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Welcome to today's English lesson.

I'm Mrs. Crompton.

Our focus today is analysing the writer's use of language, and we will be working with the non-fiction text, "Journey to the Source of the Nile" by Christopher Ondaatje.

You will need a pen and paper.

Take a moment to make sure you've cleared any distractions away, and have everything you need to hand To begin with then, let's just remind ourselves of the areas of focus when we are looking at on scene non-fiction material.

We need to be able to summarise.

We need to be able to respond to thoughts and feelings.

We need to consider the writer's perspective.

Today, we're going to look at writer's methods and throughout our reading, we will be considering how the texts offer us bigger interpretations in terms of what they teach us about mankind and society.

So to begin an analysis of language, let's just have a pit stop and a check of our subject terminology.

There are some terms that are particularly helpful when it comes to analysing nonfiction texts.

And I'm going to share with you my little toolkit for analysis.

To start with, we've got nouns objectives, verbs, adverbs.

Those are our bread and butter when it comes to analysis.

We've got an umbrella term of figurative language, and under there I would have my similes and metaphors.

We've then got repetition, use of pronouns, listing, particularly in a group of three, anaphora and emotive language.

Those final four, I'm going to look at in a little bit more detail in a moment.

If however, you would like to get this list down on your piece of paper, pause the video right now, and resume when you are ready.

Okay, so let's have a look at these four particular techniques in a little bit more detail.

And the reason why I want to talk about them is because they're really versatile.

Not just for responding to reading material, but also using these techniques within your own writing.

So let's start with pronouns.

What can we do with a pronoun? Well the use of we and us within a text creates a feeling of consensus.

We're all in agreement.

The use of they, you and them, creates a feeling of opposition.

So that's a really useful technique to consider.

Let's move on to listing.

We have two types of list here, that might be of interest to you.

And I think some of you use these terms anyway, so I thought it would be a good time just to revise, and to think about the distinction between the two.

So a syndetic list is where a conjunction is used to connect the different items in the list.

And, or, if or so.

An asyndetic list is a list where the terms are separated with a comma.

Moving on, anaphora.

Now, this is when a word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of a clause or sentences that follow each other.

In "An inspector calls", we have the inspectors speech where he stops the and speaks out to the Birlings, just before his exit, and talks about, we all belong to one society, we all belong.

We are all members of one body.

That we all, we all is a use of anaphora.

Finally, we have emotive language.

And this is where word choices are used to evoke a particular emotion.

Okay, so let's just pause here if you need to, to get down any of the finer detail.

Soon as you're ready resume, and we will start to have a look at our extract.

Okay, so we have got the following question that we're going to be working on in today's lesson.

How does the writer use language to present the environment? So what is it that Ondaatje is wanting us to think about the environment.

And as you can see in the instructions, we're going to read the passage from "Journey to the Source of the Nile", at once.

And on this first reading, we are going to concentrate on what I call the focus of the question.

And here, the focus is the environment.

So you're only looking for details that help you answer that particular question.

What I want you to do on this first reading, is to start thinking about which bits of evidence would be relevant, and just maybe starting to connect some of your subject terminology to this, and start to identify the word class.

Okay, so it's over to you.

I'm going to give you control of the video.

Pause at the end of each slide so that you can read through carefully, and stop to take a few notes.

Once you've worked through, you will get a power slide, and then I will be waiting for you at the other side.

Okay, over to you.

Welcome back.

So you've had your first reading.

We're now going to move on to our second reading, and during the second reading, we're now going to think about how to build an effective response to our question.

How does the writer use language to present the environment.

In order to create our response, we're going to concentrate on selecting three pieces of evidence.

And within that evidence, we're going to make sure we've got what I call, an anchor quotation.

And we're going to think about the links.

Now I will break that down for you.

And what we're going to do, firstly, is look at the criteria.

Then we'll pause again, and I will explain what I mean by an anchor quotation, and then you'll actually do the task.

