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Hello, and welcome to your design and technology lesson.

I am Mrs. Mee, and I am your design and technology teacher.

So you know already that the topic that we're exploring, we're looking at cooking and nutrition, and we're exploring celebrating culture and seasonality.

So today's lesson eight and we're going to be exploring how to make bread.

Previously, we've looked at lots of things, we've looked at making pancakes, making soup, where our food comes from, what a healthy and varied diet looks like.

So hopefully, you've done some of those previous lessons as well.

So welcome and let's start the lesson.

Okay, so during today's lesson, we're going to be looking at combining ingredients again, but this time we're going to make bread.

So let's remind ourselves of the rules.

And it's really important that we apply these rules when we're making and designing products.

So we need to have fun, explore and experiment, be confident, but play safe.

It's important when we're doing practical work, but don't worry if you make a mistake because that could turn into a new idea.

So during today's lesson, we're going to be doing a focused practical task.

We're going to be reminding ourselves how to work safely.

We're going to be looking at how to combine ingredients to make dough, to be able to make bread.

And then we're going to learn how to bake bread.

So we are going to be using a number of keywords.

So let's just look at the keywords that we're going to use in today's lesson.

We're going to be using the word called kneading, so we're going to be kneading our dough.

And this is a process in the making of bread or dough.

And it is used as a method to combine all of those ingredients, to add strength to the dough to actually make a good loaf of bread.

We're also going to be using the word dough, which I've already used.

And dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic paste that's made out of any grain.

So we're going to be using grains today to make dough.

We're also going to be baking our product, so it's a different way of cooking using heat.

And it's a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven.

We're going to be using the word prove or proving, also known as proofing.

And this is the step in the preparation of yeast bread and other baked products where the dough is allowed to rest and rise.

And you will see that happening, so you'll see the science behind how the ingredients that we combine actually act when put together.

So in this lesson, it is a practical lesson, so you will need adult supervision throughout this lesson.

You're going to need to download the recipe card.

You're going to need to prepare all of the ingredients and equipment on the recipe card.

And of course, like Mrs. Mee's wearing, you are going to need an apron.

So let's just have a look at the recipe card.

So we're baking bread, so those are the key ingredients that you need to get.

The equipment and materials are there and you will need to also download the method sheet and that is what we're going to follow.

So if I just take you back to that slide, if you pause this slide now, download the recipe card from the worksheet, so make sure you've got your equipment ready and come back to me when you're ready.

Excellent, so you're ready for today's lesson, so let's begin.

So hopefully, you've got all the key ingredients and equipment, you've downloaded the method sheet.

So let's look at how to work safely, let's remind ourselves what we should do.

So we have to prepare our work area for combining the ingredients.

What do we need to consider? Now we've done this before, there are four Cs.

What do we need to consider? Cooking, so, yes, so when we make our dough today, it's not ready to eat so we have to cook it to get rid of any of that bacteria.

So cooking is key to food hygiene.

So we're using heat to cook our bread.

What's the other C? Cleaning and that's one of the most important.

So what have we got to do in the kitchen before we begin? That's right, we've got to clean the work surfaces.

We've got to clean our equipment.

And what else have we got to do? Yes, that's right, we've got to make sure we are clean.

So Mrs. Mee's not ready for the kitchen, is she? She's got her apron on, but what else does Mrs. Mee need to do? That's right, she needs to tie her long hair back.

What else do I need to do? I need to wash my hands, correct, well done.

So we'll do that before we begin.

And then the other C, of course, is chilling.

So some of the ingredients that you use may need to be chilled or indeed you might need to chill them afterwards.

And what is the final C, which is really important in today's lesson for Mrs. Mee? Cross-contamination, of course.

So Mrs. Mee's going to be using flour today that she can't eat because it contains gluten.

So Mrs. Mee would have to bake her bread using a separate flour but actually would need lots of other ingredients as well.

So you are going to be using a hot oven to bake your bread during this lesson, so you must have an adult to supervise you during this activity, never use an oven unsupervised.

So what I'd like you to do now is go off and prepare your work area to ensure that the area is clean, ensure that you've followed all of the personal hygiene advice, and ensure that all of your ingredients are within their use by or best before date.

So check everything is clean, equipment, yourself, and your surfaces.

And when you're ready, come back to me and we will start learning how to make bread.

Okay, so Mrs. Mee's ready, she's got her hair tied up, washed her hands.

