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Hello and welcome to the RHSE, Health and Prevention, basic health unit.

In this lesson we're going to be looking at bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance.

I'm Mr. Whitehead and let's get started.

To successfully complete this lesson you will need the following items. A piece of paper or a notebook, and a pen or a pencil.

There will be at times during the lesson where we'll need to complete some tasks or may even write some notes down for your teacher.

Okay, so let's have a look at the agenda for this lesson.

So first of all you should have already completed the intro quiz and hopefully you got five out of five on that quiz.

We're then going to take a look at some keywords you will need to know throughout this lesson.

We're then going to look at antibiotics at work and how they operate within our body and when we might use them.

We're then going to look at antibiotic resistance and which will look very closely at and towards the end of the lesson.

And then we're going to finish off with the exit quiz which you will complete independently once you've completed this video.

So let's take a look at the key words you will need to know for this lesson.

So the first word is antibiotics.

And antibiotics also known as antibacterials are medication that destroys or slows down the growth of bacteria which are really important in our body.

And bacteria also known as germs are microscopic cells found inside and outside of the body.

And finally antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria have the ability to defend and defeat the medication designed to kill 'em.

So that is three main key words, key terms you will need to know throughout this lesson.

So let's get started.

We're now going to start off the lesson by thinking of a time when you or a family member has been prescribed antibiotics.

Being prescribed something is where the doctor or the chemist might write as a prescription in order for us to get something over the counter.

So think about a time where you or a family member has been prescribed antibiotics to fight against an infection.

Now take this opportunity to pause the video and take down a couple of notes on your piece of paper or note pad and then resume the video when you're ready to carry on.

Welcome back, so let's take a look at some examples where my family members or myself have been prescribed antibiotics.

So might be from a cut or a bite that's got infected when it's been open.

Might be from an ear infection and a chest infection.

Now there's lots of other reasons and times where you might be prescribed antibiotics but there are three of the most common times where you might get antibiotics from your doctor or your chemist.

We're now going to take a look at how antibiotics work within our body.

So it's really important to know that antibiotics only works for some types of bacterial infections.

And some examples of these include acne, which is where we get a breakout of spots on our skin, which myself I had to take antibiotics when I was in my teens to try and prevent acne from breaking out.

And that's just bacteria underneath the skin creating spots.

A kidney infection, we already looked at chest infections, bacteria getting into grazes and cut and cause an infection there.

But it's also important to know that most infections do get better on their own and this is through the white blood cells reacting and fighting that infection without the need of antibiotics.

And you may have already completed the lesson, but if you haven't completed the lesson, there is a lesson on white blood cells which is lesson four within this unit.

So antibiotics are not effective for viral infections.

And this includes a common cold and the common flu.

And this is because these types of infections or viral infections have a thick protein wall which prevents the antibiotics from actually fighting and getting towards that type of infection.

So doctors and chemists will already be trained and they do know not to prescribe antibiotics for viral infections.

And they will tell you this if you go and ask for them or if you go and ask for a consultation.

Antibiotics can be prescribed in various different ways.

And this includes through a tablet form, through a cream.

So a cream might be for use for like a cut or a graze or an injection depending on whereabouts and what type of infection you have in your body.

So it's really important to know antibiotics will only work for bacterial infections and will not fight off against viral infections.

But most of the infections that the antibiotics can be used for will get better without them through the use of white blood cells fighting off the infections in our body.

And these white blood cells are natural.

They create themselves through the foods we eat.

So, yeah that's in a nutshell on antibiotics at work.

Based on the information on what we've just looked at on antibiotics, we're going to answer the following question.

So all bacterial infections require antibiotics.

Is that true or is that false? I'm going to give you a few seconds to think about this one before we look at the answer.

Okay, lets have a look at the answer.

And the answer is, false.

Some bacterial infections will clear up on their own due to our white blood cells in our body.

Okay, let's move on.

Common colds, flus and viruses are normal and we do get them regularly throughout the year.

But it is really important we never take antibiotics for the common cold and flu.

As we've said previously in this lesson it won't really do much for this infection.

And all it will do will build up an antibiotic resistance which just means that it won't be as effective when we really do need the antibiotics to work in our body.

GPs will never prescribe anything like antibiotics for these infections.

And will just send you away and tell you a few treatments that you can use.

And these treatments include decongestant sprays and tablets which can break down the sinuses in the tubes in our nose and our ears.

And we can also use basic painkillers like paracetamol and ibuprofen.

And please seek medical advice before taking any medication for any type of illness or virus.

And it's really important that we regularly take it to ensure that the symptoms don't worsen.

But if they do worse and please go and see a GP or a chemist.

It's also quite important to know that if you are getting these common colds and flus and viruses regularly throughout the year and I'm saying once every month and twice every month please go and see a GP.

There may be something underlying in terms of your immune system that may need to be seen too quickly.

So please go and get that checked if you are getting them very regularly.