Okay? Well let's have a look, first of all, at the criteria.

Within a task like this, we need to be able to do three things.

We need to understand the text.

We need to select evidence, and I am going to be calling this rich evidence.

And I will explain little bit more about that as we move along.

And then we need to be able to link the evidence to make it a successful response.

Looking down the columns, more precisely, let's read through the information.

You're being asked to look to small portion of the text, but it's important to think about the whole extract.

So we want to really locate this.

And what we want to think about is what have we learned so far, about Ondaatje, or we know that with the beginning of the text, he's very much at home and enjoying the environment, and then there's a contrast.

So we really want to capture the sense of excitement and all, and wonder.

The language used here is also part of our overall big picture interpretation.

So we want to think about what else we are learning about the environment and the landscape, and the effect it can have on us as individuals.

When it comes to selecting the evidence, you need to be able to select two to three rich quotations.

Now rich quotations are quotations that allow you to build a mental image as you read them.

So that's the language that has connotations of other things that's particularly visual and particularly powerful.

It's the quotation that allows you to analyse and explore and expand your interpretation.

Other quotations, that I often talk about with you, are supporting quotations.

So a supporting quotation would literally just say, Ondaatje really likes the landscape.

And if he'd said that, "I really liked the landscape." That would be a supporting quotation.

There isn't much I can do with the word like.

It just means what it says, he really likes it.

So a supporting quotation is going to backup an idea.

A rich quotation is something that you can then build from.

Final column then, linking the evidence.

We need to link one selection, one of our quotations to another.

Because the question asks us to actually talk about language as a whole.

If you look at the grid, it says the question, doesn't say, pick a few language features.

It asks you to think about how the language works to make meaning.

So we're going to connect our quotations so that we are showing, the way that the language is operating.

Okay, now you might want to pause, and take down a few details at this point.

It's not essential.

That is a choice for you.

The main thing is, that you've got the three top criteria.

We need to understand the text, we need to select evidence, and we need to link our evidence, as long as you have that secure as your criteria moving forward, that is the key.

Let's move on.

Now to select our evidence, we're going to use a little bit of a technique that I quite like.

Because it allows you to start to play with the language, and to think about connections.

Let me show you what I need you to do, rather than work through this little task grid.

But I'll give you that back later.

I would like you to turn a piece of paper to landscape, and to draw three clouds.

Fairly equal in size, maybe the middle one, the one that I've got marked out in a darker pink colour, slightly larger.

Okay, so once you've got your three clouds, we're going to place our quotations in these three clouds.

Now the middle one, the one that has been coloured in, is our anchor quotation.

And this is the one that all of our analysis will feed from.

And it's the anchor quotation, because it is the one that best captures the idea of Ondaatje's feelings towards the environment.

So that is going to be the very best quotation, that answers it, and is rich in nature.

The next two quotations, we're going to check as we select that they can link back to the anchor quotation, and that's why we can see the lines being drawn.

We need to see the path that we can draw from one quotation to the next.

Okay, so we put the anchor quotation in the middle, and then we unpick the quotation.

Some of you might know that as exploding a quotation, but we actually look at the individual words, zoom in, select details, think about the connotations of the words in relation to the context of the passage.

Do that with one quotation, and then start to connect to the other two.

And sometimes you will notice that there is a pattern between the language used.

We might notice that there is either a detail that is reinforced in the next quotation, or contrasted.

So a really nice way of connecting is to talk about this is reinforced by, or this is contrasted by.

And that helps us again to build the analysis.

All right, so that's what you're aiming for.

So what I would like you to do now is to make sure that you can follow through on these instructions.

I'm going to hand over control to you.

You're going to draw the three clouds, you're going to put the anchor quotation when we get to that part.

That's where it's going to go, and then you're going to have just this vocabulary, I want you to get at this stage.

This is reinforced by, this is contrasted by.

