Lesson video

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Hi everyone, my name is Ms. Hummel and together we will be answering the question: How does human anatomy compare to other animals? In this lesson, we will learn about the differences between humans and other animals.

We will first learn about vertebrates and invertebrates, followed by the differences of animals who use lungs and gills to breathe.

Then we will briefly compare brains of other animals, and finally we will complete some application questions.

Our lesson will follow this structure: First, we will discuss what are the differences between vertebrates and invertebrates is.

Then we will discuss different methods that animal has for breathing, such as having lungs and gills.

We will discuss the difference in brain sizes for different animals, and finally we will complete some applications questions to test out understanding.

In this lesson you will need: An exercise book or paper, a pencil or pen, a coloured pencil or pen, and a ruler.

If you haven't got those things, pause the video now and go get them.

Here are Star Words, which are the most important words of our lesson.

I'm going to say them and ask you to repeat them after me.

When I point at myself, it will be my turn.

And when I point at you, it will be your turn.

Skeleton Vertebrate Invertebrate Ribs Spine Skull Brain Lung Gill Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Amazing.

Now we will begin by discussing what the differences are between animals who are considered vertebrates, and those who are considered invertebrates.

So some of our Star Words right here.

Animals are divided into two main groups: First we have animals that have a backbone, which are considered vertebrates.

And then animals that don't have a backbone are called invertebrates.

A backbone is like a spine, so we've got a spine, therefore which one are we? Are we vertebrates, or are we invertebrates? How do you know? Now it is your turn to complete this task.

So think back to previous knowledge, draw lines to match the terms. On one side, we have Endoskeleton and Exoskeleton.

And on the other side, we have Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

So pause the video now to complete the task.

You can resume once you finished.

Get ready to mark your work.

So an animal with an endoskeleton is considered a vertebrate animal.

And an animal with an exoskeleton is considered to be invertebrate.

The question I have for you, to be thinking about is Do all invertebrates have an exoskeleton? You can resume once you finished thinking about this question.

The answer is no.

There are some animals, like Jellyfish, which are considered invertebrates, but they do not necessarily have an exoskeleton.

However the majority of animals, which are invertebrate, also happen to have an exoskeleton.

About 95 percent of all animals are invertebrates, which are animals without bones, and many are tiny or even microscopic.

This used to really shock me, because I used to think of all the animals I know, and almost all the animals I knew, things like cats and dogs and different kinds of birds, all of them are considered vertebrates.

So when I learned that 95 percent which is almost all of the animals out there are invertebrate, that was really shocking to me.

Why do you think that I didn't know that many invertebrates? The answer is that a lot of invertebrates are really small.

Small insects, for example, are considered invertebrates.

And I don't necessarily know all the kinds of insects.

Now it is your turn to complete this task.

So vertebrates and invertebrates are divided into smaller groups.

Sort those groups to show which are vertebrates and which are invertebrates.

The options that you have to sort out, are insects, reptiles, crustaceans, like crabs, mammals, arachnids, like spiders, fish, birds, and amphibians.

You can pause the video now to complete this task.

You can resume once you finished.

Now get ready to mark your work.

So reptiles, fish, mammals, amphibians, and birds should all have been under the vertebrates column.

And insects, crustaceans and arachnids, are considered invertebrates.

Next, we will discuss the differences between lungs and gills.

Vertebrates are classified based on their characteristics.

For example, the type of skin that they have, whether they lay eggs or give birth to their live young, or how they breathe.

And what animals can you think of that has the texture of the first picture? What animals do you know that have shelled eggs? And the question we've all been waiting for, How do dogs breathe? I think we both know that it's very similar to humans.

Now all of these animals that we've got on the board here, breathe air with lungs.

So reptiles, like snakes and crocodiles, mammals, like humans and dogs, and birds, like penguins and eagles.

What animals can you see on the slide? And which is your favourite out of them? I think my favourite is the fox.

Now I've got a few that live near my house, and sometimes at night I can hear them.

Here's a funny story actually: One of the, I assume, the baby cubs, which are like baby foxes, I left a sandal out, and they ended up chewing them.

A sandal, very similar to a dog in some ways.

They just found it kind of like a chew toy.

So that was funny to wake up to.

One of the things that makes the group of animals called fish special is that they don't have lungs.

Instead, they breathe underwater with organs called gills.

They breathe underwater with organs called Gills, well done.

Amphibians are different too.

So they breathe wit gills when they are young, so when they are tadpoles, like you can see on the picture on the left.

And with lungs when they are older, when they are, for example, frogs, like you can see on the picture on the right.

I would now like you to complete this task.

For each of the animal groups below, describe the organs that they use to breathe.

Now pause the video to answer the question.

And you can resume once you finished.

Get ready to mark your work.

So, Mammals, reptiles, and birds use lungs all of the time.

