New
New
Year 10
Edexcel
Higher

The genome, the environment and phenotype

I can describe simply how an organism’s genome and its environment influence its characteristics.

New
New
Year 10
Edexcel
Higher

The genome, the environment and phenotype

I can describe simply how an organism’s genome and its environment influence its characteristics.

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Lesson details

Key learning points

  1. The genome stores instructions that are used by cells to make structural and functional proteins (including enzymes).
  2. The proteins that are made are used to build other structures and control chemical reactions.
  3. The characteristics of an organism are called the phenotype.
  4. Some characteristics in an organism’s phenotype are determined only by its genome (e.g. eye colour).
  5. Most characteristics in the phenotype are influenced by the organism's genome and interaction with its environment.

Common misconception

That all features encoded in the genome are visible in the phenotype.

Give examples of structural and functional proteins that are not visible in an organism's phenotype.

Keywords

  • Genome - A genome is all of the DNA of an organism.

  • Gene - A gene is a section of DNA that holds the genetic code for a protein.

  • Protein - A protein a chemical substance whose structure is coded for by the genetic code in genes.

  • Phenotype - The phenotype is the physical characteristics of an organism.

  • Enzyme - An enzyme is a functional protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up chemical reactions.

Choose interesting examples of living organisms for pupils to describe the phenotypes of, and suggest how they have been produced.
Teacher tip

Licence

This content is © Oak National Academy Limited (2024), licensed on Open Government Licence version 3.0 except where otherwise stated. See Oak's terms & conditions (Collection 2).

Video

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6 Questions

Q1.
What does the photograph show?
An image in a quiz
a DNA molecule
Correct answer: a model of a DNA molecule
a cell
a model of a cell
Q2.
What is a genome?
all the DNA in the world
all the DNA in one species, such as humans
Correct answer: all the DNA in a single individual
Q3.
Which type of organism does not store its genome in the cell nucleus?
animals
Correct answer: bacteria
fungi
plants
Q4.
True or false? Nucleotides are polymers.
true
Correct answer: false
Q5.
What is the best description of the structure of DNA?
A single straight strand of nucleic acid.
A single strand of nucleic acid twisted into a helix.
Two strands of nucleic acid joined together to form a ladder-like structure.
Correct answer: Two strands of nucleic acid joined together and twisted into a double helix.
Q6.
The term “ code” is used to describe the order of nucleotides in a gene.
Correct Answer: genetic

6 Questions

Q1.
Genes are instructions to the cell to make what kind of molecule?
carbohydrate
DNA
fat
Correct answer: protein
Q2.
The order of nucleotides in a gene controls the structure of a protein. The structure of a protein decides whether it is a structural or protein.
Correct Answer: functional, enzyme
Q3.
Match each word to its meaning.
Correct Answer:enzyme,a functional protein that speeds up chemical reactions

a functional protein that speeds up chemical reactions

Correct Answer:phenotype,the physical characteristic of an organism

the physical characteristic of an organism

Correct Answer:protein,can be structural or functional; has a structure coded for by a gene

can be structural or functional; has a structure coded for by a gene

Q4.
Which phenotype is determined only by inherited genes?
skin colour
muscle mass
hair length
Correct answer: blood type
Q5.
The height that a sunflower grows to is part of its phenotype. Which factors affect this phenotype?
genes only
environment only
Correct answer: both genes and environment
neither genes nor environment
Q6.
Order the statements to explain how genes cause the iris of a human eye to have colour.
An image in a quiz
1 - A gene controls eye colour.
2 - Its genetic code is for the structure of an enzyme.
3 - The enzyme allows it to speed up a chemical reaction.
4 - Coloured pigments are produced by chemical reactions in the cells of the iris.
5 - The production of coloured pigments causes the colour of the eye.