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Hey, Mr. Wnuk here, and this is lesson five of our unit three in games activities.

And today we're looking at decision-making in sport.

Let's do this.

If you're unsure about doing any of the activities in this lesson, make sure you have a trusted adult nearby when you start them.

This session should take place in a space indoors such as your living room.

Ensure there is space for you to work safely including overhead.

Use bare feet, not socks.

Make sure the floor is not slippery.

Wear comfortable clothing, put your hair up, if needed and remove any jewellery.

Pause the video now, if there's anything you need to get ready.

Okay, in today's lesson, you're going to need to be in your normal PE kit, such as shorts and t-shirt.

If you're doing this lesson indoors, please go barefoot, so you don't slip or trip.

If you're doing this outdoors, please wear appropriate footwear such as trainers.

The equipment you're going to need for today's lesson is ideally a ball, but if you don't have a ball, a toilet roll would work really well or a teddy bear or pillow to substitute as a ball.

If you've got some socks or anything you can use as markers such as a t-shirt or socks that would be great, or ideally cones.

And then finally, if you've got a bucket or a box or a laundry basket, something you can use as a target.

Now, space around you, I would like you to have is around about two metres around you but if you've got a bigger space that is even better.

Please pause the video now, if you need to go and get any of that equipment together.

Okay, we're going to do our warm-up and as with other lessons, I'm not going to show you how to do a warm-up 'cause you've done plenty before but please remember the three stages of a warm-up.

The first stage is, well, what is it? Is the- Say it with me, pulse raiser, well done.

Okay, then we are following that pulse raiser with stage two, which is the stretching and mobility, well done.

And then finally, following up with stage three which is, skill-related practise.

So go ahead and get yourself ready.

We are doing volleyball today so we need to get familiar with some balls.

So if you can look back to our other sessions, such as rugby there's some stage three practises for you to warm-up with, you can follow them.

So what's the lesson going to look like? Well, you've already done the warm-up.

We're going to look at digging and setting.

We're going to then pick the correct skill 'cause is all about decision-making.

We're going to then use some targets to challenge yourself.

And then we're going to finish the lesson off with an end of lesson quiz.

So let's start looking some keywords.

One of the first is decision-making, it's in the title of the lessons so we better address it.

Decision-making is the processing of information available to make the correct choice of movement based on the situation the performer is in.

So yes, we need to take in all that information around us and then choose, which is the best process or the best, best thing to do, and then move appropriately.

That's what decision-making is.

And it occurs lots and lots and lots in sport, and it is split second decision-making.

Another one is prediction.

Yes, we need to predict what's going on in, and in a bit I'm going to ask you to predict the flight path of the ball.

Well, this is what you think will happen in the future.

Now, let's look at this question.

Which of these are the correct decision, sorry.

Which of these is the correct definition of decision-making in sport? Is it option one, to make the best choice based on the information in this situation? Is option two, to predict what is going to happen in sport? Option three, to correctly evaluate and predict the outcome of a situation? Or option four, to deeply think about sport? Read all of them carefully, to make your right decision.

Right, it is option number one, to make the best choice based on the correct information in the situation.

Like you just did.

So we're going to get into some volleyball skills today.

Now, linked to prediction is anticipation.

Now anticipation is the process of quickly evaluating and predicting the outcome of an event before the event is completed.

So you will take in some information such as the flight path of a ball and then anticipate what's going to happen with the ball.

Is it going to go up, down, left, right? Where's it going to go? That's what anticipation is in volleyball.

You might anticipate in the picture there, one player is doing a spike, the player in the white top and the two players in the red top, they're anticipating that spike and jumping up to block it.

So we're going to look at decision-making in volleyball.

And these are the things we're going to do.

We're going to look at volleyball skills and we're going to practise the ready position, the dig and the set.

And then we're going to practise picking the correct skill and we're going to make decision-making on our skills in volleyball.

So, go ahead and get your equipment ready because we're going to do some practical.

Okay, so we're going to start looking at our decision-making and applying it to volleyball.

So the first thing I'm just going to show you you can use a loo roll as a substitute for a ball and these sort of moves you're going to be doing.

including this.

So it's just as good to use a loo roll, particularly if you're indoors.

Let me show our outdoors, 'cause I just want some space of the camera.

Make sure that what you've got is clear from anything you might trip or slip on.

And I'm just going to use a regular ball.

So the first thing we're going to do is look at the ready position.

So when we want to play a ready position we're going to step forwards, knees are going to be bent and I'm going to put my hands out ready to receive the ball.

So, step forward, bend my knees, square on to the target.

We're looking at target, lean forward slightly with my hands out ready.

In that position.

And my handset have to be together, just be ready.

And what I'm going to show you is a very simple drill.

We got to throw the ball to yourself off the wall step forward and let the ball land between your legs in that ready position.

