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Hello my friends and welcome to our eighth and our final lesson all about the religion of Islam.

I am Mr Pedroza, and today we are going to finish up making our notes that we started on our previous lesson and then we are going to write up our essay.

I'm going to show you some key tips on how to do that and then we are going to choose a conclusion which will finish off our essay.

Now, before we begin, let's get it out of the way first make sure that you do your pre-lesson knowledge quiz If you've already done that, awesome job If you think then you could have done a little bit better that's okay; go back to our previous lessons, watch them and then you can do the quiz again.

So at this point, pause the video and then have a go at doing our knowledge quiz.

Awesome job guys, so lets have a look at what we are going to learn today So in our lesson today, we are going to start off with our star words.

So we are going to share some key vocabulary, then we are going to recap our previous lesson's learning, where we looked at Muhammad's death, and what happened after that.

Then we will continue writing up our essay notes.

We will write up our conclusion and then it will be our end of lesson quiz.

And our end of lesson quiz is more of a end of unit quiz, because it actually quizzes you on all of the things that you have learnt throughout this unit.

Now in this lesson, you're going to need your exercise book or paper; you're going to need your pencil or a pen and then, you're going to need your ruler so you can draw your table where you can write up your notes If you want to pause the video to get those things you can do that now.

Great, so let's continue.

Let's have a look at our star words for today.

So today, we've got rebellion, and a rebellion is an armed fight against one's own government.

An armed fight against one's own government is called a rebellion.

Another term for rebellion is an uprising.

Then we've got essay, and last week we learned that an essay is a short piece of writing that gives the writer's ideas, feelings and opinions on a particular subject.

A short piece of writing that gives the writer's ideas, feelings and opinions on a particular subject, is called an essay.

And today we are going to be writing up our essay using paragraphs, and paragraphs are a collection of sentences.

A collection of sentences is called a paragraph.

And then at the end of our essay, we are going to write our conclusion.

A conclusion is an opinion that is reached, after really careful thinking.

So, an opinion reached after really careful thinking is called a conclusion.

So let's have a look at our previous lesson, sorry previous lesson's learning.

In our previous lesson, we learned that Muhammad died in around 632 CE, and he didn't leave a clear successor.

He didn't leave someone, he didn't nominate someone who should be his follower; the person who follows after him So, as a result, there was a disagreement between his followers as to who should be their new leader; as to who should be Muhammad's successor.

And this led to his followers splitting into two different groups, into Sunni muslims and into Shia muslims. We learned that there are around 1.

8 billion muslims all around the world; there are 57 Muslim majority countries and there are muslims living in every country around the world, but countries around North Africa, the Middle East, and Indonesia have the highest number of muslims. We learned that Indonesia has the largest number of muslims in their population as well.

So, question number 1, is when did Muhammad die? Did he die in 632 CE? Could it be B, 633 BCE? Could it be C, 623 CE or could it be D, 632 BCE? So A, B, C, or D? When did Muhammad die? Pause the video and then have a go.

Okay, ready? When did Muhammad die? He died in 632 CE.

Awesome job team, well done.

Now, we, last week, in our previous lesson we said that most of the world's muslims consider themselves to be Sunni, so around 80-85% of them designate themselves as being Sunni muslims. That leaves 10-15% of them calling themselves as Shia muslims. And remember that some muslims don't consider themselves either Sunni or Shia; they believe that they are simple followers of the Islamic faith, based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammad, and so they are followers of a single community.

But it is important to know that there are Sunni muslims and there are Shia muslims. So what led to this split? So remember that Muhammad didn't leave a successor but the person who was designated to be the new Caliph, the new leader of the Muslim community, was called Abu Bakr, and Abu Bakr was Muhammad's father-in-law.

Muhammad was married to Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha.

He was his father-in-law.

And followers of Abu Bakr were referred to as Sunni, meaning "people of the tradition".

On the other side of this argument was Ali.

And Ali was Muhammad's son-in-law.

So Ali was married to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, that's why he was his son-in-law.

He was also Muhammad's cousin.

And followers of Ali are called Shia.

Shia meaning "followers of Ali" So here we've got a true or false question So Ali was Muhammad's son-in-law.

He was married to Fatimah, who was Muhammad's daughter.

Is that true or is that false? And then number two: Followers of Abu Bakr are known as Shia Muslims. Is that true or is that false? So have a go, pause the video, and then we'll come back and we'll share the answers.

