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Hello, and welcome back to your design and technology lesson.

I am Mrs. Mee and I am your design and technology teacher and we are exploring food and nutrition.

So we have been exploring previously, our topic is celebrating culture and seasonality, and we've looked at various things like where our food comes from.

We've looked at a healthy and varied diet, and we've also carried out some focused practical tasks.

Today we're going to continue exploring food and nutrition and we are going to look at carrying out another focused practical task.

So I'm really looking forward to working with you today on our lesson, and I hope you enjoy taking part.

Okay, so today's lesson, we're looking at combining ingredients and we're going to make some healthy pancakes.

So let's remind ourselves of the rules.

You know the rules well by now.

We do need to explore, experiment, have fun, and make sure you play safe.

So we need an adult supervising at all times this lesson because it is a practical lesson.

And we don't be worried about making mistakes because the next mistake could be the next big idea.

So during today's lesson we're going to do a focused practical task.

So it's very practical.

We're going to be learning new skills.

We're going to remind ourselves of how to work safely.

We're going to be combining ingredients again but looking at different ways of combining and then we're going to be looking at how to cook and serve those ingredients so they look delicious.

Okay, so some of the words that we're going to use: we're going to be looking at the word "cooking" again, which we know is the art, science, and craft of using heat to prepare food.

We're going to be reminding ourselves of food hygiene.

So this refers to the safe handling, preparation, and storage of foods.

We're going to look at cross-contamination and we'll look at and discuss what that means in a practical application within the kitchen.

So, Mrs. Mee will talk about the cross-contamination of one of the key ingredients, which is the flour.

And we're also going to be using these words again.

So we're going to be looking at how we might use the claw and the bridge, and these are methods to safely cut food ingredients.

We're looking at the word "combining," and this refers to taking one or more ingredients and cooking them together.

And we are going to need the following things.

So remember, it's a practical lesson so you must have an adult with you at all times.

You need to download and access the recipe card which you can print, and you need all of the key ingredients and equipment on that recipe card, and you need your apron on as Mrs. Mee's already prepared with.

So the recipe card is here.

So you need to collect all of those ingredients and that equipment.

So if you access the recipe card now, pause the video, go off and collect everything you need, and come back to me when you're ready.

Fabulous.

So hopefully now you've got all the ingredients and all of the equipment that you need for today's lesson.

So let's just remind ourselves how to prepare to work safely.

So we're going to look at preparing and combining our ingredients and we need to think about how to do this safely.

So what are the four Cs that we've already discussed? Have a little think.

Yes, the first one is cooking.

We are going to cook our ingredients to remove any bacteria from those ingredients to make it safe to eat.

What else have we got to think about? That's right.

We need to think about cleaning.

So we've cleaned, I've cleaned the work area.

I've cleaned all of the equipment and we need to think about personal hygiene.

So remember, you must wash your hands before you start cooking in your work area.

So make sure you clean the surfaces, the equipment and yourself to make sure you are doing it safely.

What is the other C, do you remember? That's right, chilling.

We need to chill our foods.

There's certain foods need chilling.

So one of the ingredients we're using is milk.

That needs to be chilled before you use it and combine it in your pancakes.

So we need to chill it to keep it fresh.

One other C that we're going to look at, that's right, it's cross-contamination.

So we're going to discuss this during the lesson, as I demonstrate, so we need to think about cross-contamination.

Now we are going to be using heat and we are going to be using a knife.

So you do need to make sure that you've got an adult with you during this lesson.

So what I'd like you to do now is as you've done previously, prepare your work area, ensure it's clean, ensure that you're ready, your hands are washed, your apron is on, your hair is tied back.

All of your ingredients is in the used by or best before date.

Everything is cleaned and there's no risk of cross-contamination.

So pause the video, off you pop into your kitchen, prepare your area, when you're ready, resume, and I am going to meet you in my kitchen where I'm going to demonstrate how to begin cooking.

Okay, so now we've prepared our work area.

It's nice and clean.

We're now going to look at how to combine ingredients.

So we're going to explore how to measure and combine your ingredients ready for cooking.

Okay, welcome back.

So now we're going to combine our ingredients.

I'm going to move the gluten-free flour away because we're not going to use that for this pancake.

I'm going to use ingredients that you're using.

So, just a moment, I'm going to move my bowl out of the way and I'm going to bring the ingredients in.

So the ingredients consist of eggs, two medium eggs, plain flour, and milk.

Now we're not, well, I'm going to share with you the method that Mrs. Mee uses to get a successful pancake.