We're going to go into the kitchen now and just remind ourselves what a safe, clean work area should look like.

Okay, so your work area should be clean and ready to go, just like Mrs. Mee.

So Mrs. Mee has cleaned her surfaces, all of the equipment has been washed and cleaned.

There's one, a couple of pieces of equipment that are missing from this shot.

That's right, my baking tray, so I'll bring my baking tray out when I need it when I'm ready to cook my food.

So hopefully, you're getting ready to cook now, but Mrs. Mee does not her wire rack yet, what she will need to begin is she will need her bowl to mix the ingredients.

But the other key equipment that you need first is your weighing scales.

So Mrs. Mee's going to get her weighing scales and the bowl ready, and the tablespoon because you need to measure a tablespoon of caster sugar and salt.

So get your work area ready, and I'll see you in a moment where I'll show you how to measure and start to combine our ingredients.

Okay, so now our work area is ready and clean and ready to actually start baking.

We're going to look at how to combine our ingredients to make dough.

So we're going to explore how to measure, combine your ingredients to make dough for our bread.

So we will be exploring mixing, kneading, and proving.

So I'm going to meet you back in my kitchen, where I'm going to demonstrate how to combine your key ingredients.

So make sure you're ready, pause the video if you need, and I'll see you back in the kitchen where I'll demonstrate those three things.

Okay, so now I need to start measuring and combining my ingredients.

So if you follow your method, the first ingredient you need to measure is your flour.

So Mrs. Mee has just pressed zero on her scales to make sure that it is set, ready for me to measure.

Now, the unit you can change, and I've changed mine to G, which is grammes.

So now you need your flour.

Now, if you look on the ingredients, we asked you to get a strong white flour.

So you are going to measure your flour, do you remember how much flour you need to measure? That's right, you need to measure 500 grammes of flour.

So the majority of our ingredients is flour, isn't it? Okay, so we need to measure, so you can pour the flour into the bowl and you are measuring 500 grammes, you're keeping your eye on the scales.

Try not to make too much mess.

Okay, 500 grammes.

That's going to make a lot of bread, isn't it? Okay, so once you've measured the flour, what do you need to do next? That's right, you need to place it into the bowl.

And once you've measured the flour and placed it into the bowl, what is the next process? So here's my flour, we're nearly there.

Ah, perfect.

Okay, that is actually, well, it's not perfect, Mrs. Mee's lied to you, it's actually, there we go, 503.

Now that is spot-on 500.

Perfect, so now that can go into your mixing bowl.

So be careful when you pour flour because it might, it quite dusty, flour.

There we go, and just give it a gentle tap.

Now because there's some debris of ingredient in there, before I measure my next ingredient, I can press zero.

But actually my other ingredients, I don't need my weighing scales for them, do I? So what are my next ingredients? Let's move my scales to the side.

Oh, I do.

My next ingredient is caster sugar.

How much caster sugar do you need in your mix? That's correct, you need two tablespoons.

So I am going to take my tablespoon and I am going to measure two tablespoons.

Now, you've got to be careful to measure it correctly.

So this here, let me show you the camera, that is heaped, so I need to just level that off.

So two tablespoons, so it needs to be a level tablespoon.

If it needed to be heaped, it would say heaped.

So there's one.

Now, it's not too dangerous if I put too much sugar in.

Obviously, my bread would just taste a bit sweet.

And there's two.

So two tablespoons of caster sugar.

Now what ingredients do we need next? Correct, we need salt.

How much salt do you need to add? That's right, two tablespoons again.

So it's levelled tablespoons.

So it's a bit tricky me doing it here actually because I could end up putting more on than I need.

There we go.

There we go.

So there's one and there's two.

Excellent, so that is our salt and our sugar added to our mix.

And what do we need to add next? That's correct, we need to add seven grammes of yeast.

So Mrs. Mee has bought this packet yeast here, and if I look at the measurement, it actually says 11-gram sachet.

Okay, so I'm going to measure this, just to be sure that I have got seven grammes because I don't want too much in there.

Okay.

So I'm going to measure it out.

So if you remember, it's seven grammes.

Okay, here it goes.

I'm going to measure that.

There we go, that's a little bit too much, let me just use a spoon to get some out.

There we go.

There we go, so this is where the magic is going to happen.

So this yeast is what's going to help your bread rise.

Seven gramme, so that's seven grammes of yeast.