But bottom line is never take antibiotics for common colds, flus, and viruses.

You can use basic treatments such as decongestant sprays and basic painkillers.

Okay, so we're now going to take a look at Chelsea.

And Chelsea has been sent home from school because she wasn't feeling very well.

When she gets home she starts getting a runny nose, cough and headache.

Your task is based off the scenario on Chelsea.

In it answer the following questions.

So if she was to take antibiotics what effect would this have and why would it have this effect? Okay you're now going to take this opportunity to pause the video and think about those questions.

Once you've written something down please resume the video and we'll go through the answers.

Okay, pause now.

Welcome back, so let's take a look at what would happen if Chelsea was to take antibiotics.

So Chelsea has gone home with a runny nose, cough and a headache.

And these symptoms are very closely linked to a viral infection or a common cold or flu as you may know it.

So if she was to take antibiotics this would have no effect on the infection or very little to see any impact.

Why would it have this effect? So it has this effect or this little effect because there is a protein wall around the viral infection which is very difficult for an antibiotic to break down and attack.

This is why we use general decongestion sprays and tablets and basic painkillers to treat common colds or flus.

If you've got something similar to what I've just explained, well done.

Okay, let's move on.

We're now going to take a look antibiotic resistance which we touched upon earlier in this lesson.

So there are many concerns that antibiotics has been overprescribed by medical professionals which is causing a lot of issues with later infections down the line.

So doctors will avoid now prescribing for mild to moderate infections because as we've previously mentioned our white blood cells will start to break them down.

It may take a little bit longer but our body's capable of breaking down and fighting off certain infections depending on the severity of it.

Which is why they are now avoiding prescribing antibiotics for mild to moderate infections.

When we overprescribe antibiotics in the long term our body becomes used to the antibiotics and it become ineffective for the more serious conditions where our body does require antibiotics alongside the white blood cells to fight off an infection.

And over the years infections have built a resistance to these antibiotics which means the more we put into our body the less effective it is when we use it for an infection.

There is becoming a more increase in number of challenging and dangerous conditions which antibiotics have built a resistance to which isn't easily treated.

So it is really important that we only take antibiotics if we really need to take it with more severe and serious infections.

So you do need to seek medical advice before taking antibiotics.

Scientists are also concerned of new strains that we're unable to treat.

So there is different treatments out there trying to be developed to ensure that there is treatments whereas in the past antibiotics would have been more than sufficient for these infections.

They aren't anymore because of that resistance that's been built up over years and years of overprescribing.

Okay, we're going to take a look at this question now based on antibiotics and how the resistance is building up over the years.

So medical experts are concerned that antibiotics are underprescribed, not accessible, sold to the EU or overprescribed.

I'm going to give you a few seconds to think about this question before I reveal the answer.

Three, two, one and the answer is overprescribed.

Antibiotics are becoming overprescribed, especially in previous years.

And it's been building a lot antibiotic resistance where our body just becomes used to the antibiotics in our body.

Okay, let's move on.

We're now going to take an opportunity to watch this catchy video from the NHS website.

Please watch it carefully.

It's only 30 seconds long and it rounds up everything that we know about antibiotic resistance and how antibiotics works in our bodies.

Okay sit back, take a listen and relax.

♪ Antibiotics we're wonderful pills ♪ ♪ But don't ever think we'll cure all of your ills ♪ ♪ Caught a cold ♪ ♪ Got the flu ♪ ♪ Feeling under the weather ♪ ♪ That'll be a virus ♪ ♪ We can't make that better ♪ ♪ Take us for the wrong thing ♪ ♪ That's dangerous to do ♪ ♪ When you really need us ♪ ♪ We could stop working for you ♪ ♪ So please don't end up paying the price ♪ ♪ Always take your doctor's advice ♪ You've been brilliant in this lesson and we've got one more big task just to complete before we can complete this lesson.

So your task is to create a mind map on the effectiveness of antibiotics.

And some of the things that you may want to include will be the purpose of antibiotics, what they are used for, what they shouldn't be used for, the risk of antibiotic resistance and I know you've got some notes down throughout this lesson but you may also want to conduct your own research online.

You can use the NHS website looking up antibiotics and how they work and the resistance.

But let's take this opportunity to make it nice, bright, colourful with plenty of information on just bringing together everything that we've learned together throughout this lesson.

Then you can take this opportunity now to pause the video and complete your mind map.

Once you've completed it you can resume the lesson and then the last thing you will need to complete is your exit quiz.

Take this opportunity now to pause the video and complete your mind map before resumeing the lesson so we can complete it.

I just want to let you know how impressed I am with your engagement and your work rate this lesson.

It's been great to learn with you.

And if you would like to, please ask your parent or carer to share your work on Twitter tagging @OakNational and #LearnwithOak.

Thank you so much for spending time with me today during this lesson on antibiotics at work.

Take care and I hope to see you soon.