So the method which Mrs. Mee uses is she measures all of those ingredients in the same way.

So we don't weigh the flour, we actually use volume.

So let me explain.

So what Mrs. Mee does is she uses a glass.

She cracks two eggs into the glass and she measures where on the glass those eggs fill.

And where that volume is, I make a little mark with a pen and then I put the same amount of flour into that glass pop that into my jug, and then the same amount of milk.

So that actually is not as precise as it could be.

So let's do that same method but let's use our measuring jug instead so it can be more precise.

So let's bring in my measuring jug, put my whisk to the side.

Then the first thing I'm going to do is I'm going to crack the eggs into the jug.

So gently crack your egg into the jug.

Okay, making sure that my hands have been washed and my sleeves are rolled up and I'm not wearing any jewellery.

You've got to make sure none of the shell goes into the actual jug itself.

So I'm then taking my cracked eggs and I'm putting those in the bin.

You might get a little bit of egg that drops on the surface and that's what you need to be careful of as well in terms of cross-contamination.

So let me pop them to the side and I'll pop them in the bin later.

I'm just wiping my hands.

I'm going to wash them after I've handled the eggs so I'm going to crack the second egg.

And I'm going to pop that into the jug.

Now, if the shell does fall into the jug, that's not a problem.

You can just get a spoon and scoop it out.

So you can see that egg's gone onto Mrs. Mee's hands.

So I've got the sink right next to me.

I'm just going to wash my hands to make sure that there's no transferring of the egg.

Now, what I need to see is how much volume.

Now you could make lots more pancakes.

So if you can use this method using three eggs or four eggs.

So you're looking at the volume, okay? So there's a hundred mil.

There's 200 mils.

That's 150.

So it's 125, isn't it? Would you agree? So it's 125.

So let me just wipe this area here so I'm maintaining it.

Now, I'm going to pour those eggs into my bowl and remember, it's 125 mil.

Okay, there we go.

Okay, and then I'm going to take my next set of ingredients.

So my next set of ingredients is the plain flour.

So I'm just going to open up the flour.

Now, this is where this plain flour might actually fall on the surface, so you do need to be careful.

So already I've got plain flour on my counter.

So before I prepare my gluten-free pancakes, I must make sure I clean up that surface.

So in taking my flour now, I'm going to, oh! You could use a spoon and I'm going to pour in enough flour to fill 125.

Now I bet you've never measured flour like this, have you, in volumes? But this works, okay? So I'm just going to stop there and just give it a bit of a shake.

Okay, because that looks like a little bit too much flour there, so I'm just going to take a little bit out, okay, using a spoon, okay? So that looks like it's filling more than 150.

So I'm just going to take a little bit more out.

So I'm going to grab a spoon, okay, and I'm just going to scoop a little bit of the flour out of the jug.

Okay, now I can't put that back into the bag.

Why not? Why can't I put that flour back into the bag? That's right.

Because it might have egg on it.

So if I grab a spare bowl, okay, I can put that spare, that additional flour into the bowl.

Okay, so that should take a little bit more out.

There we go.

And give it a shake and that is 125, okay? So that, some of that flour will stick to the sides of the jug.

Now this is where, when you add your next bit of ingredients and you can see Mrs. Mee is keeping on top of her cleaning because if I don't, I'll get told off by Mr. Mee for once, but if I don't keep on top of my cleaning, obviously my surfaces will result in a risk of cross-contamination.

So I'm just keeping on top of the cleaning as I go along.

So now you've popped the flour to the side so that can be popped to the side, and then you can bring your bowl in and pop your flour into the mix.

Now it will stick, so use your spoon or your whisk to remove any of the excess flour out of the bowl.

So I'm just going to use a spoon and I'm just going to scrape it into my bowl like so.

And then the last thing to do then, of course, is add your final ingredients.

So hopefully you find this a really useful way for making pancakes, because it works for Mrs. Mee.

So now you need to measure the same amount of milk, okay? So if I pop that jug there, so I'm measuring, do you remember what the measurement was? Yeah, 125, says a hundred.

You probably can't see it as well as I can, 125, okay? Now when Mrs. Mee talks about experimenting and exploring, you can experiment with this, okay? If you add a little bit of extra milk rather than flour, what happens to your ingredients? And it might mean if you experiment, things might go a little bit wrong, so just be mindful of that.

So now I'm going to pour that into the bowl and then I've got to combine those ingredients.

So we've got there, we've got liquids.

