Lesson video

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Hello, my name is Miss Waddell.

Welcome back.

Today we are looking at the functions of apostrophes, what apostrophes do and how useful they are.

Let's just get started.

Let's just run through what that lesson will look like.

We're going to revise apostrophes, what you might have learned so far already, really.

We're going to then focus on the apostrophes for contraction.

Then we're going to practise using apostrophes correctly.

In this lesson, you will need a piece of paper, a pencil and your trusty brain.

Go and get these and try and find a spot where you'll be as undistracted as possible.

Off you go, pause the video.

Okay, if you're ready, we're going to first look at some of the key vocabulary we need to know.

First one is, very important, apostrophe.

Your turn, my turn, possession, your turn My turn, contraction.

Great, so an apostrophe, apostrophe is a punctuation marks.

Punctuation marks are really useful, because they help your reader to understand what you're trying to say.

Possession is something that belongs to something or someone.

A contraction is something becoming smaller.

So you hear it a lot in science.

It's when things become smaller.


Here, we're going to remember, what is an apostrophe? I want you to have a little think about what the apostrophe looks like.

See if you can remember, and why might you need to use it? So I'm just going to give you a minute to think, warm up your brain.

What does it look like again? And why might you need to use it? Can you tell me? Great.

You're thinking already.

So an apostrophe is a punctuation mark like a capital letter, full stop, a comma, speech marks, a question mark.

Any of those.

It's a punctuation mark used to show possession, something belonging, or contraction, a word getting smaller.

So an apostrophe looks little bit like a number nine.

And you see it floating high up above the letters rather than below down on the letters.

Can you point to the apostrophe here? Three, two, one.

That one.

Well done.


What do they show? They show possession, that's something belongs to or is connected to someone.

So like Jafar's hands.

They're Jafar's hands or Miss Waddell's hands.

And you can see that apostrophe shows whose it is.

They also show contraction, to show that something has been skipped out or missed out.

So that's contraction, when something's getting smaller, like you are becoming you're.

It shows that you know that there's a bit of those words missing, and you put an apostrophe to show that you know that those are the two words coming together.

So let's just practise those two.

We have apostrophes for possession.

Can you do it? Like you grab for possession.

So apostrophe for, three, two, one, possession.


And apostrophes for, we're going to clap, three, two, one, contraction.

So that's like when two words smash together and they kind of squished like two cars that collide, and some of the letters go missing.

And instead you've got a little apostrophe to show that you know that they're missing.

So we're going to focus on contraction today.

Here's an example.

Is not, then we'll go three, two, one.

When I say one, I want you to clap.

Is not, three, two, one, goes to isn't.

So is not, smash, goes to isn't, and there's our apostrophe.

Do not, three, two, one.

Do not becomes don't.

And there's our apostrophe to show those missing letters.

Now another one.

Cannot three, two, one.

Cannot becomes can't.

That's right.

Okay, so I want you to tell me which of these is the correct contraction point.

Which one? Which one? Which one? Three, two, one, point.


Good spot.

It's this one.

Do not becomes don't.

Is not, which one looks right? Which letter was being taken out when we were doing it before? Point to the left or the right, three, two, one.


This one, isn't.

Is not becomes isn't.

Can not.

Three, two, one.

Can not becomes can't.

Well done.

Paying attention this morning.

Well done.

Is not becomes isn't.

Can not again, let's see which one looks right? Where should it go? Where should it go? Which letter gets missed when it's smashed together? Mm, well done.

Did not.


Now, I want you to pause the video, and just write the full words on the left, and then next to it, I want you to write the contracted words.

So put the apostrophe in the correct place.

Resume when you finish it.

Press play again when you have finished.

Okay, really well done.

Let's check yours against the ones that I did.

Make sure it's really crucial that you get that apostrophe in the right place.

Did not becomes didn't.

Is not becomes isn't.

Do not becomes don't.

And have a look.

The apostrophe goes between the N and the T in all of those.

Edit if you have not written that.

Okay so with these not words, what do you notice? I've kind of given you a hint already.

We've got could not becomes couldn't, would not becomes wouldn't.

I'm going to say it, and then you say the answer.

Should not becomes, must not becomes, were not becomes.

So those last three were shouldn't, mustn't and weren't.

Which letter disappears each time? You can see it there each time with the not words.

It's not always.

Is the O always replaced in these not words? Yes, it is.

So always it's the O that disappears in these not words.

So that helps you remember when you're doing contracted words with your apostrophe.

So here's some more contractions.

These ones are classics.

We use them all the time.

I am becomes, three, two, one, I want you to cut, three, two, one, I'm, and you see that A is missing and the apostrophe M, just there.

So here are some more of those.

You are becomes your.

That's right.

You say what it becomes when I have a pause.

We are becomes we're.

That's right.

They are becomes, that's it.