Okay, let's have a look, and ready.

So, Ali was Muhammad's son-in-law.

He was married to Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter.

That is true.

Number two; followers of Abu Bakr are known as Shia Muslims That is false.

Remember that if you're a follower of Abu Bakr, you are known as a Sunni Muslim, which means people of the tradition.

If you are a follower of Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin, then you are called a Shia Muslim, which is called follower of Ali.

So if any of you want to tick or fix those answers you can do so now.

So let's continue with our note taking.

So, last week, in our previous lesson sorry, we learned that an essay is a long piece of writing about a particular topic.

We are going to be writing an essay of course, all about Islam, using all of the knowledge we have learnt so far.

In this section of the lesson we are going to fill in paragraphs 3-7 of our notes, and then we are going to give you some top tips for how to write a really great essay, and then we are going to write up a conclusion.

So paragraph 3 is going to deal with the following question So what are the five pillars of Islam? The key vocabulary for this one is obligation, you've got pillar, you've got Shahadah you've got Salat, you've got Zakat; you've got Sawm and you've got Hajj.

The key information that you need to write down is the following So the five pillars are the five obligations to be performed by every Muslim.

The first one is the Shahadah, which is the declaration of faith in one God and Muhammad as the final prophet.

Remember that Muhammad is sometimes referred to as "the seal of the prophets", which means that there won't be any more prophets after him.

Then we've got Salat, is the second pillar and Salat means praying 5 times a day.

Then we've Zakat, which is compulsory giving.

Remember that in some Muslim countries, people have to give around 2.

5% of their annual income as part of Zakat.

Then we've got Sawm, which is fasting during the month of Ramadan.

And then we've got Hajj, which is making a pilgrimage to Mecca, which is the holiest city in Islam.

So that's the key information for paragraph three.

So at this point, pause the video and write that information down.

Great job guys, OK let's have a look at paragraph 4.

So paragraph 4 is going to be all about the holy book of Islam.

What is the holy book of Islam? The key vocabulary in this one is Quran, you've got literal, you've got revealed, you've got recite you've got illiterate, we have sunnahs, we have message we have Rehal, we have Hafiz and we have Hadith.

So the key information that you need to write down is the following: So the Quran was revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel.

Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God.

So directly coming from Him.

The first revelation happened around 609 CE and it took 23 years for the Quran to be fully revealed.

Remember that Angel Gabriel, the Angel Gabriel made Muhammad to recite the verses that he was giving him.

Remember that Muhammad was illiterate.

He couldn't read or write so he had to recite the verses to memorise them.

There are around 114 Surahs, there are around 114 chapters in the Quran, and the main message of the Quran is that God is forgiving if you are willing to seek His forgiveness.

There is also a day that, there will be a day of judgement where people will be judged on their behaviour, and that will decide whether they'll go to heaven or to hell Muslims respect the Quran by never placing it on the floor, and when they read from it, they place it on a special X shaped wooden stand called a Rehal.

Remember that someone who memorises the Quran is called a Hafiz, and they are seen as guardians of their community, and Hafiz means garden.

And then we also have the Hadith, which is a separate book which contains the words and actions of the prophet Muhammad Remember that the Hadith is not considered to be the literal word of God, but muslims also use it in order to learn about their faith.

On the left hand side, I'm really sorry that I had to put it there, but we also have the 99 names of God So we have names like Al-Hakim, which is The Wise.

We have Al-Rahman, The Beneficent.

Al-Rahim, The Merciful and Al Quddus, The Most Sacred.

So, that is the key information for paragraph four.

So at this point pause the video and then write all that information down.

Amazing job guys.

Let's have a look at paragraph 5.

So in paragraph 5, we are going to write all about the mosque.

So where do muslims worship? Key vocabulary is the mosque, we've got worship, we've got the dome, which is referred to as a Qubba.

We've got the minaret, we've got the Adhan, which is the call to prayer.

We've got Jummah, we have Musalah, Qibla We have Mihrab, and we have Mimbar.

So this is the key information that you need to write down We know the mosque is referred to as the masjid in Arabic and it is the Muslim place of worship.

The dome, or the Qubba, represents the sky and the heavens and it's directly placed above the prayer hall.

We know that the Minaret is a tall, thin tower which is used mainly to call, to broadcast the call of prayer, which is called the Adhan.