If you've got someone at home who can help you they can just throw into you, so you don't have to worry about throwing off the wall.


Bend the knee forward.

That doesn't have to go between your legs, the idea is to try and get into that ready position, and moving your feet so you can get into the right position.

Okay? Now, we need to pause the video, have a practise just get into that ready position and moving to get into that ready position.

So you throw it off the wall get into that position or someone throws it in get into that position.

Pause the video, have a go at ready position.

Excellent stuff, now we're going to be starting looking at a move called a dig, which is a defensive move, aimed at stopping the ball landing on the ground.

Because in volleyball, if the ball hits the ground you lose a point and your opponents gain an advantage.

So you've got trying to keep the ball off the ground, and dig is a way to do it.

Now when we're digging a ball first thing we want to do is you put your fingers together.

Like so, pointing together like that and you're going to curl your thumbs in.

So you can do this while with me right now, arms out extend your arms from your elbows, extend them push your shoulders forward, push your elbows forward, fingers linked, thumbs in.

And pushing risks up sliding.

Now the key is to get the ball to bounce off your forearms. and both the forearms going to come under the ball.

So first thing you can do, bend knees, feet are a width apart, you just self-feed.

So I'm going to throw the ball up, I'm going to try and let it bounce off my forearms. Like that, just and then catch it again.

Okay, nothing too hard.

Hit my forearms, catch it.

That hit my wrist, but it doesn't matter, still keeping the ball of the floor.

You can try, if you've got a bouncy ball to try and do that, that.

Went off sideways, leave it, doesn't matter.

Key to it, bend your knees, get low, push your arms out, extend from your arms. Watch the ball let it hit your forearms which come in in underneath the ball.

Then we send the info as when we're doing this.

So have a quick practise, just self-feeding your dig.

Pause video now, go and practise that.

Excellent stuff, guys.

Next part of this is digging, we play off the wall, and throw the ball to yourself off the wall and trying to get back.

If you've got someone at home they can just throw it into you.

And we're going to dig it up in the air.

Okay? So feed off the wall, okay, up high to yourself.

Remember it's a defensive move trying to regain your authority in the game by getting the ball high in the air for your teammates to receive it.

Pause video, practise off the wall, have you got your dig? Excellent stuff, everybody.

Now how do we prepare to receive the ball? Well, firstly, we need to get ourselves ready and we we've talked about a ready position.

And this is all about decision-making remember, so we need to look at the ball and think about what decision we're going to make and make that decision.

Are we going to go in for a dig or we're going to play a set? Which is the next move I'm going to show you.

Remember to move your feet, to get into position.

Then know just trying to predict the flight path of the ball.

And we've talked about this in other videos the ball generally follow parabolic curve, if it's just been hit up in the air down like that.

But it could have been smacked down towards you coming straight towards you.

You've got to try and anticipate the speed of the ball and determine which way it's going to go, the angle or the direction.

So we need to predict what's going to happen and anticipate the movement of the ball.

Is it, a dig is an offensive move to try and stop the ball, hitting the ground.

Is that true or false? Well, I hope you said false because a dig is a defensive move, not offensive.

It's not really used to, to gain, to to attack an opponent is used to try and keep the ball off the ground to set someone else up or keep the play going.

In volleyball, you've only got three hits to get it over the net, so dig tends to the first move.

That's why it's usually a defensive move or scalp.

The next skill we're going to look at is called a set.

Now set is also known as a volley and it's an all pass, and what we're trying to do is pass the ball up high for an attacking player on your team to spike the ball down to the ground.

I'm going to show you how to set up a set start.

With your ball or your toilet roll, I'm going to throw it into the air.

And I'm going to look through my hands, when I throw it into the air.

I've got my fingers like that make a little diamond shape or triangle shape and lift them above my head and look through.

And I'm going to let the ball bounce of my head.

If you've got a hard ball, don't do that.

If you've got toilet roll, that'd be great.

If you got a teddy bear, you can do it with a pillow or a teddy bear, something soft that won't hurt.

Throw up, look.

And provided it hits your head, you know, you're in the right position.

So throw in the ball up in the air, you move your feet to get underneath it.

Bounces off your noggin and then you carry on.

So just work on preparing for the set.

So pause the video throw the ball up in the air, get your hands in the ready position, arms up like that.

Look at the ball, bounce.

Excellent stuff, now a set doesn't come off your head.

Okay, that justs gets you in the ready position.

So what we're going to do is we're going to now let it land in our fingertips and we're going to go ahead and just take a small extend our arms up from flexion to extension, push our fingers and let the ball go high in the air.

We're not catching it, we are jus bouncing off our fingers.


Feed it to yourself.

Look at it.

So I'm catching.

If you're struggling, take time.