So if I hand over to you so that you've got opportunity to draw the three clouds and to get that key linking vocabulary from the bottom of the instruction box, onto your piece of paper.

I will then give you the text back to look at, okay? So control to you, pause and restart the video as you need so that you can get the actual grid down, and then we're ready to go.

And welcome back.

So here we are now.

This is your second reading.

and our instructions are back there, but they're just slightly irrelevant quotations, with an anchor quotation, and think about the links.

Control is now with you.

You can look at the text and you need to start filling in your clouds.

Those clouds need to be exploded, you need to think about the links, you need to develop your route around your three pieces of evidence, so that you know how they fit together to answer the key question.

How does the writer use language to present the environment? And it's over to you.

I'll be waiting for you when you're ready to go to the next step.

Welcome back.

So now we're actually ready to write.

And what we're going to do, is to use our rich quotation as the anchor.

And we are going to write up our answer, using the plan that we've just created.

Now I just want to share something with you, just in case you're not sure whether your quotations are okay.

So I have got my three quotations here.

My anchor one is in the middle.

And for my anchor quotation, I selected, spectacular sunrise.

A few glimmers of golden light, then the huge red ball rose.

And that's going to be my anchor quotation.

I then picked, little egrets and kites silhouetted themselves.

And I also picked, an idyllic spot.

And within that, I've got things like alliteration, I've got a metaphor, I have got various techniques that I can comment on in relation to the question.

Now at the bottom, I have recorded the fact that I'm not going to use this as one of my key quotations.

However, it is a significant supporting quotation, and I want to include it within my analysis.

And that is, the role this mighty lake had played in the great explorations of the past.

So I'm going to embed that too.

When it comes to writing, I would like you to start your analysis with the following sentence.

The writer uses language, to present the environment as a beautiful, as sorry.

Present the environment as beautiful and inspiring.

I'll say that sentence again, I made a mess.

The writer uses language to present the environment as beautiful and inspiring.

And it's just an overview.

That's what I think.

And I'm letting everyone know who's reading my analysis, that that is my overall opinion of what Ondaatje gets from the environment.

And I'm going to insert my best anchor quotation.

The next line is going to start with a subject terminology, methody comment.

So the effect of the simile or the adjective on the reader, is.

and it highlights or creates a feeling of.

Now that sentence starter is very deliberate so that we make sure our focus remains on analysis of language.

And we don't strain to interpreting the ideas, which is often a little bit of a pitfall with this type of question.

So the phrasing of the sentence, focuses my answer.

Then, I haven't finished.

I'm going to zoom in and analyse.

This is where you unpick, and you think about how you exploded the quotation.

The word x, and you're going to pick another.

We want a range of evidence.

We need to make sure that we're really thinking about the quality of our answers.

And then finally, the explanation links into the context of the passage.

Okay, so now you have control.

And what we're going to do, is just to write up the analysis with the first quotation.

I'll take it back to the instruction slide.

You can also pause, and maybe adjust your quotations if you like the look of any of mine, okay.

Over to you.

And welcome back.

So now we're onto the next step.

So we're going to repeat the steps, and work through the linking quotations.

So it's really straightforward.

There's nothing new.

We've got the sentence stem there.

This is reinforced by or this is contrasted by.

Just use those two phrases, noticing if there's any difference, but otherwise using the phrase, this is reinforced by.

Work through your second quotation.

You put in the quotation, you talk about the specific method, you zoom in, unpick and link.

And then you work through the last quotation.

This is finally reinforced by, this is finally contrasted by, and then put the third one in.

And we're going to just work through, and you are literally repeating the pattern that you have just followed.

Control to you, and over to you.

Write the next two sections, as soon as you're ready, resume.

And welcome back.

So we're onto the last part.

Just a little bit of an ending.

We're going to give a concluding comment, and try here to think about any big picture ideas we would want to mention about the impact of the environment on Ondaatje.