Fish use gills all of the time, Amphibians use gills when they are tadpoles, and they develop lungs later on in life.

Lungs and gills are organs that have the same function.

They help animals to breathe by taking in oxygen.

Show me how you take in oxygen? So you go and releasing, so exhaling, carbon dioxide.

So both lungs and gills do the same job.

Lungs are designed to take in oxygen that is in the air around us.

So when you breathe in with your lungs, the air flows through your nose and mouth and into your lungs where oxygen is transported to the rest of your body.

Gills are designed to take in oxygen too, but they are taking the oxygen that is in the water.

A fish breathes by opening its mouth underwater.

So the water runs through the gills and back out through slits in the side of its head.

As water passes through the gills they take in the oxygen that is dissolved in the water.

So raise your hand if you've heard H2O before.

H2O is what we refer to chemically as water.

Now the O stands for oxygen, so although water has other things like hydrogen, it also has oxygen.

And what a fish is able to do through the gills, or what tadpoles are also able to do through the gills, is they are able to extract that oxygen that they still need to live.

I would now like you to complete the following thinking tasks.

What are some of the similarities between gills and lungs? And what are some of the differences? Pause the video now to complete this thinking task.

You can resume when you finish.

Finally, for this section, I would like you to write whether each statement describes the gills or the lungs.

The first statement is "Takes in oxygen from air." Then we've got "Takes in oxygen from water".

We've got "Organs of fish".

"Organs of mammals and other animals".

"Located in the chest of the animal".

"Located in the head of the animal".

And that's it.

So classify those descriptions, are they describing lungs, or are they describing gills? You can resume the video once you finished.

Now get ready to mark your work.

So "Takes oxygen from air" relates to lungs.

"Takes oxygen from water" relates to gills.

"Organs of water".

Sorry, "Organs of fish" relates to gills.

"Organs of mammals and other animals" refers to lungs.

"Located in the chest of animal" refers to lungs.

And "Located in the head of animal" refers to gills.

For this next part of lesson we are going to discuss, brain sizes across different types of animals.

First, on our slides, we can see a comparison of human brains, with something we called gibbons, and something we called baboons.

Now gibbons and baboons are considered primates, alongside chimpanzees, and other animals.

Can you notice any similarities between the brains? What about some differences? A very clear difference may be the size, although they are quite similar.

The human's brain is still considerably larger.

I now want to discuss some differences between Human brains and other animal brains.

One difference between human brains and other animal brains is our sense of smell.

The olfactory bulb, which is the section that deals with smelling of humans, is smaller as compare to animals.

So in our brain, we've got a section that helps us manage everything that we smell, and kind of what we do based on that.

So our part of the brain that does that is smaller, compare to other animals.

And, in fact, olfactory bulbs of bears are five times bigger than that of humans.

Why do you think other animals' sense of smell would have to be stronger than human's? You may have guessed correctly that other animals rely on their sense of smell much more than humans to do things like hunting and scavenging for food.

Another difference that we've got is brain size.

Now we already saw that picture of, kind of different brain sizes.

The brain size of most animals is smaller than that of humans.

However, some animals do have a brain size that is larger than human.

Like dolphins, elephants, and whales.

I would now like you to answer these questions: What animal has an olfactory bulb that is five times the size of humans? And, name two animals that have been a larger brain than humans.

You can pause the video now and resume once you finished.

Finally, we are going to complete some application questions.

You are now going to pause the video to complete this task.

Look at the two skeletons below, and add the following labels to each of them Skull, Spine, Ribcage, its like a ribs, and foot bones.

And if you don't have the diagram in front of you, Say the name with the label, like skull, and point to it on your screen.

You can resume the video once you are finished.

Now with the help of those keywords, I would like you to write at least one similarity and difference between humans and horses.

You may think more than one similarity and difference and you can write those as well.

Pause the video now, complete the task.

You may have mention the fact that both animals have ribs, which protect their heart and lungs.

You may have mentioned that humans only have two feet, and therefore foot bones in two of their limbs, whereas horses have four limbs, which include foot bones.

You may have mentioned other examples and that's also okay.

Now look at these two skeletons below, and add the following labels, so again, Skull, spine, ribcage, and foot bones.

You can pause the video to take the task, and you can resume once you finished.

Like before, I would now like you to use those keywords to help you write at least one similarity and difference between birds and turtles.

You can pause the video to complete the task, and you can resume the video once you finished.

You may have written the fact that the spine of a bird is much more curved than that of a turtle.

You may also have mentioned that turtles additionally to having some other protective bones, also have a hard shell which protects their internal organs.

We have now finished our lesson and it is time for you to complete your exit quiz.

You need to exit the video and complete the quiz, to test your knowledge and understanding of this lesson.

I hope you enjoyed the lesson.