Okay, come on like that and the flick it up.

But we don't want to keep it in our hands for too long, we're going to be quick.

So we're going to keep doing this quickly.

So, my challenge to you is to firstly, practise that set skill.

If you can do that, see how many times you can keep going consecutively in the air without letting it hit the ground.

Pause the video, have a go there.

Excellent and work on those volleyball skills, everybody.

So let's look at some of the keywords.

First word is the dig.

Yes, the move we've just been practising.

Now a dig is a defensive skill that is used to prevent the ball from hitting the ground.

So a player gets low and they get their arms under the ball to stop hitting the ground, and hopefully may reach, set up a new play for their team.

And a set is another keyword we looked at today.

And that this is a skill where a player quickly makes contact with the ball, pushing it up so a teammate can play an attacking shot.

So let's look at these two young ladies and they are doing a dig.

Just now seeing my head probably looks like it's on one of those players.

Anyway, so what makes this a good example of a dig? Now just say confusion, these two are on the same team, they're in different tops.

Cause one of the players is called a libero, that sort of a player they bring in in a defensive situation to play a dig.

So they're both from the same team, both go into the ball, but the libero will generally have a different colour, t-shirt.

But why is this, why are they both showing a good example of a dig? So you might need to pause video to create some notes on this one.

So have a think about it.

What are they doing that makes it look good? Now, just go ahead and shout your answer out and scream for me.

What, what they doing, that's good, so good in their dig technique? Okay, I'm hearing yeah, and I'm assuming you might've said anticipation when the keywords I've anticipated with the ball is going and they've got into the correct position.

Particularly the one young lady in the white top or or it looks like me, in the white top, at the moment.

The both of them are looking at the ball, eyes are on the ball, which is really important.

Their feet more or less shoulder width apart except for, except for the one in the blue which is sort of getting even lower but her knee and her foot about shoulder width apart.

The knees are bent.

Yeah, they're crouching down and getting low.

Their forearms are going underneath the ball where the ball is going to make contact with the forearms and they've extended their arms. And you shouldn't said that they are both leaning forwards or leaning towards the ball.

Well done everybody.

So quick question, which of these is an appropriate shot to play if the ball is coming to you above head height? Is option one a serve, option two a dig, option three a set or option four leave it to hit the floor.

So the answer is option number three.

I'm sure you've said that, a set.

You are awesome, if you did say that.

So a set the ball is up and above, above your head, then you play a set shot, if the ball was low, you'll play a dig.

Right, we're going to get onto our next round of activities.

So you might want to pause the video, grab your equipment and then join me back in proper practical.

Okay guys, now we found a chance to practise the set and the dig and ready to position.

We're going to now put this into some decision-making processes.

And that means we can decide which shot to play.

Are we going to play a set shot? We can play a dig shot.

Now that, to determine that we need to think about a couple of things.

The pace of the ball, the height of the ball the angle of the ball.

We'd also think about positioning.

So if we've got teammates around us where are we going to play the ball? What type of shot we're going to play? If we got opposition around us where are we going to play the ball? And not around us opposite us.

Where are they sat out, when we hit the ball over the net? All of these factors need to be considered, when we're making decision.

We analyse that information, we make the best decision, best choice and then play that shot.

So for the decision-making process, we need to decide if we're going to do a dig or a set.

Now, simply if it's low, we're going to play a dig, if it's high, if we're going to play a set.

So you're going to throw the ball off the wall whichever way it comes, I'm going to play the relevant shot.

And this time I can either self-feed, hit it to myself or I can play the ball back into the wall.

First thing, I'll play to myself.

I should say, I'm adapting to the way the ball is coming.

So there's two digs, two sets, I wasn't intending on that, it's just the way the ball happened to come to me.

So pause the video, have a practise just to self-feeding yourself.

Now, if you've got someone with you they can vary it for you, it makes it a lot more realistic.

Excellent, now this time always keep the ball going.

So rather than catching it to yourself you can dig or set it, play off the wall, but I want you to keep as many consecutive shots as possible, making decision on which is the best shot to play.

Start with a self-feed.

Alright, that's about five.

Wasn't working particularly well for me but you get the idea.

Keep the ball in the air, don't let it hit the ground.

If it's low, play a dig, if it's high, play set above your head.

Have a practise.

Pause the video, have a practise of that little drill.

Well, how did you find that decision-making exercises where you had to vary all your shots between a set and a dig? Quite challenging it can be.

But what needs to be considered when deciding which volleyball skill to use? Well, first thing is your starting position.

You need to think about where you are on the court, whereabouts how quick you can get into that starting position.

You need think about the pace of the ball, how quickly it's being hit towards you? And the angle the ball is been hit towards you, if it's been up, hit up or hit down.

You need to think about the opposition, positions, where they standing, how they're set out.

