you've got a good understanding of what those are now.