We know that the holiest day in Islam is Friday and that is called Jummah, and there tends to be special services at the mosque during this day.

When we enter the mosque, you might see things like the ablution area, which is the washing area.

Remember that muslims are encouraged to wash really thoroughly, doing a ritual washing, before they touch the Quran.

You might also see, see things like the shoe rack.

I know these things are not listed, but you should be writing them down from memory.

You might see a shoe rack where you can leave your shoes.

You can see some prayer beads, you can see the Quran of course, and you can see prayer mats as well.

As you enter the Musalah, which is the prayer hall you will see 3 things primarily.

You will see the Qibla, which is the wall which indicates the direction towards Mecca.

Remember that all muslims have to pray facing towards Mecca, which is the holiest city in Islam.

Then we've got the Mihrab, which is an alcove.

It's a section of the wall, which indicates that that is the Qibla wall, where the Qibla, inside the Qibla, is the Mihrab.

And then the Mimbar, is next to the Mihrab, and that is a raised platform, from where the Imam the Muslim leader, the Muslim prayer leader, delivers his sermon.

So that is the key information for paragraph five.

At this point pause the video, and then write it down.

Okay, let's have a look at paragraph 6.

In paragraph 6, we are going to write all about the main Muslim festivals.

So we learned about Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

So the key vocabulary for this one is celebration, we've got festival, we've got Ramadan, we've got sawm Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, sacrifice and we've got Abraham.

So the key information in this one is that Ramadan marks the month in which the Angel Gabriel made his first revelation to Muhammad.

During this month, Muslims perform sawm, which is fasting Remember that sawm is one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

Then after Ramadan, we have Eid al-Fitr, and Eid al-Fitr commemorates the end of Ramadan and happens on the first day after the month of fasting.

And it officially begins at the first sight of the new moon.

Eid al-Adha, happens 70 days after Eid al-Fitr.

So you've got Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr, and Eid al-Adha.

And Eid al-Adha celebrates Abraham's obedience to God and is shown by his willingness to sacrifice his own son Issac.

And Eid al-Adha is the time for reflection because it makes muslims consider their own obedience to God compared to the prophet Abraham.

Muslims celebrate both Eids by socialising with their friends and family; wearing their best clothes, decorating their houses; exchanging gifts; eating delicious food and performing good deeds such as giving to charity.

So that is the key information for section 6.

So at this point, pause the video and then write it down.

Awesome job guys, now we are coming up to the last set of notes, and this last set of notes is going to be for paragraph 7.

In paragraph 7, you're going to be writing about what happened after Muhammad's death.

That is the most recent thing that we have learnt.

Key vocabulary is disagreement, we've got successor, we've got Sunni and Shia, we've got the caliph, we've got the rebellion, and we've got caliphate.

The key information for this section is that Muhammad died in 632 CE.

And there was a disagreement over who should be his successor.

And then, in this disagreement, Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's father-in-law, who was chosen to be the new leader, the new caliph.

Ali, who was Muhammad's son-in-law thought that he should have been the successor, but Abu Bakr, he put down Ali's rebellion, and he established a caliphate.

He established the first caliphate and this was the first Muslim kingdom.

Other information that you might want to put down there is that Abu Bakr, he only, he was only the leader he was only the caliph for 2 more years before he died, and then he passed away.

But during this time he conquered new lands for the Muslim kingdom.

So that's the key information for paragraph 7.

So at this point pause the video and then write it down.

So now, at this point we've made all of our notes So, these are going to be my tips for how do you structure your essay and how you write it really well.

The first tip is that obviously, you are going to write this in full sentences.

The notes that we made, they're quite brief.

They should be bullet points, and so you need to turn those into full sentences.

The second tip is that you need to include key information and key vocabulary, and as you go along, using your notes, tick off that key information, and tick off that key vocabulary, so that you know that you have included it in your paragraphs.

Make sure that you start a new paragraph for each section, leaving a blank line.

Leaving a blank line after each paragraph makes it much easier for you to structure your essay.

And it makes it much easier and more pleasant for your reader, to read your essay.

And then number 4, is that you have to act like the expert that you are.

Because now, you are all experts about the religion of Islam So you've got to pretend that you're the teacher and you're going to teach this to somebody with no prior knowledge.

So you've got to be the teacher here, and you've got to give as much information as you can.

Those are my 4 key tips.