So they're, which letter, which bit is disappearing? Can you shout it for me? When in the contraction, which bit disappears and is replaced by an apostrophe? Three, two, one.

It's the letter A.

That's it.

Well done.

So the A disappears.

And you put an apostrophe in its place.

So I would like you to pause the video and join up the contracted form of these words.

So write the contracted form on the left, then write what they should be in their full form.

And then next to that, I want you to write the letter that is missing.

Pause the video and write that down now, please.

Okay, well done.

You're working really hard this morning, or whatever time it is, where you are.

Let's see whether you have got what I have got.

So you're, that's the first one.

Next to that, it came from, can you tell me? You are.


And the missing letter is replaced by the apostrophe is a A.

Then we've got couldn't, comes from.


Could not.

And then letter that goes there is an O.

Mustn't comes from.

Really good, must not.

And the letter that's gone, like all the not ones, is a O.

And there comes from they are.

Well done.

And again, that's the A that's missing.

Pause and just edit yours if yours was not right the first time.

Don't worry if it wasn't, just make sure you've got it right down on your paper.

Okay, now we'll go backwards.

We're starting with the contracted form, and we're going to go backwards.

So I've, what does I've come from? I've comes from.

So we could do it like this, we go , 'cause it's uncontracting, it's expanding.

Comes from I have.


So here you've, what does that come from do you think? The clue from the first one.

Okay, we've comes from? And they've comes from? Let's check if you were right.

You have becomes you've.

We have becomes we've.

They have become they've.

And what is missing in these ones? What disappears when you contract? It's the H and the A.

Yeah, you can see that disappears, and in its place is the apostrophe.


So we're going to go reverse again.

I'd comes from? What do you think? I'd.

Comes from I would.

So let's have a look at these ones.

You'd, what do you think it comes from? We'd, not like I went to the toilet.

They'd, let us check.

You would, we would and they would.

And what gets crushed, contracted with an apostrophe in its place? It's the woul, would be that sound, woul disappears.

Okay, we're going reverse again.

And this one's a tricky little devil.

It's comes from it is.

So let's look at that a little bit more.

That I disappears on that, that's for sure, from the is.

Now this is so often the case, even grownups make this mistake, but there's such a simple way of remembering this.

Now, would you do a possession of the word it's, like it's body glowed? What do you think? It's body glowed.

Now, you only use an apostrophe with it's if it's contracted, not as a possession.

So it's belonging to it does not work.

You cannot do that.

The only time that you can use the apostrophe with it's is when it was once it is.

So here, it's alive.

It was once it is alive, so you have contracted it, it's.

So that was once it is alive.

Now here's a top tip.

You can check in a sentence whether it should be I-T, apostrophe, S, if you can replace it's with it is, so try with these sentences.

Can you replace what we've written here with it is? Does it make sense? And if it does, it's good.

If it doesn't, it's not good.

So try with these, pause the video now, and decide, have I used the apostrophe correctly here? Pause.

Okay, let's have a look and see whether what I've got agrees with what you were thinking in your brilliant brains.

"Jafar, really didn't understand." Oh, we've got another contraction there, haven't we? Didn't was did not, understand why it's.

Let's put it in, "Jafar really didn't understand why it is wings shone gold." Doesn't work, does it? What about the next one? "It's eyes were a pale yellow colour." It is eyes were a pale yellow colour.

Thumbs up or thumbs down? Thumbs down.

It is eyes does not make sense.

What about, "It's an unbelievable sight?" Let's replace it.

It is an unbelievable site.


That one works.

So you can only use it with an apostrophe if you can replace it with it is.

See if it makes sense in the sentence.

And if it does, then you're good for a contracted apostrophe.

So let's have a look at those as they should be, those two.

"Jafar really didn't understand why its wings shone gold." No apostrophe for possession with its.

It's eyes were pale yellow colour.

That's not right.

It should say with no apostrophe Silly me.

Well done for spotting that.

It should have no apostrophe on that last one.

Okay, now we're onto our main task.

I would like you to pause the tape and I would like you to write down one side the extended version, the expanded, and on the other side the contracted, but my table has got some missing.

So I would like you to put the contracted version of you have, for example, which might be you've, but just for example.

And then if you're feeling like you feel like doing more, you could write a sentence for each example to push yourself.

So pause the video now and complete your task.

Okay, let's check them.

So, so good, working so hard.

Just double check that your say the same as mine.

Pause and have a check.

You have becomes you've.

I would becomes I'd.

They have becomes they've.

She would become she'd.

We would becomes we'd.

It is becomes it's in the contracted one.

And be super careful, because so often with the they have or the you have, I see that the apostrophe goes, people put it between the V and the E, but it's not, because we know that that H-A of have is contracted.

And if you went further, that is fantastic.

Well done.

Now that is the end of our lesson.

Show your work to someone at home if you'd like to, 'cause you are working really, really hard.

And your next lesson with me will be another Aladdin lesson.

So I look forward to that.