Okay, so now what do you need to do? What does it say on your method sheet? That's right, it says to mix, doesn't it? So now you need to take your spoon and mix the ingredients.

Okay, so you're mixing all of those ingredients within the flour.

Now, what do we need to do now to be able to make our dough? What have we got to add? 'Cause all of these ingredients are solid ingredients, aren't they? So how are we going to make a malleable, elastic dough? That's right, we're going to add water.

So how much water do you need to add? And what does it say? Yeah, warm water.

So you need to run your tap until you get the warm water, and you are adding 300 mil.

Perfect, sorry, that took a little bit longer than I expected.

So you can pre-run your tap to try and heat it up.

So I'm going to add all of that water now, and now you need to mix all that together to create your dough.

So have a go at measuring your ingredients, mix them all in a bowl to make your dough.

And once you've created a nice sticky texture, a nice dough, come back to me.

And we're going to look at how to knead the bread, which is really exciting.

So to knead your bread, you need a clean surface.

So Mrs. Mee, before she starts kneading, she's going to clean her wooden unit.

And I'm going to make sure that it's clear from any other ingredients.

So I'm going to get rid of my salt, my sugar, and my weighing scales.

Okay, so have a go at mixing and I'll see you in a short while.

Okay, so like me, you've probably had a go at mixing it, and at the moment, it's not mixing very well with a spoon.

So Mrs. Mee would recommend that you get rid of the spoon.

Okay, and then we're going to use something called rubbing in, so you're going to use your hands and you are going to just try and combine those ingredients a little bit more before we start kneading.

Okay, so once you've done that, so we're just trying to mix that leftover, there's still a bit of flour that's not quite combined in as well as I'd like, so I'm just rubbing it in to help combine those ingredients.

Now, this is a messy job.

Now, once we've done that, once the ingredients have mixed, we're going to start kneading, okay? So we're going to knead the bread for 10 minutes.

And this kneading is where you're actually almost massaging your bread dough.

And you can see it's really, really sticky.

So what Mrs. Mee's going to recommend, now I have already wiped my surface, but I'm going to give it a wipe again, I'm going to let it dry.

But what I would recommend you do is I would dust a little bit of flour onto your surface to start the kneading process.

So put a little bit of flour, so Mrs. Mee's got her hands in the, so just put a bit of flour onto the surface, like so.

Here we go.

And use your one hand just to spread it out and then take your dough and place it onto the surface.

And what we're going to do now is we're going to knead the bread.

So kneading is where you are massaging the bread and you are trying to create a nice thick dough.

So at the minute, it's really, really sticky.

Okay, so this is why we've got the flour on the surface to help us to create this thick dough.

Okay, so you can see now, Mrs. Mee's able to take her hands away.

Okay, and then I'm kneading the dough, so you're massaging the dough.

Okay, so you're going to do this for 10 minutes.

It's really important that you do this for 10 minutes and I'm not going to leave you on this video for 10 minutes.

You're going to pause the video, you're going to knead your bread.

See, Mrs. Mee's getting there? Yeah, excellent.

So you're going to knead it, it's like folding it over, pushing it, that's it, massaging the bread.

There you go.

So you can see it just needs some more kneading.

Okay, there we go.

So I'm going to carry on doing that for 10 minutes.

Okay, does that make sense? So pause the video, and once you've kneaded your bread, what we're going to need next is you're going to need a clean bowl.

So if like Mrs. Mee, you've only got that one bowl, you'll need to wash that bowl up ready for the next process.

So once we've kneaded the bread, we are going to prove it.

So you need a bowl, you need some oil, and you need some cling film at the ready.

Now, I haven't got any assistance in my kitchen.

I'm just going to use this leftover flour.

And I'm going to add that to my dough.

So that's it, so you've made a dough.

So this is just to help the bread to rise, it's like a little workout, isn't it? Fantastic, so pause the video, come back to me when you're done.

And we'll show you how to prove your bread.

Excellent, see you in a little while.

I have to pause it now.

Okay, so now that you've kneaded your bread, it should look a little bit like this.

So you've spent 10 minus, 10 minutes, sorry, massaging and kneading your bread, and that is helping all of those ingredients work together now.

We're going to prove the bread now.

So to prove the bread, you need to just put a small bit of oil into your bowl, and you need to ensure that that oil is spread around the bowl.

