New
New
Year 10
OCR
Higher

Protein synthesis

I can describe how cells use the instructions coded in DNA to assemble proteins.

New
New
Year 10
OCR
Higher

Protein synthesis

I can describe how cells use the instructions coded in DNA to assemble proteins.

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Lesson details

Key learning points

  1. The sequence of nucleotides in a gene is a template for assembling proteins from amino acids in a particular order.
  2. To make a protein, a copy of a gene is made to form messenger RNA (mRNA) in the nucleus.
  3. The mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
  4. Transfer molecules (tRNA) carry specific amino acids to the ribosome.
  5. The ribosome joins amino acids in an order determined by the sequence of triplet codes in the mRNA.

Common misconception

DNA is the endpoint of a characteristic rather than the fact that it codes for proteins that give a protein; also that all characteristics are visible.

Clear examples, analogies and models to show the code in genes, leads to the order of an amino acids in a protein; examples of structural and functional proteins.

Keywords

  • Base - The part of the nucleotide that differs between the four types; A, T, C and G.

  • Amino acid - Small chemical group that makes up a protein polymer, there are 20 types.

  • Gene - A section of DNA that holds the genetic code for a protein.

  • MRNA - A copy of a gene that is made and transported from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

  • Ribosome - A structure in all cells whose function is to build proteins.

Pupils can write and evaluate each other's analogies; pupils could make models, comic strips or stop motions of protein synthesis.
Teacher tip

Licence

This content is © Oak National Academy Limited (2024), licensed on Open Government Licence version 3.0 except where otherwise stated. See Oak's terms & conditions (Collection 2).

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6 Questions

Q1.
DNA nucleotide bases code for the amino acids that are used to build proteins. How many bases code for one amino acid?
Correct Answer: 3, three
Q2.
Which of these molecules is a polymer?
amino acid
base
nucleotide
Correct answer: protein
Q3.
Some proteins have an active site that allows them to speed up chemical reactions in cells. What is the name of this group of proteins?
Correct Answer: enzymes, enzyme
Q4.
Which of the following base pairs are found in DNA molecules?
A – A
A – G
A – C
Correct answer: A – T
Q5.
Which part of a DNA molecule carries the instructions for making a protein?
An image in a quiz
Correct answer: all genes
some genes
genes and non-coding DNA
all non-coding DNA
some non-coding DNA
Q6.
True or false? Prokaryotic cells such as bacterial cells have no nucleus, so they contain no nucleic acids and can’t use DNA as the molecule that holds the genetic code.
true
Correct answer: false

6 Questions

Q1.
There are four bases in DNA molecules. Which statement about bases is true?
An image in a quiz
The bases are A, T C, and H.
The bases are nucleotides.
Correct answer: The bases are subunits of nucleotides.
Different organisms have different bases.
Q2.
To make a protein, the genetic code of one gene is copied into a messenger molecule. What is this messenger molecule called?
Correct Answer: mRNA, messenger RNA, messenger ribonucleic acid
Q3.
Twenty different amino acids are used to make proteins. The genetic code is a triplet code. Which statement is true about the genetic code?
There is one triplet code for each amino acid.
Each amino acid has 20 different triplet codes.
Each amino acid has 64 different triplet codes.
Correct answer: Each triplet codes for one amino acid.
Q4.
Match each word to its correct meaning.
Correct Answer:amino acid,small molecules that are joined together to make protein polymers

small molecules that are joined together to make protein polymers

Correct Answer:cytoplasm,the fluid part of a cell that contains the organelles

the fluid part of a cell that contains the organelles

Correct Answer:gene,a section of DNA that holds the genetic code to build a protein

a section of DNA that holds the genetic code to build a protein

Correct Answer:ribosome,an organelle that is the site of protein synthesis

an organelle that is the site of protein synthesis

Correct Answer:nucleus,large organelle that contains the chromosomes

large organelle that contains the chromosomes

Q5.
True or false? Translation is the process of copying the DNA genetic code to make an mRNA molecule.
true
Correct answer: false
Q6.
Put the events of protein synthesis in the correct order.
1 - The DNA genetic code of a gene is copied to form a messenger molecule, mRNA.
2 - The mRNA detaches from the DNA and is small enough to leave the nucleus.
3 - In the cytoplasm, the mRNA attaches to a ribosome.
4 - Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules bring amino acids to the ribosome.
5 - Amino acids join together in an order determined by the mRNA molecule.
6 - The amino acid chain folds to determine the structure of a protein.