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Hello, and welcome to your design and technology lesson.

I am Mrs. Mee and I am going to be your design and technology teacher as we continue to explore control and reactions in design and technology.

So if you join me, I'll go through what we're going to explore in today's lesson.

Okay, so in today's lesson we're going to explore how to control simple circuits to create more functional products.

So before we begin, just a reminder of our rules of play.

All of what we do in design and technology we do need to think about having fun.

We need to think about exploring, experimenting, but really important that you be confident but all more importantly you do need to make sure you're playing safe.

So today we're going to explore using electrical products and devices.

You must make sure that if you're handling any electrical devices, it is done under closed post supervision of a parent or carer.

So in today's lesson you are all going to need a paper and a pencil.

You're going to need access to a computer and access to the BBC micro:bit website.

So pause the video and make sure you've got everything you need.

When you're ready, press play and we'll continue today's lesson.


Are you ready to begin? So today's lesson, we are going to, you should have already done your intro quiz, and then what we're going to do is we're going to start exploring control technology.

So if you remember last lesson we looked at connecting two systems, didn't we? Do you remember what systems we looked at? That's right.

We looked at an electrical system and we connected it, didn't we? To a mechanical system.

And if you remember, when we connected the simple circuit to the mechanical system, it moved too fast.

So what we're going to look at today is a need for control technology.

So we're going to look at the use of microprocessors and how that can be used to control that movement in a simple circuit or a more complex circuit.

So we're going to look at in particular how to programme the motor and Mrs. Mee is going to show you two different microprocessors to control a motor so that you can look at them and compare.

And then we'll go into look at one of those microprocessors in particular, and you are going to learn how to programme the micro:bit.

Once we've done that, we are then going to explore some smart devices and look at how we can use the micro:bit as our smart device as we explore some of our ideas in our topic.

So before we do fully begin, let's have a look at the keywords that we're going to look at today.

The first key word is now microprocessor.

Now a microprocessor is an integrated circuit that contains all of the functions of a computer.

It can be programmed to support the control of key electronic components.

And this is something that we're going to look at using in today's lesson.

We're also going to be using the word programme, and this refers to the set of instructions that we are going to give a microprocessor to inform it what to do and how to operate.

We're also going to be exploring the term voltage, and this is the pressure from an electrical circuit's power that pushes charged electrons current through a conducting loop.

So we're going to look exploring different voltages.

We're also going to look at a key component called a resistor which is key to how the microprocessors work, and this component controls the flow of an electrical current.

And then finally we are going to revisit the term smart device.

This is an electronic device which is able to connect, share and interact with its users, because we're going to look at this to explore how we might use it during this unit of work.

So let's have a look first of all, at what control technology is, and let's have an explore of microprocessors.

So what is a microprocessor? I'd like you to read the two options and tell me which one you think relates to what a microprocessor is.

So is it a component that's used to make a simple circuit or is it an integrated circuit that contains all of the functions of a central processing unit of a computer? Is it something I can programme to support how I can control my electronic components? Or is it a simple component using a simple circuit? Which option would you say is a microprocessor? Well done if you've got it correct.

Option two, a microprocessor is an integrated circuit that allows us to create lots of different functioning elements within that microprocessor.

And this is something that we're going to look at today.

So it contains all of the functions of a central processing unit of a computer.

We can programme a microprocessor to support us in controlling electronic components.

There are different microprocessors that you can use.

And Mrs. Mee is going to show you a couple to compare.

So the first microprocessor we're going to look at is called the micro:bit.

Now the micro:bit has lots of built-in components that you can use to control and programme.

We can control the micro:bit both on screen so you can control it and simulate it on your computer screen, or you can get access to a physical micro:bit which you can programme as well.

So that's one example of a microprocessor.

To compare another example of a microprocessor is a crumble board.

Now there are lots of other microprocessors that you can purchase on the market.

Mrs. Mee is just going to show you two as an example today.

So a crumble board has some built-in components but the built-in components are really there to protect the external components that you connect to the microprocessor.

So this microprocessor again allows us to control and programme lots of electronic components and those electronic components you have to connect to the crumble board.

So you can see here there's a crumble board attached to a simple circuit and you can attach it physically to see the impact.

You do need software to do this and you do need the physical microprocessor to do this.