So we've got milk, which is a liquid, we've got flour, which is a solid, let's pop that into the bowl there.

Okay, and then I'm going to whisk it.

So normally Mrs. Mee would actually use the actual glass for measuring, to be honest.

And then I whisk it in the jug because the reason I normally whisk in the jug because what have you got to do with your mix once it's ready? So now I'm whisking it.

I've given it a good whisk and it is easier in my jug to be honest, so I'm going to give it a good whisk and I need to make sure all of those ingredients are combined, okay? Now I need to think about now, how am I going to get this batter into the frying pan? So to get it into the frying pan from the bowl might be a bit messy, might'nt it? So I'm going to transfer this into my jug, okay, in a moment, so that it's easy to pour.

So you'll see that the jug has a lovely spout on it.

So I can use that spout there to pour the ingredients into my pan.

So I'm going to pour all of that really carefully into my jug, look.

Really, really carefully.

If I don't do it carefully, I'll make a mess and that's fine because it's more tidying up for me.

Okay, and now all you've got to do is make sure you get rid of all of those lumps and bumps and it needs to be a nice smooth mix, okay? So that is the first part of making your pancakes.

You need to now whisk it until you get a smooth consistency.

There should be no bumps or lumps in your batter.

So hopefully that has shown you now, my mom tells me this recipe of how to combine these ingredients came from my sister, actually tried and tested method but my mom also tells me that if you leave your batter standing for awhile, it makes better pancakes.

Now did you know that the same mix that you use to make pancakes can be used to make Yorkshire puddings? Well, there you go, so hopefully you can help make Yorkshire puddings, as well.

So pause the video, have a go at making your mix, and when you're ready, come back to me and I'm going to show you how to cook your pancakes, but also how to prepare the ingredients in which we're going to serve your pancakes on, as well.

Okay, so I'll see you in a short while.

Okay, so hopefully now you've safely prepared, measured, and combined your ingredients, and you've got a lovely batter ready to start cooking.

So what we're going to do now is we're going to look at how to cook and how you present your end, healthy pancakes.

So you are going to, we're going to explore how to cook your pancakes using heat.

and we're going to explore the science behind the changes in the ingredients.

So we're going to look at what happens to those ingredients.

So we've taken a liquid, we're taking solid materials, and we've mixed them together and we've used a method.

What method did we use to mix the ingredients? That's right.

We whisked them.

So you've whisked the ingredients.

You've let them settle.

We might whisk them again before we start to cook them.

But when you start to cook them, you'll notice some changes.

So at the moment, our batter is very much in a state, it's in a liquid state.

We are going to watch that batter turn.

Now those changes in those ingredients are happening through one thing.

So what are we adding to those ingredients to make those changes? So what're we going to be using? That's right, we're going to use heat.

So you're going to heat up the ingredients and just watch what happens.

Think about the science behind it.

It's turning from a liquid into a, yes, a solid, which is really exciting, isn't it? All of those ingredients are working together to create a chemical change.

So we're going to look at how to cook and then we're going to prepare, present, and serve your ingredients so that they're ready for your end user.

So I'll see you back in the kitchen while we're going to demonstrate how to cook and present your ingredients.

We're going to look at how to cook our pancakes.

So we've got our pan on the hub here.

We've got our mixture, our batter mix, and we've got our vegetable oil, okay? Remember, you can use any sort of oil that you like but you do need to use oil.

So I'm going to turn on the hub.

Now you do need an adult to help you with this.

Please do not do this on your own.

So I'm turning on the heat, and the first thing I'm going to do is I'm going to add some oil.

So you just need a small drizzle of oil, not too much.

You could measure it using a teaspoon or tablespoon but just a small drizzle of oil.

And this is where you need to be careful because this oil now is going to be heated.

So the purpose of the oil is to ensure that the pancake does not stick to the frying pan and so you've got to preheat the oil and make sure that the frying pan is covered in oil and you do need your spatula that Mrs. Mee has forgot to get.

So let me just grab my spatula so I can actually, and again, there it is.

We do need a spatula, and remember all of you, so here's your spatula to actually be able to have your pancakes.

So you might want to give your pancake mix another little quick whisk before you use it, making sure that oil is preheated in the pan, and then you are pouring a small amount of batter mix into the middle of your pan.

Now, at this point, it depends on what sorts of pancakes you're looking for.

And you'll see in a moment I'm just going to distribute my pancake around the pan to make sure it forms a nice shape.

And you need to think about, so are you watching? So this is where the science comes into it.