So we would have the overall effect is one of.

Maybe think about linking back to the start, and thinking about the big picture.

And that is it.

Just a sentence to finish it off, but it rounds off your analysis, and it shows that you are thinking about the whole shape, and the whole question.

Over to you, and I'll be waiting.

So we've got a full response now.

Let's have a look at how you've done.

Now what we're going to do, is to look at a model answer.

And within this model answer, I want you to concentrate on assessing yourself against it, in terms of, did you include relevant evidence.

Have you used appropriate terminology, and to what extent are you managing to link the ideas together, so that there's a sense of flow through your piece of writing.

Now the criteria here again, and I'm going to give you control later.

So that's why that is there.

That's the other way of doing it.

But for now, what I want you to concentrate on is the following.

So all of my quotations are picked out in pink.

Whether I'm linking things, is going to be done in green, and you can see that my subject terminology is picked out in purple.

So I want you to give yourself a tick every time you use subject terminology, every time you've got your quotation in, or have broken it down.

Because look I've rewarded myself for breaking down glimmers of golden.

Look at that.

And then if you've got phrases, like in contrast, in addition, think about how you've connected your paragraph, and that is also something that is worth recognising as a success.

Are we ready? Okay, let's have a look together.

The right to use this language, to present the environment as beautiful and inspiring.

The central image, is one of a spectacular sunrise.

Ondaatje slows down the moment in his recollection and gives us a detailed description.

At first, there are a few glimmers of golden light, then the huge red ball rose.

And that is my key quotation.

But I've embedded it in, and I've tried to get the whole of the analysis to flow.

The alliteration in both spectacular sunrise and glimmers of golden creates a sense of perfection and harmony.

So there's the effect of the alliteration.

It's creating this sort of harmony between the landscape and what's going on.

In addition, the objective golden, emphasises, not just the beauty, but the value of this moment to Ondaatje.

So close analysis golden.

This is a memory that is like treasure.

Not letting go carried on a little bit.

It's valuable why? Cause it's something that he's going to treasure.

It's a part of history for him.

The metaphor of the huge red ball in contrast, is vivid and bold.

The adjective huge, has been used twice in the passage, and when combined with the noun phrase mighty lake at the start of the extract, it emphasises the awe-inspiring scale, and power of this environment.

So I'm trying to show you how you can combine details within this section.

So this is how to really push your answers to the highest level of analysis by weaving bits of information together.

The adjective red is a primary colour.

When paired with the noun ball, we get an image of simplicity and innocence.

It suggests the moment almost makes Ondaatje feel like a child who is overwhelmed by what he has just witnessed.

He summarises his feelings in the simple sentence, and idyllic spot.

To Ondaatje, this environment is perfection and what makes it even more special is the link it's affords him to explorations of the past.

So look, I've managed to get that supporting piece of evidence in within my conclusion.

There you can see, that this is quite an intricate analysis.

However, I've concentrated on a few key quotations.

I've only got the three key quotations, but I have really unpicked and explored as much as I possibly could.

And once you get into the habit of doing this, it will become easier and easier.


So wherever you have hit the three key criteria of evidence, subject terminology, and where you've linked your ideas, you should have rewarded yourself with a tick.

Now, what I would like you to do, is to see how you can improve even further.

So the second time, where I'm going to give you control is an opportunity for you to maybe take down a whole section of the analysis, so that you've got a really strong model that you can refer to moving forwards, okay? And that is the way to improve the quality of your analysis.

By constantly thinking about what you've done well, and looking to see where you've got those opportunities to tweak, and improve, and get better.

Okay, control is with you, work your way through, nice and steadily, making those adjustments and refinements.

And I will be waiting for you when you're ready.

And welcome back.

So we have now got our analysis of Christopher Ondaatje's opening within this extract.

Thank you for your focus today.

All that remains for me to say, is don't forget to do your exit quiz, and enjoy the rest of your learning.