So what we're going to look at is we're going to look at the differences between the two and we're going to make a comparison.

We'll go into use by both micro-processes to look at how we could programme a motor.

And I want you to think about and reflect on what you think the advantages and disadvantages are of using these two microprocessors, because you will choose which microprocessors you use depending on what you want it to do.

Now, during the towards the end of the lesson today, we're going to use a micro:bit, and the reason we're going to use a micro:bit is because we can simulate it on screen and you don't need a physical micro:bit to do that.

So we're going to look at and explore how we can control the motor using both the microbic and the crumble board just to make a comparison.

And this is something that you must always do if you choose a microprocessors or software when you were designing products in design and technology.

Make your own choice based on your own judgments.

So let's take a look first of all, at what we want it to do.

So we can use a microprocessor to control and programme a motor to be able to control the power, the speed.

We can control by turning on and off or can we use it to control the direction? Which option would you say we can do? So what can we use the microprocessor to control? Have I look at those options and think about which ones you think we can actually carry out using these microprocessors.

Well done.

We can indeed control the power.

We can control the speed, and we can control it turning on and off.

Now the direction you look at the two examples, we can use one of the examples to control the direction but the other example we can't, but we can do a lot of other functions with that microprocessor.

So lots of microprocessors have their pros and cons.

So the first one I'm going to show you is the crumble board.

So the crumble board as you can see, I'm just going to show you the simple circuit.

If you remember back to our mechanical system, we connected a simple circuit to it.

Do you remember what happened when we connected the power? Look what happens to the piece of string.


The speed is just far too fast.

So this is the reason we're going to use a microprocessor to control certain aspects.

So the microprocessor we're using here is called a crumble board.

So to use it, you need a physical board.

You also need a larger battery pack.

The microprocessor has to have power going into microprocessor for it to actually work.

You need to make sure you connect the positive and the negative in the correct place.

You then to be able to programme, send those set of instructions to the microprocessor.

You have to connect it to the computer using a micro USB.

So that's connected to the computer.

You then connect the positive and negative wires of the motor onto port one off the crumble board.

Now, depending on your microprocessor would depend on where you connect the key components.

So this is the rule that has been decided on the person that develops the microprocessor.

So we've switched the power on to offer power into the micro:bit, sorry, the crumble board.

And what we're going to do now is send a set of instructions.

So when you use a crumble board, the instructions that you use, you drag across and you create a list of instructions that are all connected.

So I have dragged programme start motor forward.

I've told it how long to wait and I've said motor stuff, and you'll see, it's too fast.

So what I can do now is I can control that.

So I can do it again but this time I can change the seconds.

So rather than it be a second, I can use milliseconds.

So both of the microprocessors, you can control the time in which the motor moves.

so we can control the time.

We can also control the power.

So this is the time, and if I press play now, you can say by changing the time the string has lifted up to where I want it to be.

Now, what you can do with the crumble board is you can actually put it in reverse, but you're looking in a moment when I reverse it, there's not enough weight on that string for the string to come back down.

So I'm just going to add a weight to the end of the string so you can see the impact of controlling the motor to go forward and then reverse.

So if I click on forward, it will lift it.

If I click on reverse, it will drop it.

So now I can add the times I can lift it or I can add the power and increase the power, the percentage so it can lift up and then I can reverse it and press play.

And it will reverse.

So as you can see, you can use a crumble board to programme and then control the direction, the time, and the power and the speed.

Now you can disconnect it from the computer and you can activate it using the switch on the battery pack, and the microprocessor will remember all of those sets of instructions.

So if you look at the crumble board set of instructions that I've used, you can see it's very simple using clear block diagrams and it's very similar to scratch.

So the software is free, but you do have to buy the physical board and you can't simulate it online.

Let's take a look now at the micro:bit and let's look at the key differences.

So here is a quick video of how you can connect and use a micro:bit.

So here is a micro:bit.

You see it looks slightly different.

We're putting power into the micro:bit.

This time I'm using two batteries to put power into the processor.

Again, I'm using a micro USB lead connecting that onto the end of the microprocessor to send that set of instructions to the microprocessor.

Now to power a motor using a micro:bit physically, you do need an additional board called a relay switch.

So I'm connecting the relay switch to the micro:bit to ensure that the motor functions.