So writing in full sentences, including key information and key vocabulary, starting a new paragraph for each section, and then acting like the expert.

So, this is the structure strip that we can use.

So in this structure strip, that I have put on there you can see that there are some paragraphs covering the 7 sections that we have discussed so far.

So paragraph one is, how did the religion of Islam begin? Paragraph two, is how, what do muslims believe? Paragraph three, is what are the 5 pillars of Islam? Paragraph four, is what is the holy book of Islam? Paragraph five, is where do muslims worship? Paragraph six, what are the festivals of Islam? And then paragraph seven, is what happened after Muhammad's death? And you can see that under each paragraph you have a set of questions that you should attempt to answer by writing up your notes, in full sentences.

This is the way that I would do it.

So on the left hand side you can see my questions So it's the same questions as these ones.

And on the right hand side, you can see the notes that we made.

So as I'm writing my essay, I'm having a look at those questions, and I'm going to answer them by using my notes, and writing them up into full sentences.

When I do that, it becomes a little bit like this.

So this is my piece of work.

I'm going to read it to you.

Have a look, just before I do that, have a look at how I started by writing the question at the top.

So the question for this paragraph is: How did the religion of Islam begin? I left a line; underlined the heading here the subheading there, and then I started my writing.

So I wrote: "The religion of Islam was established by the Prophet Muhammad in 620 CE in Saudi Arabia.

Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 CE.

His childhood was marked by the death of his parents, leaving him an orphan by the age of 6.

Muhammad was brought up by his relatives, becoming a merchant, travelling around the country, trading and selling goods.

So you can see in that short paragraph, I tackled some of the questions there.

So I said when and where was Islam founded.

I said that in my paragraph.

Who was Muhammad? I gave a brief outline of who he was.

What was Muhammad's early life like? I told you, I wrote down that he became an orphan.

After that he became a trader.

And then, from number four on, I would have gone on to describe his timeline in a little bit more detail, leading up to the events of the Night of Power, where he had his first revelation.

So you can see that, in just those 3 questions I've managed to write quite a lot.

I managed to write around 7 lines there.

So that shows you how much detail you need to be going in when you come to write this essay.

And so, at this point, what I would suggest is you copy down the structure strip.

Write down the questions.

You can either use post-it notes like I have.

I found that quite useful.

One post-it note for each paragraph.

If you want to do it on paper, then that's totally fine.

But at this point, pause the video, and then write down the questions from the structure strip.

And so, now that we've done that, once you've finished writing up your whole essay, we come to the conclusion, and the conclusion remember is an opinion that is reached after careful thinking.

So, we have to go back to the question that we were asked at the beginning.

So, what was the question at the beginning? The question was "What makes the religion of Islam unique"? What makes it different to others? So in your conclusion, you need to address that.

So having shared all of the evidence, all of the knowledge that you have, you're going to write a conclusion about that question.

So it can be that you say, Islam, despite sharing some similarities with other Abrahamic religions , is a unique religion, with distinct traditions and distinct origin story.

That could be a conclusion that you can come to.

You could say, that although Islam, might share some similarities with Judaism and Christianity, it is a unique religion because it views Muhammad as the final prophet.

And so Judaism and Christianity, they have some similar, overlapping prophets, along with Islam, but the thing that makes Islam distinct and unique is that it sees Muhammad as the final prophet.

Christianity doesn't recognise Muhammad as a prophet.

Neither does Judaism.

If you want to challenge yourself, you could say that "In my opinion, what makes Islam unique is.

." and then you put down, you write down what you think makes Islam such a unique religion.

So at this point, pause the video and then write down one of those conclusions.

And that is it my friends, and that is it for the lesson.

And that is it for the unit.

Guys, give yourselves a pat on the back.

Wow, that was a lot, a lot of learning.

I hope you had lots of fun, learning about Islam with me.

Please make sure that you complete your end of lesson quiz, just to recap all of the knowledge that you have accrued throughout this unit.

And if you'd like to, you can share your essays.

Please, please, please, please do.

I really want to read some of your essays.

You can do that on Twitter.

Make sure you get your parent or your carer's permission first and then you can share that @OakNational with the handle, #LearnwithOak.

Guys, I hope that you've had a really lovely time.

I had a blast teaching you all about Islam.

I hope we see each other in some future learning.

So for now, have a lovely day and I shall see you next time.