So Mrs. Mee's just going to take her hand and she's going to pre-oil that bowl there.

Not too much, okay, just line it with a bit of oil.

And then you placing your dough into that bowl.

And then you leaving it to prove.

So I'm going to move it there so that I can clean my work area whilst it's proving.

So you prove the bread for 45 minutes.

And what happens when the bread is proving, what will happen to that bread? That's right, it will double in size.

So that bread there, you can see how well it fills, that dough, how well it fills that bowl.

It's going to double in size.

So whilst you're waiting, you've got 45 minutes to make sure that your kitchen is spick and span.

And I'll see you in 45 minutes and I'll show you the next process.

Okay, so your bread now should have proved, so Mrs. Mee's got her baking tray ready.

But let's just take a look at the bread dough.

So you need a baking tray and some greaseproof paper, and you will need some clingfilm.

So if you have a look at that dough, what's happened? Yeah, that's right, it's actually doubled in size.

So your dough should have risen.

And that is the yeast working with a combination of the flour and the water.

So that is a change that is irreversible.

So what we need to do now is we need to just knead the dough one last time.

So take it out of your bowl and just give it another knead to remove any air.

Okay, so if it becomes sticky, obviously, you can put some flour on the surface, but otherwise it should be okay.

So give it another knead, just fold it and massage it, and then we're going to split it.

Okay, so now we're going to prepare it ready for baking, but we need to let it prove one final time.

So do you know what we need to do next? That's right, we need to split the dough into eight pieces.

So we need to split the dough, so I'm going to split it in half, first of all.

And we need to split it in eight pieces, so that's two halves, just make sure that is right.

Let's move a bit of there over there, that's it.

That's not too much.

There we go.

And then I've got to halve that again, and then you need to create those into balls.

So you've got to pull the dough, there we go.

And you've got to then roll them up into balls.

So I've got four, I need eight, so I need to halve them again.

Okay, now, obviously, you want to try and make them perfect, but some might be slightly bigger than others.

Okay, and then what do you need to do next? So once you've separated your dough mix into eight parts, what do you need to do now? That's right, you need to roll them.

And you need to place them on your baking tray.

So let's just move them to the side, let's bring the baking tray over here.

And let's roll them onto the tray.

So here's the baking tray, so you need to roll each one, and you need to leave enough room in between.

So you need eight balls, you have to leave enough room in between because what those bread rolls are going to do, there we go, you're rolling them, you can use your hands, roll them into balls.

Okay, you might want to just quickly knead them again just to reshape them.

Okay, and then you should have eight loaves, well, baps, eight baps you're going to have there.

Eight pieces of bread.

So these would go absolutely wonderfully, wouldn't they, with your soup.

Now, Mrs. Mee can't enjoy these ones, unfortunately, because they are containing gluten.

So that is the science, so the gluten is what sort of forms the structure in the bread.

And the main ingredient that contains gluten is wheat.

You can create bread that does not contain gluten, but the structure of that bread is very, very different.

And actually, it's quite dry bread as well.

Okay, so once you've done that, what do we need to do next? So remember, you're looking at your method sheet, what do we need to do next? Once we've got our eight balls of bread.

That's right, we need to cover them with clingfilm and we need to leave them in a warm area for 30 to 60 minutes.

Now I think Mrs. Mee could have done a better job with those balls, and I'm sure you could do a better job as well.

So I'm using the surface now to actually roll my final one.

There we go.

Okay, so cover it in clingfilm, keep it somewhere warm for 30 to 60 minutes.

And then the final part of it is to bake it.

So what I'd recommend you do is pop your oven on, so it's preheated, 200 degrees, but make sure, obviously, when you're using the oven, you've got an adult directly supervising you.

So pause the video, make your balls of dough, and I will see you when they have finished proving in 30 to 60 minutes.

Okay, so while you wait for your bread to prove, what I want you to do is make sure you clean your work area and clean all of the equipment you've used.

And then once the bread has proved for 30 minutes, we will come back to it and we will learn how to bake our bread.

So pause the video, make sure you clean your work area, and come back to me when you're ready.

Okay, so now that our bread has proved, we are ready to learn how to bake our bread.

So what we're going to do now, we're going to explore how to bake bread using heat and explore the science behind those changes in the ingredients.

So you're going to meet me back in the kitchen once your bread has proved.

So obviously, we needed to have waited for 30 minutes and what are we waiting for the dough to do? What does the dough need to have done? That's right, it needs to have doubled in size.