Now you can simulate online, but obviously the motor you wouldn't be able to simulate that online.

But there is other software you can use to simulate circuits online.

So you could use a programme software called Tinkercad where you can simulate circuits online.

So here now I'm adding an additional battery pack.

So we have got the same amount of power but how that is positioned in that loop is different.

So we're adding power between the relay switch and the motor, and then I'm connecting the other side of the relay switch to the motor.

So you can see I've got an extra component.

I've got some extra wires to make my motor work.

Now, what I need to do is input my set of instructions.

Now, the set of instructions that you use on the micro:bit is just slightly liberal more complicated set of instructions to be able to control the motor.

So it will require you to have a little bit more knowledge of how to programme, but you can see that I've programmed it, so when I hit the switch it actually moves and controls the speed of the motor.

Now you can control speed and power but the one thing you can't do using the micro:bit is you can't reverse it.

However you can using wireless technology, you can control the micro:bit remotely.

So you could set up another micro:bit and you could be in another room within your house and you could click a button and it would remotely monitor and control the motor.

That is something you can't do with the crumble board.

So those are two different examples of microprocessors.

And here's the example of the programme that I've had to write to actually instruct the motor how to work in the micro:bit.

So it's a forever loop which means it will keep doing what it's been asked to do, and it will do it if button A is pressed then, and a pen at zero is what is connected to the motor.

So if I press A, switches the motor on and it will wait for 100 milliseconds and if I click B, then it will turn it off.

So I can control my motor with A and B.

And there were lots of other inputs you can use.

So that is the basics.

As you can see, two microprocessors controlling a motor.

One has some advantages other has other advantages.

So when you're choosing a microprocessor, think about what it is you want the microprocessor to do.

So let's have a look then at the micro:bit in a little bit more detail because you're going to use the micro:bit to actually create your own programme and set of instructions.

And the reason we use the micro:bit is because as I've already said, you can simulate it online and you do not need a physical micro:bit.

However, if you wanted to get hold of a micro:bit, you could purchase one.

But what I would say is check your local library because they may have micro:bits that you can learn.

So we are going to carry out a focused task to explore how to control the series of components using a micro:bit.

But the first task we're going to do is we're going look at how to control one of our key components.

So let's take a look at the components we will be using.

The micro:bit has a series of LEDs embedded into the board itself.

From the components below, can you tell me which component is an LED? Have a think.

Point to the component.

Well done if you've got it correct.

That is an LED.

That is a light emitting diode, and you might want to remember that.

So an LED is it an input or is it an output? Tell me input or output.

An LED is an input.

Is that true or is that false? Is it a component that I activate to make the circuit begin to work or is it a component that is activated once the circuit is working? An LED is an input.


Well done if you said false.

It isn't an input.

An LED is not a component that activates a circuit, it's not a switch.

A switch would be an input.

It's a component that is activated, so it's known as an output.

An LED is a component that creates movement, can move something with an LED, true or false.

That's correct.


You can't move something.

It gives off light.

An LED is a component that does not make movement.

It's a component that creates a light like I've already said.

The component that you'd need to make movement would be a motor.

So let's explore the use of LEDs in a micro:bit.

We're going to programme a set of LEDs.

Let's explore what that would look like in a simple circuit.

So if we were to build a simple circuit using an LED, what other components might we need? Have a little thing.

So we'd need an LED.

What else would we need? Well done if you said wires.

We will need wires and then we need one of the things to help that work.

That's right, we do need power, and we might use a switch as well, but you can actually build a circuit without the switch.

So the power that we use, we're going to look at comparing which type of power we might use.

So let's take a look at this circuit.

But before we begin, we're going to look at the use of resistors within a circuit.

So if I was to build that circuit without a resistor, you'll see the impact of that in a moment.

But there is another component that we'll need to use to control the flow of electrical current that will power the LED.

This component here is called a resistor and what that does it reduces and monitors the flow of electricity passing to a component.

So a resistor resists that flow of electricity.

Let's just take a look at these two simple circuits.

There's no resistor on there at the moment.

To one understand the use of a need for a resistor, we need to understand voltage.

So have a look at these two simple circuits, tell me what the differences are.

There's two differences.

First difference.

Well done.

The first difference is the voltage.

One uses one battery, one uses two batteries.

What is the second difference? That's right.

The brightness of the LED.