So the heat is changing the state of that material.

So it's turning from a liquid and it's slowly turning into a solid and you will see the heat is making certain changes.

So how do you know that it's affecting it? You're looking for the change in colour, okay? So when after a couple of minutes you should be able to use your spatula to remove your pancake and turn it over and flip it.

Now, you could flip it by flipping it up in the air but we're just going to slide your spatula underneath your pancake.

Now your first pancake does often stick to the pan.

Okay, there we go, it's perfect.

And then flip over, and then you have it.

So that's your first pancake done, okay? So once that's done so you can see that's curling at the corners there for me.

So there's my first pancake.

So I'm just looking for a slight golden brown colour.

So you see my pancake's broken there, but I'm not bothered.

I'm going to show you again So the first one does often, so you shouldn't need any more oil at this point.

If you've got any bits of pancake stuck to your pan from your first attempt.

Remember this pan is red hot so you do need an adult to help you at this point.

I'm just getting rid of those small bits of debris, and then I'm going to try again another pancake.

So you can add more oil or because it's pre-oiled, it should be good to go.

So here we go again for our second pancake, can you see? It takes a couple of minutes to make your pancakes.

I'm just going to turn it down slightly.

Okay, so I am trying to distribute the ingredients all the way around the pan.

So I've got a nice round pancake, okay? So you're waiting about a minute or two and you're watching.

You can see there's air bubbles in the mix and they're popping, so the heat is rising and it's the heat is then obviously distributed throughout the mix, and you can see the change in states.

So this serious scientific investigation right here.

So let me, there you go for that, perfect.

And then flip it over and actually, I probably cooked that a bit too much.

You see? But let me move my mix out of the way so you can actually see that pancake.

Can you see? And there you have it.

So that is how you make pancakes.

So keep going, make your stack of pancakes and then we'll have a think about how we're going to present your pancakes.

Okay, so now we're going to look at serving our pancakes.

So you should have all of your ingredients to hand.

So I've chosen to do savoury pancakes.

You might've chosen to do sweet, that's fine.

So for my savoury pancakes, I've got pre-grated cheese and I've got baby spinach.

So that's my fresh ingredients.

And that here is my processed ingredient.

So you need your pancakes, as well.

And you need a chopping board, a knife to cook and prepare your ingredients ready for serving.

So I've chosen my pancake.

What I need to do.

I've got my grated cheese all ready and now I'm going to cook my spinach.

Now I could put the spinach on the plate as it is, couldn't I? But actually it's quite large so I'm going to just pre-prepare it, pre-cut it.

Let's move the spinach out of the way for a moment.

Let's remind ourselves of the two ways in which I can cook safely.

So what are the two ways? That's correct, the first method is the bridge.

Can you show me what a bridge looks like? Fabulous.

That's great.

So that's right.

A bridge is where you make a bridge shape out of your hands and the bridge goes over the ingredients.

Would the bridge method be an appropriate method for cutting spinach? So could I hold on tight so that that ingredient's using the bridge and then put my knife in the middle? So remember your knife is in the middle.

So therefore your hand is away from the sharp blade.

Would that be the most appropriate method? No, that wouldn't, would it? So the other method would be more appropriate.

So can you remind me what the other method is? That's right, it is the claw.

So if you could do a claw for me.

So here's my claw, but there we go.

So that's my claw, so it's me grabbing hold of the ingredients.

So I need to be able to grab hold of the ingredients.

I'm going to move my chopping board so I'm nice and comfortable.

So it's really important that you are comfortable.

So I'm going to grab my ingredients and I'm going to chop from the end.

I'm going to chop my ingredients, I'm going to hold on tight to my spinach.

Moving all these straggly bits here and I'm going to use my knife.

And when I use my knife, I'm making sure that my knife is nowhere near my fingers.

So it's close, but I'm watching at all times.

You must make sure that when you're cutting, you've got an adult supervising but you're concentrating, because you've moving your hand down the ingredients and then chopping and then moving the ingredients, moving it down, chop, okay? So this knife, you should be able to, if it's sharp enough, you should just be able to pull it back gently and cut the ingredients easily.

So if you're using a really sharp knife, you do need to be really careful.

So those are my ingredients.

I'm going to put my ingredients to the side.

It's got quite a lot of spinach there, which is good.

So all I've done is made that spinach a little bit smaller and that's put all these bits to the side as well.

Okay, so now I need to select my pancake.