And you need to see or think about where your teammates are.

And all of this information comes into your brain and you process it before you actually make a decision.

I've said many times now that support is very good for improving that mental and cognitive processing, which is and particularly decision-making.

Do this in a split second.

So keyword is spatial anticipation.

Now we've looked at anticipation, now this is slightly different.

Spatial anticipation involves a performer predicting what will happen.


e, how is going to look, how it's going to end up.

What will happen? So you can see from the way someone might hit the ball to predict the ball was going to the right or the left.

Now that is what is going to happen, where the is going to go.

A slight different to that is temporal anticipation.

Now this involves a performer predicting when the action will happen.

Okay, so this could be the timing of the hit.

So if they're hitting it hard you can anticipate it's going to go fast, if they hit it gently or hits it up, it might go a little bit slower.

So which type of anticipation is when the volleyball player predicts when a ball will arrive to them from a serve? Is it spatial or temporal? Well, shout out at the screen.

It is, temporal.


It's linked to the timing, whereas spatial is linked to the position of the ball.

Well done if you've got that one right.

Super work.

So let's look at some training for decision-making in sport.

Making a decision is influenced by information presented to the individual.

Is that true or false? Well, the answer is, yes it's true.

Yes, we need to collect that information, process it and then make a decision.

Now, which of these skills would you choose to play if the ball was coming to you at a low angle? So option one, look at the pictures now.

Option two, option three, or option number four.

You're going to say your answer now in three, two, one, go.

Yes, it's option four, that is a picture of someone making a dig position or completing a dig.

Well done, if you've got that right.

So what is decision-making? I'm going to pause the video whilst you write your answer down using the sentence starter, decision-making in sport is- Alright, I hope you wrote down, decision-making in sport is processing that information available to make the correct choice of movement based on the situation the performer is in or something along those lines.

That's a tricky one, so well done, if you got close to it.

Okay, I'm being a bit more creative in this exercise and I've put some cones out, one there, one there and one there to resemble a net.

If you haven't got cones, you could just use balls of socks or you can use t-shirt, jumper, whatever you like, anything you want to resemble a line.

I've got a couple of targets, I have put one of my buckets out there and I have put another bucket over there.

You can use bits of paper, you can use boxes.

You can use washing laundry baskets, whatever you like, wherever you've got available.

It's just a target, something to aim for.

And then I have put a watering can 'cause I had that available as, to act as an opposition player.

So I don't want the ball to go anywhere near my opposition.

And my targets is where I'm aiming the ball to go for.

So I'm aiming the play to this bucket here which is setting up one of my defence, my, my own team makes it hit the ball over the net or I'm just going to play straight across the net and aim for that target there.

But I'll put it further back, so I avoid this this player putting over their head away from them.

I've got to determine, what type of shot I'm going to play.

So are they going to be a dig or set depending on the height of the ball.

So I'm going to feed off the wall and have a go.

If you dig, target You can see it didn't work that well, that's fine, just keep it going.

I'll speed up until I get it right.

So close.

Alright, I've been going for about eight minutes now, getting close to the target, still not hit.

But you see I'm out of breath? Heart rate beat up, its drills it's exercise.

So keep going with it, you might not get it.

You might need to make you target bigger, I'm going to keep it for a few more minutes, so hopefully I can get it.

So it's your turn to get creative now and having a go at setting yourself up a decision-making challenge.

I hope you do better than I did.

I want you to set up a series of targets, at varying distances away from you and attempt to dig, set or volley the ball into these consecutively.

Use different volleyball techniques we've learned today, make sure you do this in a safe environment.

Now and good luck, 'cause this is a challenging one.

Once you've completed this task, resume the video.

Right we are going to out now ready to do our cool-down.

I'm not going to show you how to do a cool-down, 'cause you've done plenty now normally towards the end of this unit.

However, just remember that cool-down involves our pulse lowering exercises and our stretching exercises.

Can you remember what type of stretching we want to be focusing on? Is it dynamic or static? Yes, it is static.

We want to statically hold those stretches for a bit longer.

So pause the video, complete the cool-down, and once you finished, rejoin me in this video.

So this brings us to the end of the lesson and today we looked at decision-making in sport and how we use it.

Well, firstly, what is a decision or what is decision-making? And that's the process of utilising the information around us to make the correct choice of action.

We looked at the importance of anticipation in this process.

And then we do, we talked about anticipation which is spatial, which is what's going to happen.

The preposition of what's going to happen such as the ball positioning, to temporal which was the timing of that movement.

We practised on digs and we practised some setting and we try to figure out which was the best movement to play based on the information available to us.

And then we challenge ourselves to create a challenging target-based practise.

And hopefully we got a good bit of exercise in the process as well.

So once again, thank you for joining me and I will see you in the next lesson.