So you can see the more power, the more powerful the output.

So the more power, the brighter the light.

Now, if I put too much power, there's a risk that that light that LED could actually blow and become faulty and break.

We've explained the differences.

So we've explained that one LED is brighter and we've looked at the fact that they use battery packs.

One battery is providing circuit with 1.

5 volts and the two batteries provide the circuit with free volts.

So let's have a look then at what might happen if we increase more voltage.

We spoke about the fact that if we increase the voltage the actual component might become faulty.

So I'm just going to show you the impact of using a resistor.

So the circuit on the left does not use a resistor, but the circuit on the right does.

So I've connected a resistor.

Now, remember it controls the flow of electrical current to protect the component and ensure it's not too bright.

So can you see the difference between the brightness? It's controlled that flow to ensure that there's not too much power supplied to the LED, otherwise it will become faulty.

That's where the resistor is and that is the impact of the resistor.

So let's have a look at how that, how that relates to the micro:bit.

Now a micro:bit has LEDs embedded into the microprocessor.

Can you tell me how many LEDs are embedded in a micro:bit? How many? Well done if you got it.

There are 25 LEDs embedded in the micro:bit.

So it's no longer a simple circuit.

It's a complex integrated electrical system with components that are working in parallel with one another.

So it's really important that we make sure those components are safe.

So to monitor and control these LEDs, the micro:bit has many resistors embedded in that mini-microprocessor.

So before we begin, then let's have a look at identifying and taking us back to electrical systems. Can we identify the input, the process, and the output of a micro:bit? Let's have a look at this micro:bit.

Where's the input? Where's the process? And where's the output? Well done.

If you said switch, we can use a switch as an input on a micro:bic.

We can use other inputs.

We'll talk about them later.

The processor is an integrated circuit that controls the flow of information.

And then the output that we're going to look at is the LED lights.

So we're going to have a look at controlling a micro:bit.

So while I'm going to give you a focus task, and your focus task is going to be to use the micro:bit website and you will go to control the LED lights using the switch as an input and the LED lights and an output.

So Mrs. Mee he's going to demonstrate this to you.

Once you've seen this demonstration, you're going to have a go yourself.

So have a little watch of this video.

Now, when you go into the BBC micro:bit website, you click on let's code, make code editor, and then you click on new project.

You need to give your project a name.

Now your projects automatically save within the software.

So I'm calling it focused practical tasks LEDs.

So now I open up the software.

You've got two command tools, you've got on start and you've got forever.

To access the and control the output which is the lights, you click on basic and you drag show LEDs panel in there.

So if I click on basic and drag another one, I can then create a pattern out of the LED so I can decide what LEDs are going to be lit up on which LED is on knots.

Now, as you can see, I'm trying to write two initials there.

Mrs. Mee is what I'm going to write.

So I can use show LEDs panel that I can actually create my own pattern.

So you could do the same.

You could build a message that says, "Hello, my name is," and you can see on the left-hand side as I'm building it, it simulates it for me, say, MRS. Now I need to, I can duplicate panels.

So if I need an M again, I can duplicate, but as you can see here, I've totally got rid of it, and I'm creating an E, and you'll see in a moment I duplicate that again.

So I'm duplicating the E to spell me and double E.

I'm going to go back to the top and get my M again.

And you can click and drag, and that is how you use lights, so MRS ME.

And you can see because it's on start, when you play it it goes M-R-S M-E-E and stops.

Whereas the impact if you drag into the forever loop, what happens? Yeah, it goes from the top, creates the light circuit back again and it will keep flashing around.

So that's what forever means.

Now I would like you to explore the basic tools because you can actually use the predesigned icons.

You can actually use the predesigned messages.

Now, what I'm going to do now is add an input.

So we've got the lights as an output, but our input isn't functioning at the moment.

So I've clicked input and I've clicked on on button A, pressed to that loop.

So if I click A, it does that loop, but I can do it again.

Look, drag it back in.

And the reason it's not lit up is because I haven't put anything in there, but I can take that same information or I can get a new icon.

So show icon tool is really good.

And if you click on the arrow down, you can see it's got predesigned icon.

So I'm designing a different light system here, and I'm designing big heart, little heart, big heart.

So when I press A, it says, "Mrs Mee." On B, they kind little heart, big heart.