Now my pancakes have cooled a little bit, so I'm going to put my pancake down on the chopping board and prepare it on here so that I don't dirty my plate.

So this is my serving plate, and I'm going to turn the pancake over because the one side is slightly browner, so I'm going to hide that one.

It's not burned, but obviously it looks darker than the other side, so I think this side is where I'm going to pack my ingredients.

So I'm going to take my spinach and I'm going to pack it down the middle, and then I've got enough spinach to be able to do the same again.

So I'm packing all the spinach down the middle, like so, can you see that? Trying not to hold the camera.

And then I'm going to add a little bit of cheese.

Now which ingredient is healthier, the spinach or the cheese? That's right, it is the spinach, of course, because the spinach is fresh and the cheese is processed, but cheese does offer us a lot of nutrients.

So it's good to have a little bit of cheese in our diets.

So now I'm going to roll it up, okay, really carefully.

I'll roll it from this side, I'm going to roll it up, okay, and then I want to think about how I'm going to serve it.

So what I'm going to do, and I'm going to use my knife.

I'm going to use the claw method again.

I'm going to cut it, but I'm going to cut it at an angle.

Okay, so I'm going to cut it there.

And I'm going to just show you what that looks like.

You can see the ingredients inside and you can then think about how you can arrange that on your plate.

So I'm going to pop one there.

Okay and then I'm going to pop one here as well.

So think about how you're arranging that on your plate.

So I'm going to put one, one there, there you go, okay.

And there we have it.

Now, do you think I should pop a bit of spinach on top as a form of decoration? There you go.

Now, what you need to think about now is obviously clearing up all of your mess.

So move that to the side.

Make sure you wash up and clean your work area.

Now I've got enough ingredients here to make, I reckon, savoury pancakes for my whole family.

Now looking at those pancakes, I've got quite a lot of spinach in there, haven't I, and I could probably afforded to have added more cheese.

So you can experiment with your fillings.

So if you're doing banana and blackberries, then obviously you can think about how you present that.

So you could stack them on top instead.

So you don't have to roll them.

You could put the filling in between.

So I hope you have fun exploring and experimenting with how you present your pancakes, your healthy pancakes, and I hope that you enjoy eating them.

I'll see you in a moment where we will conclude today's lesson.

So pause the video at this point, have a go at preparing and presenting your pancakes, and then resume when you are ready.

So hopefully now you've had time to do this task.

You've presented your pancakes on a plate and it's ready to serve.

So here's Mrs. Mee's pancakes that she has given to her family to try and give her feedback.

So hopefully you've learnt quite a lot this lesson.

Let's just go through and revisit some of the key words that we've looked at this lesson.

So we've looked at cooking and we know that cooking is the art, science, and craft of using heat to prepare food for consumption.

And we've looked at using heat in different ways.

So when we cooked our soup, we use the heat to heat the fluid in the soup, which then in turn, cooked the ingredients.

Today we used heat to fry our ingredients and we combined them beforehand, didn't we? We reinforced what we know about food hygiene, and we know that the food hygiene refers to the safe handling, preparation, and storage of food, and we're really good at being able to do that now.

We looked at cross-contamination, didn't we, and the risk of cross-contamination when you're preparing foods in the kitchen, and we looked today at allergens, and if certain people within a household have an allergen, what we need to do to prevent that from happening.

So we looked at cleaning as a way of preventing cross-contamination of ingredients.

And cross-contamination is what happens when bacteria or other microorganisms or ingredients are unintentionally transferred from one object to another.

We also looked at and reinforced the claw and the bridge methods, and these are methods we will use to safely cut our vegetables.

And in this case, we use this method to cut, we did cut vegetables, but you can also use this method to cut your fruit, as well.

And we looked at combining.

So we know that combining refers to taking one or more ingredients and cooking them together.

So today we looked at a different method of combining and we actually took liquids and solids and we whisked them together before we cooked them.

So we looked at a different method of combining our ingredients today.

So I would absolutely love it because Mrs. Mee won't get to see anything that you do unless you share your work with us, so please, if you could take a picture of your fabulous pancakes, savoury or sweet.

I want you to really experiment with how you're presenting them, and hopefully you've learned this skill, so hopefully you can put pancakes on your list of items to cook for your people within your household.

So if you'd like to share, please ask a parent or adult to share your work on Twitter, at OakNational and use the hashtag #LearnWithOak.

And I really hope you've enjoyed today's lesson.

And I look forward to seeing you next lesson.

So thank you for joining me.

Have a wonderful rest of the day.