So once it's doubled in size, resume the video and we will bake the bread.

Okay, so now your bread should be proved and ready to bake.

So before you bake it, you do need to remove your clingfilm.

Okay, and you do need to ask an adult to help you.

So your oven should be preheated at 200 degrees and you are now going to put it in the oven.

So how long are we putting it in the oven for? That's right, 10 to 15 minutes.

And what are we looking, how do we know that the bread is starting to cook? What will happen? That's right, it will change colour.

So it is a chemical change, which means we cannot reverse that change.

So when you're using an oven, you must make sure you get an adult to help.

Okay, so this a fan-assisted oven, so this means that the bread might cook a little bit quicker.

But be really careful.

Okay, now I'm going to shut the oven and I'm going to set a timer for 10 minutes.

And at 10 minutes, I'm going to check it to see if it's started to brown.

If it's not quite brown on top, I'll then leave it a little bit longer.

So leave it in the oven, pause the video.

And when your bread is baked, come back to me, we are then going to take it out the oven, and we're going to pop it on a wire rack to cool.

Okay, so while we wait for our bread to bake, I want you to clean your work area and make sure all of the equipment is washed and you are ready to evaluate your bread.

So we've got to wait for the bread to bake in the oven, once that's done resume the video.

Okay, so once you have given your bread 10 to 15 minutes to bake, you need a responsible adult to help you remove your bread from the oven.

And you either need to use oven gloves or a tea towel to make sure you get the bread out of the oven safely.

So, as you can see, I can see that these have been baked because they've turned a lovely brown colour.

So what you need to do now is you need to place your bread on a surface and you need to give that bread time to cool.

Once it's had a little bit of time to cool, transfer your bread to a wire rack where it can continue to cool a little bit longer until it's ready to eat.

So you'll need to just turn your oven off and make sure that is done safely.

So once your bread is cooled, you can then transfer it to your wire rack.

And you do need to make sure that an adult is helping you with this process.

So at the moment, this bread is quite hot, even for Mrs. Mee, because it has just come out of the oven, so I would recommend that you wait about five minutes and then transfer it onto your wire rack, like so.

Okay, so hopefully, that is your bread done.

And once it's cool enough, you can test it and pass it around to your family members to test as well.

Okay.

Okay, so fantastic, you've now baked your own bread.

So you can place it on a wire rack now, if you have one, if not, place it on a plate to cool.

And once it's cooled just a little, but actually it's really nice to eat warm bread, once it's cooled a little, you can carry out a sensory analysis.

What senses would you need to evaluate bread? Shall we have a little look at the senses that we've looked at previously? What senses would you need to evaluate your bread? So remember what the senses are.

That's right, the first sense is look, so we can look at the bread.

What else can we do with the bread? We can smell the bread, that's right.

What else? That's right, we got to taste the bread.

What are the other two senses, do you remember? And we didn't use them in our previous sensory evaluation, did we? That's right, touching.

So have a little think, could we touch the bread? Would we do that? And then listen.

So would we use all five senses when we're evaluating our bread? Which one out of those two would we or wouldn't we use? That's right, we wouldn't listen to our bread, but we would indeed touch it and we might tear it before we actually taste it.

So you can actually now carry out your own sensory analysis of your bread by looking at it, touching it, smelling it, and tasting it.

And maybe give it to other people in your household to see what they think of your bread.

So today's lesson, we've used a number of keywords, so let's just remind ourselves of what we've learned.

We've looked at the process of kneading, so kneading is a process in the making of bread or dough.

And it is used as a way of combining the ingredients to add strength to the actual dough.

We used the word dough, and this is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic paste that is made up of many grains.

We also used the word baking, and this is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven.

And we also use the word proving or also known as proofing.

And this is the step in preparation of yeast bread, and other baked products where the dough is allowed to rest and rise.

And if you remember, the proving method, actually you watched the dough get bigger and bigger before you baked it.

So I'm hoping you enjoyed today's lesson.

Okay, what a fabulous lesson that was, I hope you enjoyed it as much as I did.

And I'd really love it if you could share some of your creations with us.

So if you can get a responsible adult in your household to share a picture of what you've created today, you can share it with us using the hashtag LearnwithOak, or @OakNational on Twitter.

We absolutely love to see what you've created.

Thank you for joining me today and I'll see you next lesson.