So you can see the impact, inputs A or B and it does that loop.

Now at the moment, what I want it to do is do it forever.

So what I need to use here is in a logic tool.

So I can click and drag a logic tool.

If then, so I'm looking for if button A is pressed, then do my light.

So here I've got if but when A is pressed, it will flash heart, big heart, little heart, big heart, little heart.

And I'm doing the same for Mrs. Mee but I'm going to set that as if B is pressed.

So I need just to bring in a forever loop.

We go, and then track that in, and I don't need those instructs, those inputs.

Now I can pop them back in because all I need here look, I've got if A is pressed then big heart, little heart, big heart, little heart.

If B is pressed then Mrs Mee.

So let's see if that works.

And then B.

I've noticed I've just taken one of the LEDs off.

So that's something I can fix.

So you can explore with different inputs.

So I'm going to show you one of the inputs.

So I'm going to use the forever loop this time.

I'm going to use the show string, so I can actually type in there, "Hello, goodbye." Whatever message you want, but this time I'm going to change the input.

I'm going to use the shake function.

So if I shake it and you can simulate that on screen, it will say hello.

So you are going to build your own programme to control the LED lights.

You are going to control the micro:bit using an input which is the switch A or B.

You can actually programme it click A and B together.

So you could create another one, but I've got button A's press button, B's pressed or shake.

And then once you've done that, if you have got a micro:bit, to pocket on the micro:bit you just click on download and you drag that programme to your micro:bit.

So Mrs. Mee is going to show you what it looks like on a physical micro:bit.

So here's my physical micro:bit.

I've downloaded it.

The information has been dragged onto the micro:bit.

I click A, flashy heart B, Mrs. Mee and then give it a shake and it will say, "Hello." Okay.

So hopefully that makes sense.

If you need to revisit the demonstration, just rewind the video and go back to the demonstration.

What I'd like you to do now is using the micro:bit online.

I would like you to programme a simple message using the LED display.

So I'd like you to create a simple programme, programming an inputs, a switch, or a shake, and I want your output to be LED lights and create a message, whatever you want but I would like you to explore it.

So pause the video, have a go at doing that.

When you're finished press play.


Have you had a go at programme the micro:bit.

Well done.

So hopefully now you've got a better understanding for how to use a micro:bit to programme some key components.

Now, the micro:bit is a similar to a smart device, so let's just have a look at some smart devices.

These devices have something in common.

What do they all have in common? Any idea? We've got lots of examples of products that you may have seen.

We've got an iPad, a phone, we've got ear pods, we've got an Apple watch, we've got a Fitbit, we've got a VR system.

What do they have in common? They're all smart.

Well done.

So they're all smart devices.

So what do we mean by the term smart device? Is it a smart, a device that knows everything or is it an electronic gadget is able to connect, share, and interact with its users? Which option would you say is a smart device? Well done if you pointed to option two.

Option two is correct.

It is an electronic gadget that allows you to connect, share, and interact with its users.

For it to be smart, it means that it can communicate with another smart device using wifi.

Micro:bit has lots of various different inputs and outputs that you can use to create a smart device.

What I'd like you to do now, now that you've had a short introduction into the micro:bit, I'd like you to go back on the site and explore the range of inputs and outputs that we can use to programme a micro:bit to act as a smart device.

So pause the video.

Once you've had a go we'll resume and recap what you found out.

Well done.

So hopefully now you've looked at the micro:bit and you've looked at the different inputs and outputs that can use to create a smart device.

When I looked on that I used sensors, so I looked at and found there was sound as an input.

I could detect sound, I could detect movement and I could use it to detect light.

The outputs that I discovered were I could make it make a sound.

I could make it control the movement of a component, and I could also control lights.

So you can see how you can use a micro:bit as a great smart device.

So there are loads of projects that you can explore on the BBC micro:bit site.

So have look and see if you can pick up on different inputs and the different outputs to be able to design your own smart device.

We have had a jump jam pack lesson today.

You have completed an entry quiz, well done.

We've looked at different microprocessors and we've looked at how to use them to programme a motor.

We've also looked at how to use the micro:bit to build a simple programme and we have explored the use of smart devices.

I really hope you've enjoyed today's lesson, and I hope you've learned a lot about microprocessors and how to control key components.

Thank you for joining me today.